Sauces
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  • 1. Sauces
  • 2. Introduction  Why do I need this?  60 minute lecture  5 minute quiz  You should be able to not only define what a sauce is, but also be able to identify the different components and techniques in making a sauce.
  • 3. Definition  A flavorful liquid, usually thickened, that is used to season, flavor and enhance other foods.
  • 4. Functions of a Sauce 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provides moisture Provides or enhances flavor Provides richness Improves appearances (color, shine) Provides interest and appetite appeal
  • 5. Structure of a Sauce 1. 2. 3.  A liquid, the body of a sauce A thickening agent Additional seasoning and flavoring ingredients It is very important that each of these components are prepared and combined very well in order to make an excellent finished
  • 6. Liquid Body   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provides the base. Most classical sauces are based on 5 liquids. White Stock – for veloute sauces Brown Stock – for brown sauce Milk – for bechamel Tomato and stock – tomato sauce Clarified Butter – for hollandaise
  • 7. Thickening Agents  1. 2. 3. 4. A sauce must be thick enough to cling lightly to the food. Roux – cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour Beurre Manie – a mixture of equal parts flour and butter Whitewash – a thin mixture of flour and cold water Slurry – a thin mixture of cornstarch and cold water
  • 8. Making a Roux Heat clarified butter over Blend into a smooth low heat and add flour. paste, adjusting the amount of flour needed to achieve proper consistency. Cook, stirring constantly, until the proper color and flavor are achieved.
  • 9. Roux White roux roux Cook for 3–5 minutes minutes blond roux Cook for 5–6 minutes brown Cook 15–20
  • 10. Thickening Agents 5. 6. 7. 8. Arrowroot – similar to cornstarch but results in a clearer sauce and is more expensive Waxy Maize – is handled like cornstarch and used for sauces that are to be frozen Bread Crumbs – thickens liquids quickly because it is already cooked. Used for rustic dishes Purees – vegetables, nuts, etc.
  • 11. White Sauces Milk White Veal Stock White Chicken Stock White Fish Stock Bechamel Veal Veloute Allemande Chicken Veloute Supreme Fish Veloute White Wine Sauce
  • 12. Bechamel Remove the onion piqué from the hot milk, and add the milk gradually to the white roux, whisking constantly. In a heavy saucepan, heat milk and an onion piqué, and simmer for 10 minutes. Heat to a boil, and reduce to a simmer. Simmer approximately 20 minutes or until proper flavor and consistency are achieved. Season with salt, white pepper, and nutmeg. Strain the sauce through a chinois.
  • 13. Brown, Red and Butter Sauces Demiglaze Brown Beef Stock Espagnole Tomato + Stock Tomato Sauce Clarified Butter Hollandaise Demiglaze
  • 14. Sauce Espagnole I
  • 15. Sauce Espagnole II
  • 16. Tomato Sauce
  • 17. Hollandaise Sauce Simmer white wine, vinegar, peppercorn, and bay leaf to make a reduction. Blend cooled, strained reduction into egg yolks. Whip egg yolk mixture over a double boiler, cooking until the eggs start to ribbon.
  • 18. Hollandaise Sauce Remove egg yolk mixture from the heat. Gradually drizzle in clarified butter, whipping constantly to maintain an emulsion. Blend a little hot water into the hollandaise sauce to achieve proper consistency. Season with salt and white pepper, and add a pinch of cayenne pepper.
  • 19.       Emulsification is another method of thickening sauces. Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying agent. Permanent—A permanent emulsion usually lasts several days or more. Ex: Mayonaise Semi-permanent—A semi-permanent emulsion lasts a shorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usually several hours. Ex:Hollandaise Temporary—A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period of time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is classified as such because it does not contain an emulsifying agent. Ex:Vinaigrette
  • 20. Liaison     Consists of egg yolks and cream. Coagulation of egg proteins when heated results in slight thickening. The heavy cream increases the coagulation temperature of the yolks and adds flavor and richness. Is used only in finishing and is primarily for the purpose of enriching and giving body .
  • 21. Liason (a) Slowly stir a little of the hot sauce (chicken velouté, in this picture) into the mixture of cream and egg yolks to warm it and dilute it. (b) Stir the tempered liaison back into the remaining sauce.
  • 22. Liason  Tempering is the process of equalizing the temperatures of two liquids before mixing them together.  To temper, gradually add small quantities of the hot sauce or soup to the cool liquid, slowly raising the temperature until it is almost equal in both liquids.
  • 23. FINISHING TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reduction – used to concentrate basic flavors and adjust textures Straining – necessary for the perfect velvety texture Deglazing – to swirl a liquid in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom Enriching – liaison, butter, heavy cream give extra body, flavor and smoothness to sauces Seasoning – salt and lemon juice stimulate the taste buds
  • 24. Standards of Quality for Sauces 1. 2. 3. Consistency and Body – Nape consistency, smooth, not too thick or thin. Able to coat the back of a spoon Flavor – Distinctive and well balanced. Not starchy and with the proper degree of seasoning. Should enhance or complement the food or provide a pleasing contrast Appearance – Smooth with a good shine. Appropriate color
  • 25. Other Sauces  Simple and Compound Butters – this ranges from melted butter to flavored butters.  Pan Gravies – sauces made with the drippings of the meat or poultry they are served with.  Miscellaneous Hot Sauces – does not derive from any of the 5 mother sauces. Examples are a raisin sauce, sour cream sauce, etc.  Miscellaneous Cold Sauces – includes, vinaigrettes, horseradish sauce, pesto, chutney, infused oils, coulis, etc.
  • 26. Summary  Your sauce is only as good as what you put in it, and your dish is only as good as your sauce.