Principles of teaching and learning languagePresentation Transcript
Theory of multiple intelligences › Howard Gardner (1983) › Model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.
Student A Student B1. May best learn to multiply through a different approach,2. May excel in a field outside of mathematics, or3. May even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process.
Comparison of Views on Intelligence Old View New View• Intelligence was fixed • Intelligence can be developed• Intelligence was • Intelligence is notmeasured by a number numerically quantifiable and is exhibited during a performance or problem-solving process• Intelligence was unitary • Intelligence can be exhibited in many ways – multiple intelligences
Comparison of Views on Intelligence Old View New View•Intelligence was • Intelligence is measuredmeasured in isolation in context / real-life situations•Intelligence was used to • Intelligence is used tosort students and predict understand humantheir success capacities and the many and varied ways students can achieve.
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence The sounds, meanings, Sensitivity to: structures, and styles of language Speaking, writing, listening, Inclination for: reading Speak effectively (teacher, religious leader, politician) or Ability to: write effectively (poet, journalist, novelist, copywriter, editor)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Patterns, numbers and numerical data, causes and Sensitivity to: effects, objective and quantitative reasoning Finding patterns, making calculations, forming and Inclination for: testing hypotheses, using the scientific method, deductive and inductive reasoning Work effectively with numbers (accountant, statistician, Ability to: economist) and reason effectively (engineer, scientist, computer programmer)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Spatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual puzzles, Sensitivity to: symmetry, lines, images Representing ideas visually, creating mental images, Inclination for: noticing visual details, drawing and sketching. Create visually (artists, photographer, engineer, Ability to: decorator) and visualize accurately (tour guide, scout, ranger)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Touch, movement, physical self, Sensitivity to: athleticism activities requiring strength, Inclination for: speed, flexibility, hand-eye coordination, and balance Use the hands to fix or create (mechanic, surgeon, carpenter, Ability to: sculptor, mason) and use the body expressively (dancer, athlete, actor)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Musical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody, Sensitivity to: pitch, sound Listening, singing, playing an Inclination for: instrument Create music (songwriter, composer, musician, Ability to: conductor) and analyze music (music critic)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Interpersonal Intelligence Body language, moods, voice, Sensitivity to: feelings Noticing and responding to Inclination for: other people’s feelings and personalities Work with people (administrators, managers, consultants, teachers) and help Ability to: people indentify and overcome problems (therapists, psychologists)
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Intrapersonal Intelligence One’s own strengths, Sensitivity to: weaknesses, goals, and desires Setting goals, assessing personal Inclination for: abilities and liabilities, monitoring one’s own thinking Meditate, reflect, exhibits self- Ability to: discipline, maintain composure, and get the most out of oneself.
Multiple Intelligences as DispositionsDisposition / Intelligence: Naturalist Intelligence Natural objects, plants, animals, Sensitivity to: naturally occurring patterns, ecological issues Identifying and classifying living Inclination for: things and natural objects Analyze ecological and natural situations and data (ecologists and rangers), learn from living Ability to: things (zoologists, botanist, veterinarian) and work in natural settings (hunter, scout)
Multiple Intelligences as Dispositions Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence Disposition / Intelligence: Existential Contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, Ability: such as the infinite and infinitesimal Shamans, priests, mathematicia ns, physicists, scientists, Careers: cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers.
Sensing › Primarily through the senses, what one sees, hears, touches. › Sensing people gather facts to learn about things. Verifies first, then believes. Intuitive › Perceives inner meaning and relationships of what is occurring. › Doesnt always believe what s/he sees, instead looks to what the potential significance might be. › Believes first, than verifies.
Thinking › The thinker looks to the facts, logical truths, and verifiable information. › Thinks in terms of cause and effect. › Based on true or false. Feeling › The feeler places importance on the personal import of any stimulus rather than on logic. › Based on like or dislike.
The Sensing-Thinking (ST) or Mastery Learner › works in an organized, step-by-step, methodical manner The Sensing-Feeling (SF) or Interpersonal Learner › like to process information orally and learn best if they can personally connect with the content
The Intuitive-Thinking (NT) or Understanding Learner › characterized by logical thinking, perceive patterns well, and exhibit a strong need to understand. The Intuitive-Feeling (NF) or Self- Expressive Learner › the creative learner
1. Begin with the end in mind… › Specific objective - Focused2. Encourage your students to personalize the learning goals identified for them. › Students own the lesson objective3. Motivation is essential in learning. › Students – explore, decide, interested, participate, confident
4. Learning is a social activity. › Interaction comes learning..5. Teaching language is more effective and learning, more meaningful when it is integrative. › Listening, speaking, reading and writing › Strategies – Multiple Intelligence & Learning Styles › Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary teaching
› Language structure and form in authentic contexts › Life experiences of students › Research-based instructional strategies › Integrate values6. A conducive classroom atmosphere is a sine qua non of the teaching-learning process. › Encourages people to be active
› Promotes and facilitates individual discovery› Personal and subjective nature of learning› Good and desirable› Right to make mistakes› Tolerates ambiguity› Self-evaluation› Openness of self› Trust themselves› Respect to people
› Accepts people › Confrontation with self and ideas7. Learning is an active process.. › Constructing meaning › Engaging with the world8. Learning is reflective. › Happens in the mind
9. An approach that allows for ‘more time, more depth with fewer, more complex topics’ is more desirable. › Superficial teaching10. Emphasize on self-evaluation. › Evaluate themselves at the end of the lesson
11. Make use of an integrated performance assessment.. › Learning styles, intelligence, and the real world12. Emphasize on real word application that favors realistic performances over out- of-context drill items. › Assessment practices - Performance