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Principles of teaching and learning language


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  • 1. Students
  • 2. Teachers
  • 3.  Theory of multiple intelligences › Howard Gardner (1983) › Model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.
  • 4. Student A Student B1. May best learn to multiply through a different approach,2. May excel in a field outside of mathematics, or3. May even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process.
  • 5. Comparison of Views on Intelligence Old View New View• Intelligence was fixed • Intelligence can be developed• Intelligence was • Intelligence is notmeasured by a number numerically quantifiable and is exhibited during a performance or problem-solving process• Intelligence was unitary • Intelligence can be exhibited in many ways – multiple intelligences
  • 6. Comparison of Views on Intelligence Old View New View•Intelligence was • Intelligence is measuredmeasured in isolation in context / real-life situations•Intelligence was used to • Intelligence is used tosort students and predict understand humantheir success capacities and the many and varied ways students can achieve.
  • 7. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence The sounds, meanings, Sensitivity to: structures, and styles of language Speaking, writing, listening, Inclination for: reading Speak effectively (teacher, religious leader, politician) or Ability to: write effectively (poet, journalist, novelist, copywriter, editor)
  • 8. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Patterns, numbers and numerical data, causes and Sensitivity to: effects, objective and quantitative reasoning Finding patterns, making calculations, forming and Inclination for: testing hypotheses, using the scientific method, deductive and inductive reasoning Work effectively with numbers (accountant, statistician, Ability to: economist) and reason effectively (engineer, scientist, computer programmer)
  • 9. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Spatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual puzzles, Sensitivity to: symmetry, lines, images Representing ideas visually, creating mental images, Inclination for: noticing visual details, drawing and sketching. Create visually (artists, photographer, engineer, Ability to: decorator) and visualize accurately (tour guide, scout, ranger)
  • 10. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Touch, movement, physical self, Sensitivity to: athleticism activities requiring strength, Inclination for: speed, flexibility, hand-eye coordination, and balance Use the hands to fix or create (mechanic, surgeon, carpenter, Ability to: sculptor, mason) and use the body expressively (dancer, athlete, actor)
  • 11. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Musical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody, Sensitivity to: pitch, sound Listening, singing, playing an Inclination for: instrument Create music (songwriter, composer, musician, Ability to: conductor) and analyze music (music critic)
  • 12. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Interpersonal Intelligence Body language, moods, voice, Sensitivity to: feelings Noticing and responding to Inclination for: other people’s feelings and personalities Work with people (administrators, managers, consultants, teachers) and help Ability to: people indentify and overcome problems (therapists, psychologists)
  • 13. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Intrapersonal Intelligence One’s own strengths, Sensitivity to: weaknesses, goals, and desires Setting goals, assessing personal Inclination for: abilities and liabilities, monitoring one’s own thinking Meditate, reflect, exhibits self- Ability to: discipline, maintain composure, and get the most out of oneself.
  • 14. Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Naturalist Intelligence Natural objects, plants, animals, Sensitivity to: naturally occurring patterns, ecological issues Identifying and classifying living Inclination for: things and natural objects Analyze ecological and natural situations and data (ecologists and rangers), learn from living Ability to: things (zoologists, botanist, veterinarian) and work in natural settings (hunter, scout)
  • 15. Multiple Intelligences as Dispositions Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence Disposition / Intelligence: Existential Contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, Ability: such as the infinite and infinitesimal Shamans, priests, mathematicia ns, physicists, scientists, Careers: cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers.
  • 16.
  • 17. Sensing (S) Sensing-Thinking Sensing-Feeling (ST) (SF) MASTERY INTERPERSONALThinking STYLE STYLE Feeling (T) Intuitive-Thinking Intuitive-Feeling (F) (NT) (NF) UNDERSTANDING SELF-EXPRESSIVE STYLE STYLE Intuition (N)
  • 18.  Sensing › Primarily through the senses, what one sees, hears, touches. › Sensing people gather facts to learn about things. Verifies first, then believes. Intuitive › Perceives inner meaning and relationships of what is occurring. › Doesnt always believe what s/he sees, instead looks to what the potential significance might be. › Believes first, than verifies.
  • 19.  Thinking › The thinker looks to the facts, logical truths, and verifiable information. › Thinks in terms of cause and effect. › Based on true or false. Feeling › The feeler places importance on the personal import of any stimulus rather than on logic. › Based on like or dislike.
  • 20.  The Sensing-Thinking (ST) or Mastery Learner › works in an organized, step-by-step, methodical manner The Sensing-Feeling (SF) or Interpersonal Learner › like to process information orally and learn best if they can personally connect with the content
  • 21.  The Intuitive-Thinking (NT) or Understanding Learner › characterized by logical thinking, perceive patterns well, and exhibit a strong need to understand. The Intuitive-Feeling (NF) or Self- Expressive Learner › the creative learner
  • 22.
  • 23. 1. Begin with the end in mind… › Specific objective - Focused2. Encourage your students to personalize the learning goals identified for them. › Students own the lesson objective3. Motivation is essential in learning. › Students – explore, decide, interested, participate, confident
  • 24. 4. Learning is a social activity. › Interaction comes learning..5. Teaching language is more effective and learning, more meaningful when it is integrative. › Listening, speaking, reading and writing › Strategies – Multiple Intelligence & Learning Styles › Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary teaching
  • 25. › Language structure and form in authentic contexts › Life experiences of students › Research-based instructional strategies › Integrate values6. A conducive classroom atmosphere is a sine qua non of the teaching-learning process. › Encourages people to be active
  • 26. › Promotes and facilitates individual discovery› Personal and subjective nature of learning› Good and desirable› Right to make mistakes› Tolerates ambiguity› Self-evaluation› Openness of self› Trust themselves› Respect to people
  • 27. › Accepts people › Confrontation with self and ideas7. Learning is an active process.. › Constructing meaning › Engaging with the world8. Learning is reflective. › Happens in the mind
  • 28. 9. An approach that allows for ‘more time, more depth with fewer, more complex topics’ is more desirable. › Superficial teaching10. Emphasize on self-evaluation. › Evaluate themselves at the end of the lesson
  • 29. 11. Make use of an integrated performance assessment.. › Learning styles, intelligence, and the real world12. Emphasize on real word application that favors realistic performances over out- of-context drill items. › Assessment practices - Performance
  • 30.  ultiple_intelligences#Existential tionalpsychology/ss/multiple-intell.htm /education/components/scrapbook/def ault.php?sectiondetailid=11451&sc_id=1 189736803 ml