ZUGFeRD: The future of invoicing with PDF

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The German ZUGFeRD standard allows invoices to be read and interpreted correctly both by humans and devices, by combining PDF/A3 with XML.

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ZUGFeRD: The future of invoicing with PDF

  1. 1. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA© 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA The future of Invoicing PDF Technical Conference 2015, San Jose (CA)
  2. 2. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Why this talk 2015: 42+ billion E-Bills/E-Invoices worldwide Brazil: > 90% Mexico: > 75% Europe: about 28% (North: > 40%) Study for a handful of European countries: 75% e-Invoices are PDF Australia: 50 competing solutions After several years: only up to 10% adoption rate of eInvoices Europe: 10,000 ERP / Accounting systems: But can they talk to each other? Directive 2014/55/EU 100,000 agencies and administration need to use “a certain standard” by the end of 2018 No PDF/R allowed, but either XML or PDF + XML 45% - 65% of businesses are suppliers to the public sector The Future of Invoicing2
  3. 3. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA© 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Agenda • Portable Document Format (PDF): focus on PDF/A and PDF/UA • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): focus on XML standards • ZUGFeRD: builds on top of the PDF/A-3 and the CII standard
  4. 4. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA The Future of Invoicing4 The Portable Document Format (PDF) An “umbrella” of Standards PDF/A: Long-term preservation PDF/UA: Universal Accessibility
  5. 5. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA PDF: an umbrella of standards The Future of Invoicing5 PDF Portable Document Format First released by Adobe in 1993 ISO Standard since 2008 ISO 32000 PDF/E engineering Since 2008 ISO 24517 PDF/VT printing Since 2010 ISO 16612 PDF/X graphic arts Since 2001 ISO 15930 PDF/A archive Since 2005 ISO 19005 PDF/UA accessibility Since 2012 ISO 14289 Related: • XFDF (ISO) • EcmaScript (ISO) • PRC (ISO) • PAdES (ETSI)
  6. 6. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Focus on PDF/A ISO-19005 Long-term preservation of documents Approved parts will never become invalid Individual parts define new, useful features Obligations and restrictions Metadata: ISO 16684, eXtensible Metadata Platform (XMP) The document must be self-contained:  All fonts need to be embedded  No external movie, sound or other binary files No JavaScript allowed No encryption allowed The Future of Invoicing6
  7. 7. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Three standards PDF/A-1 (2005) based on PDF 1.4 Level B (“basic”): visual appearance Level A (“accessible”): visual appearance + structural and semantic properties (Tagged PDF) PDF/A-2 (2011) Based on ISO-32000-1 Features introduced in PDF 1.5, 1.6, and 1.7:  Added support for JPEG2000, Collections, object-level XMP, optional content  Improved support for transparency, comment types and annotations, digital signatures Level U (“unicode”): visual appearance + all text is in Unicode PDF/A-3 (2012) Based on PDF/A-2 with only 1 difference: attachments do not need to be PDF/A The Future of Invoicing7
  8. 8. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA PDF is a binary format The Future of Invoicing8
  9. 9. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA XMP metadata in plain text The Future of Invoicing9
  10. 10. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Fonts are embedded The Future of Invoicing10
  11. 11. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Verify comformity… The Future of Invoicing11
  12. 12. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA There’s more! The Future of Invoicing12
  13. 13. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Focus on PDF/UA ISO 14289 (2012): Accessibility Important in the context of Section 508 Requirements: Tagged PDF  Complete tagging of “real content” in logical reading order  Tags must correctly represent the document’s semantic structures  Other content is marked as “artifact” Problematic content is prohibited (e.g. undesired color contrasts) Graphics must include alternative text descriptions Fonts must be embedded and text mapped to UNICODE PDF/UA complements WCAG 2.0 PDF/UA is compatible with PDF/A The Future of Invoicing13
  14. 14. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Accessible PDF? The Future of Invoicing14
  15. 15. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Structure and semantics The Future of Invoicing15 title list item list item list item Label Content
  16. 16. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA How to read this chart? The Future of Invoicing16
  17. 17. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Structure of the data The Future of Invoicing17 Person 2 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.9 2.1 0.8 2.2 1.8 1.6 1 1.4 Position 3 2.3 2 1.8 3.2 3.9 2.1 3.1 3.2 2.3 2 2.1 RiskManagement StructuredFinance Mergers&acquisitions Governance&InternalControl AccountingOperations Treasuryoperations ManagementInformation& BusinessDecisionSupport BusinessPlanning&Strategy FinanceContributiontoIT Management CommercialActivities Taxation FunctionalLeadership
  18. 18. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Structure of the data The Future of Invoicing18 Person Position Functional Leadership 2 3 Risk Management 1.7 2.3 Structured Finance 1.4 2 Mergers & Acquisitions 1.3 1.8 Governance & Internal Control 1.9 3.2 Accounting Operations 2.1 3.9 Treasury Operations 0.8 2.1 Management Information & Business Decision Support 2.2 3.1 Business Planning & Strategy 1.8 3.2 Finance Contribution to IT Managemen 1.6 2.3 Commencial Activities 1 2 Taxation 1.4 2.1
  19. 19. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Applied to invoices The Future of Invoicing19
  20. 20. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA PDF/UA: verification? The Future of Invoicing20
  21. 21. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA PDF for invoices? Yes, because humans like PDF: PDF Viewers are ubiquitous PDF is already the most widely used format for exchanging documents PDFs are easy to copy, share, file,… PDF/A ensures long-term preservation: the visual representation remains identical PDF/UA makes invoices accessible to all No, because machines struggle with PDF: Parsing PDF isn’t trivial (and not all business software is PDF-aware) Not all PDFs are digitally born (scanned pages; OCR) Tagged PDF isn’t well-suited to store the semantics of an invoice Humans want human language (“English”); machines need encoded data (“en-US”) The Future of Invoicing21
  22. 22. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA The Future of Invoicing22 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) electronic business XML (ebXML) Uniform Business Language (UBL) Core Components Library (CCL) Cross Industry Invoice (CCI)
  23. 23. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA EDI Requires: bilateral agreements Software that Shapes the data the way the receiver expects it Parses the data following the rules the sender used to provided it Cost is only justifiable for large corporations with a large volume of invoices How to reduce this cost? Introduce and use standards! The Future of Invoicing23
  24. 24. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Electronic Business XML (ebXML) 1999: Electronic Business XML initiative United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) 2004: ISO 15000 Part 1: ebXML Collaborative Profile Agreement Part 2: ebXML Messaging Service Specification Part 3: ebXML Registry Information Model Part 4: ebXML Registry Services Specification Part 5: building blocks representing general types of data ISO 15000-5:2005: ebXML Core Components Technical Specification (CCTS) ISO 15000-5:2014: ebXML Core Components Specification (CCS) The Future of Invoicing24
  25. 25. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Universal Business Language (UBL) Developed by OASIS in full conformance with CCTS Foundation for successful international frameworks such as ePrior, PEPPOL,… An XML-only specification Data model isn’t normative The Future of Invoicing25
  26. 26. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Core Components Library (CCL) UN/CEFACT released several versions of a Core Components Library Also based on ISO 15000-5:2005 CCL = repository of easily reused business data components Templates describing a postal address, tax information, payment information,… Syntax-independent (other formats than XML are possible) Resulted in ISO 15000-5:2014 (normative) The Future of Invoicing26
  27. 27. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Cross Industry Invoice (CCI) UN/CEFACT: Used CCS and CCL to create specific business document models:  Cross Industry Order: CIO  Cross Industry Order Response: CIOR  Cross Industry Invoice: CII All models are syntax-independent (common language; mutual agreements on format) European Committee for Standardisation (CEN): Created different Message User Guides (MUG) E.g. the Core Invoice Data Model MUG, derived from the CII standard CEN Workgroup Agreements about 100 field types related to invoices:  CWA 16356-1: setup  CWA 16356-2: content  CWA 16356-3: data structures The Future of Invoicing27
  28. 28. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA The Future of Invoicing28 ZUGFeRD: PDF/A + CII A single invoice For humans For machines
  29. 29. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA ZUGFeRD: closing the gap Zentraler User Guide des Forums elektronische Rechnung Deutschland (June 2014) Developed by FeRD (Forum elektronische Rechnung Deutschland) founded in March 2010 Based on PDF/A-3: Archiving + Attachment Imposes an XML schema based on CII Goal: electronically exchange invoices Reduce invoicing cost Optimize processing cost For humans as well as for machines For SMEs as well as big corporations The Future of Invoicing29
  30. 30. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA ZUGFeRD profiles BASIC Data fields (structured data) Free text fields COMFORT Data fields (structured data) Free text fields Qualified free text fields (Tagged information) EXTENDED All of the above and more… The Future of Invoicing30
  31. 31. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Basic profile: free text The Future of Invoicing31
  32. 32. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Comfort profile: qualified text The Future of Invoicing32
  33. 33. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Basic profile: line items The Future of Invoicing33
  34. 34. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Comfort profile: line items The Future of Invoicing34
  35. 35. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA XML in ZUGFeRD The Future of Invoicing35 Requirements ISO 15000-5:2014 Core Component Specification Definition of semantic requirements Semantics UN/CCL 13B UNECE Core Components Library Semantic component library (e.g. buyer) Including the definition of used codes CCBDA 1.0 UN/CEFACT Core Components Business Document Assembly: Set of rules on how to build a semantic message data model ZUGFeRD data model: Applying cross industry invoice and MUG rule set for profiling (CEN CWA MUG) ZUGFeRD DM Syntax NDR 2.1 Naming and Design Rules: Set of rules to create an XML schema out of the data model ZUGFeRD schema: • A single schema for Extended, Comfort and Basic • Code lists are published separately ZUGFeRD schema
  36. 36. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA PDF/A-3 and ZUGFeRD Specific XMP extension schema for ZUGFeRD with identification of profile PDF/A-3 gives visual representation of invoice that is human-readable Level of conformance doesn’t matter Invoice data is imbedded as XML in the PDF/A file: 1 document = 1 invoice Name of the file must be “ZUGFeRD-invoice.xml” Mime-type text/xml; encoding UTF-8 Relationship: “Alternative” Params must at least contain a ModDate Other attachments (e.g. “Data”) are allowed The Future of Invoicing36
  37. 37. © 2015, iText Group NV, iText Software Corp., iText Software BVBA Benefits Save costs on printing, envelopes and postage No need to copy, scan, OCR invoices (less errors) Approval process can be done digitally (*) Faster processing = faster payment? No need to file invoices as paper documents Different software systems only need to understand a single format (choice!) SMEs can meet requirements of large corporations without former agreement Mails with ZUGFeRD attachment could be detected and filed automatically Banks could read ZUGFeRD invoices and process them immediately … The Future of Invoicing37

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