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Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
Are youth doing risky things online?
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Are youth doing risky things online?

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  • The first YISS was prompted by a number of factors – the enormous growth of the Internet in the 1999’s and the fact that children and adolescents were flocking to the Internet. Concerns about sex offenders using the Internet to target victims. Concern about the amount of pornography online and questions about whether kids were being exposed to sexually explicit material. But also HOW they were being exposed, with some people saying kids had to go out and find it while others said that, no, pornography is finding the kids. Also reports of people using the internet to threaten and scare and harass kids. It was in response to these concerns that the National Center funded the first YISS.
    Remember that we measured kids’ experiences with 3 types of unwanted online incidents: Sexual solicitations, unwanted exposures to pornography and online harassment.
    The new survey shows that there have been a number of changes in these problems in the past 5 years – changes in the numbers of kids reporting these types of incidents and changes in their characteristics. It also shows some new problems emerging.
  • We’ve just finished talking about Internet safety and prevention measures aimed at young people. Now, I’d like to transition to the topic of risky behaviors online. As with any environment, we see some young people online engaging in what may be termed risky behaviors.
  • In both surveys, we looked at several kinds of risky behaviors, meaning behaviors that might increase the chances that a youth would experience unwanted sexual solicitations, exposure to pornography or harassment. We asked about: [slide]
  • In YISS-2, there was a large increase in the number of youth who posted personal information and pictures online. Thirty-four percent had posted their real names, telephone numbers, home addresses or the names of their schools online where anyone could see; and 18% had posted pictures of themselves. In contrast, in YISS-1 only 11% of youth had posted any such personal information and only 5% had posted pictures. These increases may be at least partly related to the popularity among adolescents of blogs, online journals and profiles, which allow youth to create elaborate websites about their lives. These types of websites were not part a part of youth culture when the first survey was conducted.
  • In 2005 there was an increase in the numbers of youth going to X-rated sites on purpose. In 2000, we were concerned that youth were not telling us about going to these sites voluntarily so we added some more context to the question in 2005. Still, we found fewer youth going to these sites on purpose than the numbers of youth being exposed involuntarily. It possible that youth are so inundated by this material on an involuntary basis, that any curiosity about the material has been fulfilled. It’s also possible that youth who are sexually curious use various types of media, of which the Internet is only one (magazines; movies – none of which have a history function that can be checked).
    Not surprisingly, most of these youth were older and boys. And almost half were with friends when they went to these sites.
  • We asked youth how they found out about the sites they went to. Most youth said they went to a site because another kid told them about it.
  • We see something of a decline in report of youth talking about sex online with strangers, although this is not reach statistical significance. This is consistent with our finding that fewer youth were talking with strangers online.
    About half of these youth were girls and the majority were age 14 or older. Almost half were with friends when engaging in this behavior.
  • While risky behavior of a sexual nature did not show increases in 2005, we found large increases in the number of youth who admitted to behaving rudely online and to harassing others and who were harassing or embarrassing others they were mad.
    In contrast to traditional bullying, about half of these youth were girls and most were 14 or older. Almost half were with friends when they engaged in this behavior.
  • Much of the prevention messages we currently provide youth assume that youth are alone when they either engage in risky behavior or have unwanted experiences. Yet, we were interested in whether this was actually the case. We found that many of the unwanted experiences (ranging from 29% of exposure incidents to 41% of solicitation incidents) and around 45% of risky behavior occurred when youth were using the Internet in the physical presence of their friends. Although this is a finding that needs to be explored further, we may need to adjust some of our prevention messages to include youth who are not alone when they are using the Internet.
  • Another area this study has enabled us to explore is whether our efforts to get prevention messages to young people is working.
  • Parents said they were very concerned about their children being exposed to sexually explicit situations on the Internet. Most parents report having talked to their children about Internet safety rules. The number of parents reporting conversations has not increased since 2000, so you can see that there has always been a strong reporting of parental prevention. It’s possible, though, that parents were exaggerating due to their desire to appear to us as good parents.
  • This is supported by the finding that fewer children, but still a considerable number, acknowledged hearing these types of prevention messages from a parent or teacher.
  • We also see that the report of filtering and blocking software has increased over the 5 years.
  • A significant number of youth report attending a presentation about Internet safety given by law enforcement.
  • -Not a terribly encouraging picture in regards to people’s knowledge about where to report incidents. Fewer youth knew of places to report. Parents knowledge seemed to increase but when pressed, few could come up with an actual name.
  • The CyberTipline is still not well known among both parents and youth. We see no change in parent knowledge and an increase in youth knowledge, though 5% of youth is still extremely small.
    CypberTipline: sponsored by the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Investigates reports of sexual exploitation on the internet.
  • There does seem to be some more awareness among youth who have attended an Internet safety program given by law enforcement. These young people were more likely to know of places to report incidents and aware of the CyberTipline. But these numbers are still far from where we’d like them to be.
  • In both 2000 and 2005 – youth reporting harassment incidents were more likely to tell someone about the incident – which may be an indication that these episodes were particularly disturbing to youth experiencing them. It may also be an indication that harassment is okay to talk about whereas solicitation is not (e.g., it’s embarrassing; the likelihood that a parent will restrict their computer access is higher)
  • As you can see, few youth are telling parents about what happened.
  • Authorities include police, ISP, or schools. And as you can see, practically no youth are reporting incidents to authorities.
  • We asked youth who did not disclose incidents why they did not tell. Most youth who did not disclose incidents considered them not serious enough. They said: “I didn’t think it was a big deal. I handled it responsibly.” “[I was] barely on the site for thirty seconds.” “It was just a random thing.” Others who did not tell (65/282) said they were afraid or thought they would get in trouble or loose their access to the Internet if they told.
  • Although the majority of harassers are known to the youth before the incident, those who are distressed by the incident are twice as likely to report that the perpetrator was known only online before the incident
  • Transcript

    • 1. San Diego International Conference on Child and Family Maltreatment, January 23-27 2006, San Diego, CA Are Youth Doing Risky Things Online? Michele Ybarra Center for Innovative Public Health Research Funded by the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children and US Department of Justice, OJJDP * Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Please note that analyses included herein are preliminary.  More recent, finalized analyses can be found in: Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2007). Internet prevention messages: Targeting the right online behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 138-145, or by contacting ISK for further information. 1
    • 2. Are youth doing risky things online? San Diego International Conference on Child and Family Maltreatment, 2006, San Diego, CA * Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Please note that analyses included herein are preliminary.  More recent, finalized analyses can be found in: Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2007). Internet prevention messages: Targeting the right online behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 138-145, or by contacting ISK for further information. 2
    • 3. Online Risky Behavior • Giving out personal information or pictures online • Engaging in sexual behaviors online • Being rude or using the Internet to harass or embarrass 3
    • 4. Posting Personal Information Online 50 % Internet-using youth 45 40 34% 35 30 25 +23% 18% 20 15 +13% 11% 10 5% 5 0 2000 2005 Posted personal information 2000 2005 Posted picture 4
    • 5. Going to X-Rated Sites on Purpose % Internet-using youth 50 40 30 13% 20 8% +5% 10 0 2000 2005 5
    • 6. Going to X-Rated Sites on Purpose Youth found out about sites they went to through: • Another youth (52%) • An online search not about sex (33%) • A pop-up or other ad (27%) • SPAM (14%) • Someone they met online (1%) 6
    • 7. Talking about Sex with Strangers Online 50 % Internet-using youth 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 7% 10 5% 5 0 2000 2005 7
    • 8. Using the Internet to Harass 50 % Internet-using youth 45 40 35 28% 30 25 20 +14% 14% 15 +8% 10 9% 1% 5 0 2000 2005 Made rude or nasty comments 2000 2005 Harassed or embarrassed someone mad at 8
    • 9. Risky Behavior: Summary A lot of risky Internet use and unwanted experiences were not solitary. 9
    • 10. Risky Behavior: Summary Still relatively low levels of risky sexual behavior. 10
    • 11. Risky Behavior: Summary Particularly large increases in youth being rude, nasty, and harassing others online. 11
    • 12. Have youth gotten prevention information? 12
    • 13. Parents’ Views on Prevention Parents have talked to their children about: • • • • • Giving out personal information online (90%) Chatting with strangers (87%) Responding to offensive messages (79%) Talking online about sex (77%) Dealing with x-rated SPAM or pop-ups (77%) 13
    • 14. Children’s Views on Prevention Children say their parents or teachers have talked to them about how to avoid: • X-rated pictures online (66%) • People online who might try to talk to them about sex (58%) • Those online who might bother, threaten or harass (65%) 14
    • 15. % households with Internet access Use of Filtering and Blocking Software 70 55% 60 50 40 33% 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 15
    • 16. Law Enforcement Safety Presentations • About 1 in 5 youth had attended a presentation about Internet safety that was put on by law enforcement  21% (n = 321) 16
    • 17. % respondents Did more parents or youth know about places to report incidents? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 31% +4% 35% 24% -6% 18% 20 10 0 2000 2005 Parents 2000 2005 Youth 17
    • 18. % respondents Did more parents or youth know about the CyberTipline? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10% 9% 2% 2000 2005 Parents +3% 2000 5% 2005 Youth 18
    • 19. Knowledge of the CyberTipline Youth who attended law enforcement Internet safety presentations were more likely to know about reporting and the CyberTipline • 23% knew of places to report  Compared to 17% w/o LEA safety info • 8% knew of the CyberTipline  Compared to 5% w/o LEA safety info 19
    • 20. Youth remain reluctant to reveal unwanted solicitations, exposures and harassment. 20
    • 21. A higher proportion of harassment incidents were disclosed to someone. % Internet-using yothu 40 34% Had Incident Told someone 35 30 25 25% 19% 20 13% 15 9% 10 5 15% 10% 17% 6% 6% 5% 0 6% 2000 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005 Solicitation Exposure Harassment 21
    • 22. Few youth told parents what happened. % Internet-using yothu 40 Had Incident Told Parent 34% 35 30 25% 25 20 19% 13% 15 9% 10 5 0 6% 10% 5% 10% 3% 2% 3% 2000 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005 Solicitation Exposure Harassment 22
    • 23. Few incidents were reported to authorities. % Internet-using yothu 40 Had Incident Told Authority 34% 35 30 25% 25 20 15 19% 13% 9% 10 6% All 1% 5 0 2000 2005 Solicitation 2000 2005 Exposure 2000 2005 Harassment 23
    • 24. Why didn’t youth tell? Might get in trouble, 9% Afraid, 13% Not serious enough, 72% 24
    • 25. Prevention: Summary Internet safety information from law enforcement seems to be having some impact. 25
    • 26. Prevention: Summary More families are using filtering and blocking software. 26
    • 27. Prevention: Summary No change in the low rates of disclosure, particularly among reports to authorities. 27
    • 28. What should you find out about the Internet in specific victimization cases? 28
    • 29. For all youth reporting Internetrelated challenges, find out… • Is there Internet access?  Where is the computer?  Is it in the common area?  Does it have software to filter or block sexual material or otherwise monitor Internet use?  Is there a web camera/scanner/digital camera?  Do adults need education about Internet safety? 29
    • 30. For youth targeted by unwanted sexual solicitations, find out… Are youth • Using suggestive screen names or posting suggestive profiles? • Visiting chat rooms? • Have strangers in their IM buddy list? • Talking online to adults about sex? • Being aggressively targeted?  Gifts?  Telephone contact?  Face-to-face meetings? 30
    • 31. For youth who have been the target of harassment, find out… Are youth • Instigators of harassment themselves? • Targets of chronic harassment? • Being targeted by an adult? • Being targeted by a ‘stranger’? • Being aggressively targeted?  Asked to send a picture?  Telephone or face-to-face contact? 31

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