The psychosocial implications of Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical study


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The psychosocial implications of Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical study by Angelica B. Ortiz de Gortari and Mark D. Griffiths

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  • The psychosocial implications of Game Transfer Phenomena: An empirical study

    1. 1. The psychosocial implications of Game Transfer Phenomena Angelica B. Ortiz de Gortari & Mark D. Griffiths ITAG conference 2013 Nottingham Trent University, UK Council House, Nottingham, 17 October 2013. International Gaming Research Unit
    2. 2. Background: Video games effects Videogames have been used effectively as learning tools in therapy and in the school (e.g., Griffiths, Kuss, & Ortiz de Gortari, in press). Social skills: Pro-social game play predicted later increases in pro-social behaviour (e.g., Gentile et al., 2009).
    3. 3. Background: Video games’ effects The effects of videogames’ contents examines particular videogames types and contents such as violent, stereotypical and risk behaviour contents (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007).
    4. 4. Background: Video games’ effects The effects of intense and prolonged videogame playing: Internet Gaming Disorder (DSM5) Focus on a particular group of the population who play video . games excessively (e.g., Grusser, Thalemann, Griffiths, 2007).
    5. 5. Background: Video games’ effects The psychophysiological side effects: •Neural adaptations - Have mainly been investigated on virtual simulators (e.g., motion sickness)  have hardly investigated side effects in commercial video games played . on a screen (Champney et al., 2007). •Negative effect on sleep patterns - (Dworak, Schierl, Bruns, & Strüder, 2007; King, 2013).
    6. 6. Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP) Transfer of video game experiences into the real world Includes: VG content, in-game actions and the use of cues in the game Episodic/recurrent Visual thoughs Auditory Holistic approach Holistic approach Perceptions Cognitions to understand VG to understand VG Body effects effects sensations Emotions Impulses Mood states Behaviours Voluntary behaviour Involuntary behaviour GTP usually occur spontaneously and without gamers’ control.
    7. 7. Method Aim: To overview of all the GTP modalities and to discuss the . psychological and psychosocial implications of GTP. Three qualitative studies have been conducted to identify, classify and explain the different modalities of GTP: (i) visual, (ii) auditory, (iii) thoughts and behaviours.
    8. 8. Method Data collection: 60 online video game forums . Participants: 1,681 posts from 1,244 players Procedure: Each GTP modality were coded into a database for classification and quantification. Videos of game play were observed. Games associated with the data were played.
    9. 9. Results: Re-classification of GTP in two main categories: Perseverative states Manifestation Perceptually Cognitively Behaviourally Mix-ups between videogames and real life experiences
    10. 10. Perseverative states • Lack of cognitive and motor flexibility to change between tasks: Neural adaptation to virtual tasks. • Directly after or a short while after stopping playing. • Encounters with certain real life stimuli appear to be incidental. Manifestation Perceptually Cognitively Behaviourally
    11. 11. Altered perceptions: Visual aftereffects - shapes “After few hours of nonstop Frozen Bubble, I saw everything insanely blocky. Even quite round shapes were looking like blocks. It only lasted a few minutes though” (Dan)
    12. 12. Seeing video game elements in back the of the eyelids recurrently “I would see Rock Band drum notation scrolling whenever I closed my eyes for a good month” (Kingz)
    13. 13. Perseverative mental state:
    14. 14. Automatic mental actions Perseverative mental states: Keep the setting of the game in their mind. "I played Vice City and got all the hidden packages at once. When I quit playing I was looking in the corners of the rooms for hidden packages. It was really odd" (Forlife9)
    15. 15. Perseverative mental state “After playing the game Miner Dig Deep for about 5 hours straight, I literally sat there semi-confused afterwards wondering how I was going to make it to the door to leave my living room since I couldn't see where I was going to dig my tunnels” (Jols)
    16. 16. Perseverative mental state:
    17. 17. Perseverative mental state: Lowered motor flexibility Lack of motor flexibility when changing from the virtual world to the real life. Moving as they would in the videogame such as strafing (i.e., moving side-ways). " Many times! Quake 2 made me literally strafe my way around corners in real life!"
    18. 18. Carrying out stereotypical motor executions Reduction of complex psychomotor flexibility, reduced motor control has been previously reported (e.g., as neural adaptation effects) after the exposure to virtual environment simulators (Champney et al., 2007).
    19. 19. Mix-ups between videogames and real life experiences • External stimuli appears to have been crucial as triggers in such experiences. • Associations between RL and video games stimuli. • Failures of reality monitoring. Manifestation Perceptually Cognitivetly Behaviourally
    20. 20. Altered perceptions triggered by external stimuli: Seeing VG images superimposed IRL objects “After a long Black Ops [Call of Duty] session I saw a red player tag above a woman riding a bicycle. Fortunately, I didn't have my gun on hand” (Max4)
    21. 21. Altered perceptions triggered by external stimuli: Seeing videogame elements open eyes: Triggered by activities “The Mass Effect conversation wheel comes up at the bottom of my vision every time I talk to someone” (Rosk)
    22. 22. Involuntary actions: Body reflexes triggered by stimuli Here, the gamers' thoughts resulted in involuntary body movements of fingers, hands or arms when they tried to use videogame elements in real life. “A friend flung out his arm. He became embarrassed and told me that without thinking he was trying to use the grappling hook from a Quake 2 mod to swing under the bridge. I absolutely believe this study.”
    23. 23. Cognitive distortions –false expectations The gamers interpreted real life events and/or objects using the logic from the videogame. Videogames comprise sequences of events. "After a marathon of Grand Theft Auto, I was driving and saw a car flipped upside down and thought "Go! It is going to explode in 5 seconds!"
    24. 24. Responding to real life stimuli and events as in the game: Impulses and paying attention to certain stimuli “I've felt this most strongly after playing a lot of Assassins Creed 2. I came very close to instinctively trying to scale the fenced leading to my apartment. It also trains you to see possible holds on buildings a lot more readily. The sensations mostly faded about two days later though.”
    25. 25. Responding to real life stimuli and events as in the game Selective attention: Gamers found themselves paying attention to real life objects relevant to the videogame. Alcohol addiction/Gaming addiction (Cox, W. M., Hogan, L. M., Kristian, M. R., & Race).
    26. 26. Fast reaction time Short moment of dissociation “Needs for Speed 2 helped me through a bad slide on ice. When I hit the ice my brain immediately went into gaming mode. I did 180. It felt like I was with the PS2 controller in my hand. I just did what I did in the game and I ended up of the slide” (Pax7)
    27. 27. Failures of control of impulses: Executions of behaviours as in the VG without awareness “I'm going to confess something I'm not proud of … after 3 days in a row of 12-14 hour DK [Donkey Kong] Country marathons I was in a store and there was a ring of wood barrels that I instinctive broke looking for the bananas so I could get the extra life. I didn't get arrested but I had to write a check for 250 dollars and was banned from the store nationwide for 12 months” (Calx)
    28. 28. Avoid RL objects and events “When I played too much World Ware 2 Online, I always refused to go near churches… People asking me why… The truth is that I was afraid that French snipers where laying down under the bell, waiting for pull the trigger.” (Sals3)
    29. 29. Conclusions 1/6 The gamers' self-reports showed strategic thinking: exploring, planning, critical evaluation of situations, tracking objects. Moral reasoning and personal boundary testing when urges to do controversial things were stimulated. Hyper-vigilant mood states, confusion, fright, odd situations, sleep deprivation, behaving irrationally and uncontrollably, and engaging in risky behaviours.
    30. 30. Conclusions 3/6 What factors appear to be more relevant? Virtual embodiment, repetitive activities and movements. Simulation of RL stimuli Similarities between real life and videogame stimuli appear to facilitate some types of GTP. Gamers’ habits: Prolonged videogame sessions, skipping meals and playing while sleep deprived may facilitate GTP.
    31. 31. Conclusions 1/6 Who is more susceptible to experience GTP? It is speculated that individuals who are fantasy prone Individuals with low trait self-control may have increased risk to experience negative consequences of GTP  might not be able to control their impulses when automatic associations occur Individuals with some mental disorder GTP have been experienced positively and negatively.
    32. 32. Conclusions 4/6 Findings suggest that it is necessary to investigate the neuro-adaptations associated with VG (e.g., lowered cognitive/motor flexibility to switch from virtual to real life tasks) Warnings about epileptic seizures from playing VG are already included in videogame booklets, console screens (e.g., Guitar Hero) But, more work needs to be done for encouraging safe and healthy gaming
    33. 33. Conclusions 5/6 GTP experiences did not only occurred directly or shortly after stopping playing and immediately disappearing; some experiences happened recurrently and became intrusive. Setup campaigns to inform, educate and encourage healthy gaming habits. Developers should be aware of the effects of the exposure to certain visual and auditory cues, and the implications about the use of simulation of RL stimuli in the game
    34. 34. Conclusions 6/6 Findings in the GTP studies invites us to reflect about the challenges that the human mind affront due to the technology advance that is still to come.
    35. 35.