0
Gedalevitz, Lahav
School of Education
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv, Israel

Battersby, Brown, Evett and Merritt
Computing ...
Research Goals
Understand whether blind people can construct
a cognitive map by exploring an unknown space
using the Virtu...
Research Questions
(1) What exploration strategies and processes
do blind people use when working with
Virtual-cane?
(2) D...
Last Thing First…
The Virtual-cane changed the way the participants
explored VEs:
 More scanning than walking
 More obje...
The Virtual-cane

Walking

Scanning
(Haptic feedback)
Participants
The participants (N=10) were adults, men and
women, totally blind, congenitally and late blind
The participan...
Variables
Exploration process
Duration; exploration mode; orientation
strategies; and systematic exploration
Cognitive map...
Research Instrument
Eight training environments
Research Instrument
Two simulated environments:
Complex
Simple
Research Instruments
Tasks
 Exploration task
 Description task

 Orientation tasks:
 Object-oriented
 Perspective-cha...
Procedure
Experimental Group

Control Group

O&M Questionnaire & Open Interview

Meeting #1

Meeting #1-4

Training using ...
Results >>>>>>>
(1)

Complex VE

Simple VE

N

What exploration strategies and processes do blind
people use when working with Virtual-can...
(2)
N

Does using the Virtual-cane contribute to the
construction of a cognitive map?

Space
Spatial strategy
components

...
(3)

How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind
person’s orientation performance in the real space?
N

Simple VE
...
(3)

How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind
person’s orientation performance in the real space?
N

Simple VE
...
(3)

How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind
person’s orientation performance in the real space?
N

Simple VE
...
Conclusions
 The virtual cane changed the way the
participants explored the VEs:
 More scanning than walking
 More obje...
Conclusions
 As the spaces became more complex the
cognitive map was less detailed
 Participants managed to perform well...
Future implementation
 R&D on outdoor complex spaces
 Compare the Virtual-cane with different
virtual technologies

 Im...
Thank you for listening
Special thanks
Hadas, Steven, David, Lindsay, and Patrick
The 10 participants that came voluntary
...
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Using Wii Technology to Explore Real Spaces Via Virtual Environments for People Who Are Blind

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Using Wii Technology to Explore Real Spaces Via Virtual Environments for People Who Are Blind by H. Gedalevitz, O. Lahav, S. Battersby, D. Brown, L. Evett and P. Merritt

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  • Exploration Task (The experimental G. -VE Wii ; control G - real space. in their own way in a limited time (40 minutes for exploring the simple space and 60 minutes for exploring the complex space). Description Task (verbal description)Orientation Tasks:Object-Oriented assignmentsPerspective-Change assignmentsPoint-to-the-Location assignments90 min for a meeting
  • Although the cognitive map was less detailed as the spaces became more complex, the participants still managed to perform most of the tasks in the corresponding real space
  • Transcript of "Using Wii Technology to Explore Real Spaces Via Virtual Environments for People Who Are Blind"

    1. 1. Gedalevitz, Lahav School of Education Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv, Israel Battersby, Brown, Evett and Merritt Computing and Technology Team Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK Using Wii Technology to Explore Real Spaces Via Virtual Environments for People Who Are Blind
    2. 2. Research Goals Understand whether blind people can construct a cognitive map by exploring an unknown space using the Virtual-cane (Wii-based VE) and later to apply it in the real space
    3. 3. Research Questions (1) What exploration strategies and processes do blind people use when working with Virtual-cane? (2) Does using the Virtual-cane contribute to the construction of a cognitive map? (3) How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind person’s orientation performance in real spaces?
    4. 4. Last Thing First… The Virtual-cane changed the way the participants explored VEs:  More scanning than walking  More object-to-object than perimeter strategy  Long pauses Spatial representations were achieved, where Mapmodel was the main representation The participants orientation tasks in the real spaces (simple & complex) were performed correctly using a direct path
    5. 5. The Virtual-cane Walking Scanning (Haptic feedback)
    6. 6. Participants The participants (N=10) were adults, men and women, totally blind, congenitally and late blind The participants were divided into two groups: - Experimental group (n=5) - Control group (n=5)
    7. 7. Variables Exploration process Duration; exploration mode; orientation strategies; and systematic exploration Cognitive map construction Space components and their location; spatial strategy; and spatial model Orientation tasks performance Duration; success; type of path; and aids used
    8. 8. Research Instrument Eight training environments
    9. 9. Research Instrument Two simulated environments: Complex Simple
    10. 10. Research Instruments Tasks  Exploration task  Description task  Orientation tasks:  Object-oriented  Perspective-change  Pointing-to-the-location Path drawing Interact © All tasks were video recorded. The videos were coded using the Interact©
    11. 11. Procedure Experimental Group Control Group O&M Questionnaire & Open Interview Meeting #1 Meeting #1-4 Training using the Virtual-cane Meeting #5 Simple space & Meeting #6 Complex space Exploration task in the VE Exploration task in the real space Description task Orientation tasks in the real space Meeting #1 Simple space & Meeting #2 Complex space
    12. 12. Results >>>>>>>
    13. 13. (1) Complex VE Simple VE N What exploration strategies and processes do blind people use when working with Virtual-cane? Duration (seconds) 1 1764 2 2979 3 2312 4 3525 5 1938 Total average 1 1596 2 3791 3 2683 4 5213 5 2713 Total average Walking mode Spatial strategy Scanning mode Name 37% 28% 41% 45% 50% Distance 33% 54% 33% 21% 28% Perimeter 2% 5% 0% 4% 6% 22% 49% 32% 23% 20% 1% 3% 2% 5% 9% 74% 51% 26% 46% 43% 51% 72% Object to object 6% 6% 3% 3% 8% 8% 7% 13% 2% 6% 11% 12% Pauses 23% 7% 22% 28% 7% 17% 21% 6% 16% 22% 7% 14%
    14. 14. (2) N Does using the Virtual-cane contribute to the construction of a cognitive map? Space Spatial strategy components Estimated Spatial relationship representation Chronology Complex VE 66% List 4 Map model Structure 2 75% Starting point 11 Map model Structure 3 57% Object to object 9 Route model Structure 4 5 59% 50% Map model Map model Structure Structure 19% Object to object Area & Object to object List 15 16 1 Simple VE 1 1 List Structure 2 44% Area 12 Route model Structure 3 4 38% 53% 14 15 46% Route model Map and route model Map model Structure Structure 5 Object to object Area & Object to object Area 15 Structure
    15. 15. (3) How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind person’s orientation performance in the real space? N Simple VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Complex VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Object-oriented tasks Duration Success Direct path (seconds) 358 67% 33% 180 67% 67% 117 67% 67% 174 100% 100% 137 67% 67% 193 73% 67% 220 50% 0% 373 50% 50% 65 0% 0% 718 0% 0% 226 50% 50% 320 30% 20%
    16. 16. (3) How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind person’s orientation performance in the real space? N Simple VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Complex VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Walking path Perspective-change tasks Duration Success Direct path (seconds) 294 100% 100% 300 67% 67% 249 33% 0% 576 100% 67% 214 67% 67% 327 73% 60% 604 50% 50% 639 100% 50% 529 50% 0% 665 100% 100% 322 50% 50% 552 70% 50% Pointing Success 100% 67% 67% 83% 83% 80% 50% 0% 17% 33% 50% 30%
    17. 17. (3) How does this cognitive map contribute to the blind person’s orientation performance in the real space? N Simple VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Complex VE 1 2 3 4 5 AVG Full table Perspective-Change tasks Duration Success Direct path (seconds) 294 100% 100% 300 67% 67% 249 33% 0% 576 100% 67% 214 67% 67% 327 73% 60% 604 50% 50% 639 100% 50% 529 50% 0% 665 100% 100% 322 50% 50% 552 70% 50% Pointing Success 100% 67% 67% 83% 83% 80% 50% 0% 17% 33% 50% 30%
    18. 18. Conclusions  The virtual cane changed the way the participants explored the VEs:  More scanning than walking  More object-to-object than perimeter strategy  Long pauses  Spatial representations were achieved, where Map-model was the main representation
    19. 19. Conclusions  As the spaces became more complex the cognitive map was less detailed  Participants managed to perform well in most of the tasks in the real simple and complex spaces  Most walking paths were direct to object
    20. 20. Future implementation  R&D on outdoor complex spaces  Compare the Virtual-cane with different virtual technologies  Improve the UI for a shorter learning process
    21. 21. Thank you for listening Special thanks Hadas, Steven, David, Lindsay, and Patrick The 10 participants that came voluntary Itzik and Einat (video’s man) lahavo@post.tau.ac.il
    22. 22. Interact © Path drawing Back
    23. 23. Path drawing Interact © Back
    24. 24. Back
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