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  • 1. STOCKS
  • 2. STOCKS  Stocks - is a thin clear flavorful liquid extracted from meat, poultry, fish, and their bones and from vegetables and seasoning.  A liquid that forms the foundation of sauces and soups.  Base: A powdered or concentrated form of a stock.
  • 3. Composition of Stocks • 50% nourishing element (bones)  • 10% mirepoix  • Bouquet garni  • 100% liquid
  • 4. Bones Are the major ingredient of stocks. Most of the flavors and body of stocks derived from the bones of beef, veal, chicken, fish, and ccasionally lamb, pork, ham, and game. Collagen, connective tissues when break down, they Collagen form gelatin. *Cartilage is the best source of gelatin in bones. These two, gives body to stock, an important feature of its quality. A well made stocks will thicken or even solidify when chilled.
  • 5. Mirepoix –. is a mixture of roughly chopped vegetables used to add flavor, nutrients, and color to a stock. It usually consists of onions, celery, carrots, and leeks. Percentage of mirepoix  50% 0nion  25% carrots  25% celery  10% leeks
  • 6.  White mirepoix – made without carrots, is used when it is necessary to keep the stock as colorless as possible.  Cutting of mirepoix – chop the vegetables coarsely into relatively uniformsized pieces. The size depends on how long it will cook. If mirepoix will cook a long time as for beef stock, cut into large pieces about 1-2 inches.
  • 7. Production of Stocks The five steps in producing a stock  Cold Liquid - To make stock, start with cold liquid to allow the solid ingredients to slowly release flavor and to help prevent cloudiness.  Natural Clarification - Muscles, blood, and many vegetable tissues in the nourishing element or mirepoix contain albumin.  Albumin is a protein that is soluble only in cold water. After it has been released slowly into water, albumin can clarify the liquid naturally by coagulating with impurities.
  • 8. Production of Stocks  Skimming - During simmering, use the process of dépouillage to skim fat and impurities from the surface. This process is performed as the liquid simmers and the convection movement forces the fats and impurities to the surface. There they accumulate in a smaller area, making skimming easier. Remove the fat and impurities from the surface with a ladle
  • 9. Production of Stocks   Maintaining Simmering Temperature - To allow the cooking liquid to properly clarify and fortify, simmer the stock by heating the liquid to a temperature between 185°F–200°F (85°C– 93°C). This allows for slow convection movement to occur. Straining Stocks - When the stock has simmered long enough for it to acquire the flavor, color, and body desired, it is ready to strain. Use a ladle to remove the stock from the stockpot into a chinois (China cap) lined with cheesecloth.
  • 10.  WHITE STOCK – is colorless, made by simmering vegetables with the bones of chicken, beef, veal, or fish.
  • 11. BLANCHING BONES  The purpose of blanching bones is to rid them of some of the impurities that cause cloudiness. The bones of young animals, especially veal and chicken, are highest in blood and other impurities that cloud and discolor stocks.
  • 12. Procedure for Blanching Bones 1. Rinse bones in cold water.  This washes off blood and other impurities from the surface. It is especially important if the bones are not strictly fresh. 2. Place bones in a stockpot or steam-jacketed kettle and cover with cold water.  Impurities dissolve more readily in cold water. Hot water retards extraction. 3. Bring the water to a boil.  As the water heats, impurities solidify (coagulate) and rise to the surface as scum. 4. Drain the bones and rinse them well.  The bones are now ready for the stockpot.
  • 13. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 1. Cut the bones into pieces, 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long.  This exposes more surface area and helps extraction. A meat saw is used to cut heavy veal and beef bones. Fish and chicken bones don’t need to be cut, but whole carcasses should be chopped for more convenient handling. 2. Rinse the bones in cold water. (If desired, chicken, veal, or beef bones may be blanched.)  This removes some impurities that cloud the stock or, if the bones are old, give an off taste. 3. Place bones in a stockpot or steam-jacketed kettle and add cold water to cover.  Starting in cold water speeds extraction. Starting in hot water delays it because many proteins are soluble in cold water but not in hot.
  • 14. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 4. Bring water to a boil, and then reduce to a simmer. Skim the scum that comes to the surface, using a skimmer or perforated spoon.  Skimming is important for a clear stock because the scum (which is fat and coagulated protein) will cloud the stock if it is broken up and mixed back into the liquid. 5. Add the chopped mirepoix and the herbs and spices.  Remember, the size to which you cut mirepoix depends on how long it is to be cooked.
  • 15. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 6. Do not let the stock boil. Keep it at a low simmer.  Boiling makes the stock cloudy because it breaks solids into tiny particles that get mixed into the stock. 7. Skim the surface as often as necessary during cooking. 8. Keep the water level above the bones. Add more water if the stock reduces below this level.  Bones cooked while exposed to air will turn dark and thus darken or discolor the stock. Also, they do not release flavor into the water if the water doesn’t touch them.
  • 16. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 9. Simmer for recommended length of time:  Beef and veal bones—6 to 8 hours  Chicken bones—3 to 4 hours  Fish bones—30 to 45 minutes  Flavors begin to break down or degenerate over time. The above times are felt to be the best for obtaining full  flavor while still getting a good portion of gelatin into the stock. 10. Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth.  Adding a little cold water to the stock before skimming stops the cooking and brings more fat and impurities to the surface.
  • 17. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 11. Cool the stock as quickly as possible, as follows:  • Set the pot in a sink with blocks, a rack, or some other object under it. This is called venting. It allows cold water to flow under the pot as well as around it.  • Run cold water into the sink, but not higher than the level of the stock or the pot will become unsteady. An overflow pipe keeps the water level right and allows for constant circulation of cold water  • Stir the pot occasionally so all the stock cools evenly. Hang a ladle in the pot so you can give it a quick stir whenever you pass the sink without actually taking extra time to do it.  Cooling stock quickly and properly is important. Improperly cooled stock can spoil in 6 to 8 hours because it is a good breeding ground for bacteria that cause food-borne disease and spoilage.
  • 18. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks 12. When cool, refrigerate the stock in covered containers.  Stock will keep 2 to 3 days if properly refrigerated. Stock can also be frozen and will keep for several Setup for cooling stocks in a cold water bath.
  • 19.  Brown stock – is made from beef or veal bones that have been browned in the oven.
  • 20. Procedure for Preparing Brown Stocks      1. Cut the bones into pieces, 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long, as for white stock. Veal and/or beef bones are used for brown stock. 2. Do not wash or blanch the bones. The moisture would hinder browning. 3. Place the bones in a roasting pan in one layer and brown in a hot oven at 375°F (190°C) or higher. The bones must be well browned to color the stock sufficiently. This takes over an hour. Some chefs prefer to oil the bones lightly before browning. 4. When the bones are well browned, remove them from the pan and place them in a stockpot. Cover with cold water and bring to a simmer.
  • 21. Procedure for Preparing Brown Stocks      5. Drain and reserve the fat from the roasting pan. Deglaze the pan by adding water and stirring over heat until all the brown drippings are dissolved or loosened. Add to stockpot. 6. While the stock is getting started, place the mirepoix in the roasting pan with some of the reserved fat and brown the vegetables well in the oven. 7. When the water in the stockpot comes to a simmer, skim and continue as for white stock. 8. Add the browned vegetables and the tomato product to the stockpot. If desired, they may be held out until 2 to 3 hours before the end of the cooking time. 9. Continue as for white stock.
  • 22. Procedure for Preparing Brown Stocks  Alternative Procedure  The mirepoix may be browned with the bones. When the bones are half browned, add the mirepoix to the pan and continue roasting until bones and vegetables are browned. Tomato may be added toward the end of browning time, but exercise caution, as tomato purée burns easily.
  • 24.  Fish stock – is made from fish bones and trimmings.  Fumet- A fish stock that has had lemon juice or another acid added and then been reduced by 50%.
  • 25. PREPARING FISH STOCK     Add butter in a stock pot, add mirepoix sweat it for 5 minutes. Then add the bones, over low heat for 5 minutes until the bones are turn white and begin to exude some juices. Add white wine, bring to a simmer, then add water to cover and the sachet, bring to a simmer again, skim and simmer for another 30-45 mins. Strain in a china cap lined with cheese cloth, cool it down properly and store.
  • 26.       Vegetable Stock: Flavor changes depending on the vegetables used. Glaze: A reduced and concentrated stock. Reduction: The process of evaporating part of a stock's water by simmering or boiling. Remouillage is a stock made from bones that have already been used once to make stock. The literal meaning of the French term is “rewetting.” Because not all possible flavor and gelatin is extracted from bones when making a stock.