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Frequency and implications of exposure to violent websites on youth behavior

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  • Among those who report that SNS is where they spend the majority of their time (i.e., is in their ‘top two’), the rate of solicitation decreased from 27% to 22%. The rate in SNS remained stable (15%).
  • We now have data from four samples that allow us to map the frequency of unwanted sexual solicitation. When we do so (above), we very clearly see a pattern in which those youth 14-15 years of age and older are much more likely than their younger peers to be involved. Note that this age group is also normatively and developmentally appropriately becoming curious about sex.
  • Rates appear to be stabilizing. For both ‘ever harassed’ in the last year, and ‘harassed monthly or more often’, the same percentage of youth reported being affected in 2006 and in 2007.
  • Sample mean age is 12.6
  • Among those who report that SNS is where they spend the majority of their time (i.e., is in their ‘top two’), the rate of solicitation decreased from 27% to 22%. The rate in SNS remained stable (15%).
  • Rates appear to be stabilizing. For both ‘ever harassed’ in the last year, and ‘harassed monthly or more often’, the same percentage of youth reported being affected in 2006 and in 2007.
  • 28% report 31-1hour 24% report half hour or less 22% report 1-2 hours
  • Relational bullying = social exclusion and spreading rumors Physical bullying = shoved, pushed or hit someone Physical fights= been in a fight in which someone was hit, been in a group fight
  • Remember that 4.8% of youth reported seriously violent behavior at Wave 1 76% response rate in the general sample, But 61% among those who reported seriously violent behavior – so those reporting seriously violent behavior were somewhat less likely to participate in Wave 2
  • Transcript

    • 1. Frequency and implications of exposureto violent web sites on youth behaviorMichele L Ybarra MPH PhDInternet Solutions for Kids, Inc.Philip J Leaf PhDMarie Diener-West PhDJohns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public HealthMerle Hamburger PhDCenters for Disease Control and PreventionInternational Society for Research on Aggression, July2008, Budapest, Hungary* Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Pleasenote that analyses included herein are preliminary. Morerecent, finalized analyses may be available by contactingCiPHR for further information.
    • 2. BackgroundAn estimated 97% of youth use theInternet (Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin, 2005; USC AnnenbergSchool Center for the Digital Future, 2005).The majority of adolescent Internet-health research has focused onvictimization (e.g., Finkelhor, Mitchell, Wolak, 2000; Wolak,Mitchell, Finkelhor, 2006; Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006)and health seeking behavior (e.g., Grey,Klein, Noyce et al., 2005; Ybarra & Suman, 2006).
    • 3. Problem StatementAs our understanding of associations between mediaviolence and youth violent and aggressive behaviorcontinues to grow, there continues to be a noticeabledearth of research about media violence consumed byyoung people on the Internet.What is the frequency of exposure to violenceonline?Is this online violence related to violent oraggressive behavior?
    • 4. Definitions A “hate” site is one that tells you to hate agroup of people because of who they are,how they look, or what they believe. A “death” website that shows pictures ofdead people or people dying. Some peoplecall these “snuff” sites. A “satanic” website shows satanic rituals,like devil worship or Satan worship
    • 5. Frequency of exposure3% 2%5% 4% 2% 2%41%51%32%42% 40%51%56%47%63%54%57%47%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%HateSites Y1HateSites Y2Deathsites Y1Deathsites Y2Santanicsites Y1Satanicsites Y2YesNoIve never heard of this
    • 6. Online exposure to hate and death sitesacross age and time5% 5%9%10%14%7%6%9%3%8%7% 6%11%8%2%6%5%9%7%6%0%5%10%15%20%25%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17YISS-1 (2000): 9%GuwM W1 (2006): 7%GuwM W2 (2007): 6%
    • 7. How did they hear about the web site?(top 3 in 2007)Hate sites: Friend (50%), Link from another site (22%), Typed it in (17%)Death sites: Friend (71%), Search engine (31%), Email (30%)Satanic sites: Banner ad (22%), Friend (19%), Email (17%)
    • 8. Demographic profile of youth lookingat hate, death, satanic sitesAmong 1,206 11-16 year old youth in Oct-Dec,2007: 14.2 years old (OR = 1.2, p<.02) 48% male (OR = 0.85, p<.64) 73% are White (OR = 0.97, p=0.94) 17% are Hispanic (OR = 1.1, p=0.79)
    • 9. Definitions A website, including news-related sites, thatshows pictures of war, death, “terrorism” A website (that’s not an online game) thatshows cartoons, like stick people or animals,being beat up, hurt, or killed
    • 10. Frequency of exposure24% 22% 21%18%45%49%37%46%31% 29%42%36%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%News sites Y1 New sites Y2 Cartoon sitesY1Cartoon sitesY2YesNoIve never heard of this
    • 11. How did they hear about the web site?(top 3 in 2007)News sites: Friend (26%) Family (25%) Search engine (22%)Cartoon sites: Friend (73%), Link from another site (22%) Search engine (20%)
    • 12. Main outcome measure: Seriouslyviolent behaviorAny seriously violent behavior: 4.8% Ever shot/stabbed someone: 1.0% Aggravated assault Threatening someone with a weapon: 1.8% Hurt someone badly enough to require medicalattention: 2.4% Robbery: 1.3% Sexual assault: 2.4%Alpha = 0.87
    • 13. Odds of youth reporting externalizing behavior givenexposure to at least one type of online violentexposure versus all other youth: Y1 -> Y1Any exposureto violent websites(hate, death,cartoon, orsatanic sites)Seriously violentbehaviorPhysical fights PhysicalbullyingRelationalbullyingOddsRatioP-valueOddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-valueAll youth(n=1,588)2.01 0.02 2.46 <.001 2.61 <.001 2.17 <.001Males(n=796)1.00 0.98 1.86 0.01 2.32 <.001 2.71 <.001Females(n=792)5.57 <.001 3.10 <.001 2.49 0.001 1.74 0.04Adjusted for age, self-reported honesty, and self-reported privacy in completing the survey
    • 14. Odds of youth reporting externalizing behavior givenexposure to at least one type of online violentexposure versus all other youth: Y2 -> Y2Any exposureto violent websites(hate, death,cartoon, orsatanic sites)Seriously violentbehaviorPhysical fights PhysicalbullyingRelationalbullyingOddsRatioP-valueOddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-valueAll youth(n=1,206)3.37 0.001 3.70 <.001 5.91 <.001 1.62 0.03Males(n=606)2.41 0.07 3.06 <.001 6.18 <.001 1.46 0.19Females(n=600)5.47 0.002 4.68 <.001 4.72 <.001 2.57 0.007Adjusted for age, self-reported honesty, and self-reported privacy in completing the survey
    • 15. Odds of youth reporting externalizing behavior givenexposure to at least one type of online violentexposure versus all other youth: Y1 -> Y2Any exposureto violent websites(hate, death,cartoon, orsatanic sites)Seriously violentbehaviorPhysical fights PhysicalbullyingRelationalbullyingOddsRatioP-valueOddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-value OddsRatioP-valueAll youth(n=1,206)4.18 <.001 1.92 .004 2.47 <.001 1.25 0.28Males(n=606)5.04 <.001 1.66 0.07 2.46 .001 1.22 0.46Females(n=600)2.45 0.09 1.91 0.10 2.05 0.05 1.57 0.16Adjusted for age, self-reported honesty, and self-reported privacy in completing the survey
    • 16. Summary Older youth are more likely to seek outviolent web sites, but there are no apparentdifferences between boys and girls Across violent web sites, friends are almostalways the most common source of learningabout the site
    • 17. Summary 37% report exposure to violence on at leastone type of web site in the last year at Year 1(24% if news sites are excluded); 32% report anyexposure in Year 2 (19% if news sites are excluded) The 1-year prevalence rates of exposure todeath, hate and satanic sites are low: 2-4% News-related sites (24%) and cartoon violencesites (21%) are the two most commonexposures
    • 18. SummaryExposure to violent web sites is associated withincreased odds for reporting seriously violentand other aggressive behaviors, bothconcurrently and over time.
    • 19. Limitations(In addition to those noted in the previouspresentation)It’s possible that “heard” was taken literally (i.e.,“I’ve never heard of that”)Our measures are crude (ever/never) and don’tmeasure the frequency of exposure
    • 20. DiscussionDespite the wide availability of violentexposures onlineThe majority of youth (63-68%) are not exposedto violence online.
    • 21. DiscussionThe majority of youth who are exposed, do notalso report seriously violent behavior or othertypes of externalizing behaviors.Nonetheless, findings suggest that for someyouth, violence online is associated withexternalizing behavior offline.
    • 22. Implications for youth violencepreventionSimply *knowing* about these types of websites is not enough for a youth to visit the website.We need to examine further why some youthchoose to look at these sites when othersdon’t.
    • 23. Implications for youth violencepreventionIntriguing sex differences in the associationsbetween exposure to violence online andexpression of violent and aggressivebehaviors need to be examined further.Professionals working with violent andaggressive youth need to be aware of theirexposures online, especially using newertechnologies (MySpace, YouTube).