Similarly, data from the Youth Internet Safety Surveys 1 and 2 (Finkelhor, Mitchell, Wolak) suggest that about one in three victims of harassment are very or extremely upset by the experience
As an aside, bullying is most common at school
As an aside, internet is the least distressing type of bullying
We need to resist the temptation to fear-monger and perpetuate the myth that the majority of youth are cyberbullied and horribly affected by itAnd at the same time, recognize that this is a difficult experience for a small minority of youth who probably need professional support
Bullying and harassment in the context of emerging technologies
Get Schooled: Kids and Cyber Security EventDepartment of State – Harry S. Truman Building12:30 PM, May 3, 2011Bullying and harassment in thecontext of emerging technologiesMichele Ybarra MPH PhDCenter for Innovative Public Health Research* Thank you for your interest in thispresentation. Please note that analyses included hereinare preliminary. More recent, finalized analyses may beavailable by contacting CiPHR for further information.
Roadmap Exactly what is cyberbullying? How do I talk to my children aboutit? How can I help children who arevictims of cyberbullying?
Exactly what is cyberbullying andInternet harassment?There is wide variability in the definition ofharassment and bullying among researchers.Generally, it refers to an act of intentionalaggression (e.g., “mean things”) towardssomeone else via technology (i.e., Internet, cellphone text messaging)Bullying: Is between (at least) two people with differential power Occurs over time Is repetitiveHarassment: May be between two people of equal power May happen once or many times
Context Girl, 12: “These people from school werecalling me a prostitute and whore … andsaying I was raped. [It happened] because I‟man easy target. I didn‟t let it bother me untilabout a month ago and [then] I started gettingphysical with people.” Boy, 15: “I was playing a first person shootergame and unintentionally offended this personwho became very serious and began tothreaten me by saying if this was real life hewould physically harm me. [It happenedbecause he] was unable to accept this was justa game.”-Quotes from participants of the Youth Internet Safety Survey -2(Finkelhor, Wolak, Mitchell, 2005)
Overlap between harassment andbullyingNot involved62%Cyberbully-only victim1%Internetharassment-only victim24%Cyberbully +Internetharassmentvictim13%Average across Waves 2-3 of the Growing up with Media study (PI: Ybarra)(Cyberbully questions were added in Wave 2)
InvolvementDepending on the measureused, most studies reportbetween 20-40% of youth aretargeted by bullying orharassment online and via textmessaging (see Tokunaga, 2010 for a review).
Overlap between victimization andperpetrationNot involved62%Victim-only18%Perpetrator-only3%Perpetrator-victim17%Internet harassmentAverage across Waves 1-3 of the Growing up with Media study (PI: Ybarra)
Cyberbully victimization by ageacross timeData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra(Cyberbully questions were added in Wave 2)0%10%20%30%40%50%11 12 13 14 15 16 17Wave 2 (34%)Wave 3 (39%)
Internet harassment victimizationby age across timeData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra0%10%20%30%40%50%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17Wave 1 (33%)Wave 2 (34%)Wave 3 (39%)
Text messaging harassmentvictimization by age across timeData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra(Text messaging-based harassment questions were added in Wave 2)0%10%20%30%40%50%11 12 13 14 15 16 17Wave 2 (14%)Wave 3 (24%)
Distressing cyberbullyingvictimizationData from Wave 3 of the Growing up with Media study, PI: YbarraNotvictimized86%Victim-notdistressed12%Victim -distressed2%Cyberbullying
Distressing Internet harassmentvictimization (age constant:12-15y.o.)0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%50%Rude / meancommentsRumors Threatening /aggressivecomments200620072008Distress = very or extremely upset by the experienceData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra
Distressing text messagingharassment victimization (ageconstant:12-15 y.o.)Data from Waves 2 and 3 of the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra86%80%10%16%4% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Wave 2 Wave 3
Bullying victimization rates byenvironment0%5%10%15%20%25%Every day /almost everydayOnce or twice aweekOnce or twice amonthLess oftenSchoolInternetText messagingData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra
Distress related to bullyingvictimization rates by environment0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%Very/extremely upset by most memorable experienceSchoolInternetText messagingData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra
Cyberbully perpetration by ageacross timeData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra0%10%20%30%40%50%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17Wave 1 (21%)Wave 2 (19%)Wave 3 (23%)
Text messaging harassmentperpetration by age across timeData from the Growing up with Media study, PI: Ybarra(Text messaging-based harassment questions were added in Wave 2)0%10%20%30%40%50%11 12 13 14 15 16 17Wave 2 (10%)Wave 3 (16%)
Concurrent psychosocial problemsfor victims Interpersonal victimization / bullying offline(Ybarra, Mitchell, Espelage, 2007;Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006; Ybarra, 2004) Alcohol use (Ybarra, Mitchell, Espelage, 2007) Social problems (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006) Depressive symptomatology and suicidalideation (Ybarra, 2004; Mitchell, Finkelhor, Wolak, 2000; TheBerkman Center for Internet & Society, 2008; Hinduja & Patchin, inpress) School behavior problems – including weaponcarrying (Ybarra, Diener-West, Leaf, 2007) Poor caregiver-child relationships (Ybarra, Diener-West, Leaf, 2007)
Assumptions about cyberbullying andharassment Everyone‟s doing it It‟s increasing over time It‟s getting nastier / kids are moreaffected Everyone‟s a hapless victim
None of these assumptions aresupported by the data “Everyone‟s doing it”:◦ 38% (about 2 in 5) are involved in harassment◦ That means that 62% (3 in 5) are NOT involved in any way It‟s increasing over time◦ Neither perpetration nor victimization rates appear to beincreasing from 2006-2008 It‟s getting nastier / kids are more affected◦ There is no indication that young people are more likely to beupset by harassment now (in 2008) then they were 2 years ago(2006). If anything, there‟s some indication that youth are *less*likely to be upset now. Everyone‟s a hapless victim◦ 17% of all youth are BOTH victims and perpetrators ofharassment◦ The odds of victimization increase about 8 fold if you are aperpetrator and vice versa
How do I talk to my children aboutcyberbullying?Make it an ongoing conversation.Ask your children what they do andwho they hang out with online in thesame way you talk to them aboutwhat they do and who they hangout with offline.
How do I talk to my children aboutcyberbullying? Share your expectations for„cyber etiquette‟ and why it isimportant to you. If you have a specificconcern, address it directly.◦ Practice with a friend first what you wantto say.◦ Listen more than you talk
How do I talk to my children aboutcyberbullying?Make the discussion (and anyrestrictions) developmentallyappropriate; and behaviorallyappropriate.Older youth and those whodemonstrate responsibility should begiven greater freedom than youngeryouth and those acting irresponsibly.
How do I help a child who is beingbullied or harassed online? Put them in control: Ask how you canhelp them Recognize that many children –especially older adolescents – may beable and wanting to handle this on theirown. If so, support and empower them intheir endeavor. Stay calm; recognize that your feelingsmight somewhat be related to youranxiety about the technology itself as wellas your child‟s situation
How do I help a child who is beingbullied or harassed online? Resist the temptation to restrict the victimfrom the technology; this is a punishment Be open to the possibility that the child isa perpetrator as well as a victim; listen If appropriate, help the child reach out tomental health professionals for moreintensive support
Final musings The majority of youth are not beingharassed or bullied online The majority who youth who are harassedor bullied online are not seriously upsetby it. An important minority are bullied orharassed, and are seriously affected by it. We need to do a better job ofidentifying these youth and gettingthem into services (e.g., therapy).
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