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Preliminary findings from SMS USA, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for young adults in the US
 

Preliminary findings from SMS USA, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for young adults in the US

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    Preliminary findings from SMS USA, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for young adults in the US Preliminary findings from SMS USA, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for young adults in the US Presentation Transcript

    • 15TH WORLD CONFERENCE ON TOBACCO OR HEALTH SINGAPORE PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM SMS USA, A TEXT MESSAGING-BASED SMOKING CESSATION PROGRAM FOR YOUNG ADULTS IN THE US MARCH 21, 2012 1:45 – 3:15 PM ABSTRACT #OP-137 Michele Ybarra MPH PhD 1 Jodi S Holtrop PhD 2 M. Hossein Rahbar PhD 3 Tonya Prescott BA 1 David Strong PhD 4 Amanda Graham PhD 1 Center for Innovative Public Health Research; 2 Michigan State University; 3 University of Texas Health Sciences; 4 UCSD * Thank you for your interest in this presentation. Please note that analyses included herein are preliminary. More recent, finalized analyses may be available by contacting CiPHR for further information.
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding: This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health [R21CA135669]. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NCI or the National Institutes of Health. Declaration of Interest: The authors have no competing interests to declare.
    • STUDY MOTIVATION  Between 22-34% of 18-24 year olds are current cigarette smokers, depending on the measure (i.e., ever in the past 30 days vs. every day / some days currently). (CDC, 2009; SAMHSA, 2011)  Over half of young smokers want to quit or cut down (Lamkin, Davis, Kamen, 1998) and are more likely to report a quit attempt than older adult smokers. (Curry, Sporer, Pugach et al., 2007)  Smoking cessation programs targeted and accessible to young adults are lacking (Murphy-Hoefer, 2005; Lantz, 2003)  Nine in ten US young adults owning a cell phone and 97% using text messaging (Smith, 2011). Text messaging- based smoking cessation programs may be an ideal delivery mode for young adult smokers.
    • STOP MY SMOKING (SMS) USA RCT METHODOLOGY Eligibility criteria:  18-25 years of age  Own a mobile phone  Be enrolled or plan to enroll in a text messaging plan  Smoke 28 cigarettes / week on at least 6 days per week  Seriously thinking about quitting in the next 30 days Differences with SMS Turkey:  Addition of Text Buddy and Text Crave (Rodgers et al., 2000)  Significant other-verified quitting status
    • CONSORT DIAGRAM Assessed for eligibility (n=1,916) Excluded (n=1,413) ¨ Not meeting inclusion criteria (n=1,312) ¨ Declined to participate (n=90) ¨ Other reasons (n=11) Analysed (n=101) ¨ Completed all 3 data collection periods (n=77) ¨ Completed baseline + 4 week data collection (n= 9) ¨ Completed baseline + 12 week data collection (n=4) ¨ Lost to follow-up (i.e., completed baseline survey only; n=11) Allocated to intervention (n=101) ¨ Received allocated intervention (n= 96) ¨ Did not receive allocated intervention (withdrew from study; n=5) ¨ Completed all 3 data collection periods (n=48) ¨ Completed baseline + 4 week data collection (n=6) ¨ Completed baseline + 12 week data collection (n=3) ¨ Lost to follow-up (i.e., completed baseline survey only; n=6) Allocated to control (n= 63) ¨ Received allocated control (n= 63) ¨ Did not receive allocated control (n=0) Analysed (n=63) Allocation Analysis Follow-Up Prematurely terminated after randomization (n=55) ¨ Did not complete registration (n=7) ¨ Completed registration, but not online survey (n=39) ¨ Completed registration/ online survey, but after initial quit day; did not reset quit date (n=1) ¨ Unable to receive validation code (n=8) Enrollment Randomized (n=219) as Excluded from the analyses (n=55) The randomization allocation for participants who were prematurely terminated was not retained. We therefore don’t know which arm they belong to; and so cannot include them in ITT
    • SMS USA SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS (N=164*) Personal characteristics Control (n=63) Intervention (n=101) P- value Demographic characteristics Age (Range: 18-24) 21.6 (2.1) 21.6 (2.1) 0.82 Female 44.4% (28) 43.6% (44) 0.91 Working 31+ hours / week 25.4% (16) 40.6% (41) 0.05 Single vs. all other relationships 69.8% (44) 67.3% (68) 0.74 HH education or lower 33.3% (21) 30.7% (31) 0.72 Smoking characteristics Average number of cigarettes smoked per day (Range: 4-30) 11.9 (5.7) 12.4 (6.3) 0.62 Age at first cigarette (Range: 4-23) 14.4 (3.4) 13.9 (3.2) 0.29 Confidence in quitting (Range: 0-10) 6.5 (2.6) 6.7 (2.4) 0.60 *The submitted abstract included 106 participants. Results reported here include the full sample (n=164)
    • PRIMARY OUTCOME: SO-VERIFIED CONTINUOUS ABSTINENCE 30% 40% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 12-week post-quit (p=0.22) Control Intervention n=63n=63 n=101 Relative Risk adjusted for: biological sex, working frequency, singlehood, education , average number of cigarettes per day, confidence in quitting, age at first cigarette aRR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.72, 3.0
    • 12-WEEK QUIT STATUS BY BIOLOGICAL SEX 29% 32% 44% 34% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Males (n=92) Females (n=72) Control Intervention n=35 n=47 n=28 n=44
    • 12-WEEK QUIT STATUS BY SMOKING INTENSITY 32% 23% 40% 39% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Light smokers Heavy smokers Control Intervention n=50 n=78 n=13 n=23
    • STOP MY SMOKING (SMS) USA CONCLUSION Results provide optimism for future research on SMS USA and other text messaging-based smoking cessation programs for young adults in the US. Findings suggest that the program may be more beneficial for males and perhaps heavier smokers (although differences were not statistically significant).