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Children’s use of online technologies
 

Children’s use of online technologies

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  • Rates appear to be stabilizing. For both ‘ever harassed’ in the last year, and ‘harassed monthly or more often’, the same percentage of youth reported being affected in 2006 and in 2007.
  • Youth who are harassed online are significantly more likely than non-harassed youth to report other problems, including being bullied over time, social problems, depressive symptomatology (for boys), alcohol and other drug use, and problems with anger. In short – these youth have a lot going on.
  • Among those harassed, between 1 in 3 and 1 in 4 are upset. The good news – that means 2 in 3, or 3 in 4 are not upset by what happens. We need to figure out how to identify these kids who are upset to make sure they have the support they need. And, we need to acknowledge that the vast majority of youth are not affected by being harassed.
  • We now have data from four samples that allow us to map the frequency of unwanted sexual solicitation. When we do so (above), we very clearly see a pattern in which those youth 14-15 years of age and older are much more likely than their younger peers to be involved. Note that this age group is also normatively and developmentally appropriately becoming curious about sex.
  • Youth who report an unwanted sexual solicitation are significantly more likely than their unsolicited peers to also report a poor relationship with their caregiver, being bullied offline, having symptoms of depression (for boys), substance and alcohol use, delinquent behavior (including carrying a weapon to school in the past 30 days), and life challenge. In short: these youth have a lot going on.
  • About 1-3 or 1-4 youth who are solicited are upset by the experience. The good news: the vast majority of targeted youth are unaffected. We need to figure out a way to identify the youth who are upset and make sure they have the support and access to services they need.
  • (GuwM) In the last 12 months, have you: Gone to or seen an X-rated or “adult” website where the main topic is sex Watched an X-rated movie at a friend’s house, your house, or in the theater where the main topic was sex? Looked at an X-rated magazine on purpose, like Playboy, where the main topic was sex?
  • We now have data from four samples that allow us to map the frequency of unwanted sexual solicitation. When we do so (above), we very clearly see a pattern in which those youth 14-15 years of age and older are much more likely than their younger peers to be involved. Note that this age group is also normatively and developmentally appropriately becoming curious about sex.
  • (GuwM) A “hate” site is one that tells you to hate a group of people because of who they are, how they look, or what they believe. A “death” website that shows pictures of dead people or people dying. Some people call these “snuff” sites.
  • (GuwM) A website, including news-related sites, that shows pictures of war, death, “terrorism” A website (that’s not an online game) that shows cartoons, like stick people or animals, being beat up, hurt, or killed

Children’s use of online technologies Children’s use of online technologies Presentation Transcript

  • Safer Internet Forum, September 25-262008, LuxembourgChildren’s Use of OnlineTechnologiesMichele L. Ybarra MPH PhDInternet Solutions for Kids, Inc.* Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Pleasenote that analyses included herein are preliminary. Morerecent, finalized analyses may be available by contactingCiPHR for further information.
  • BackgroundMore than 9 in 10 US youth now have Internetaccess (USC Center for the Digital Future, 2006; Lenhart, Rainie, &Lewis, 2001)Among Internet users: 43% go online every day The top two things they spend the most timedoing: 34% social networking sites, 33% Games,29% music, 27% school work, 22% IM
  • Internet harassment:Prevalence rates over time From YISS1 to YISS2, the12-month prevalence rateof Internet harassment increased from 6% to 9%(Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006). In the Growing up with Media Survey, 34% reportedharassment at baseline, 34% at follow-up Frequent harassment: 8% reported being harassedmonthly at baseline, 8% at follow-up Continuity of harassed youth over time 20% reported harassment at baseline and follow-up 13% reported harassment at baseline only 14% reported harassment at follow-up only .
  • Internet harassment: Who is theharasser?Based upon data from the YISS2 (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor,2006). 8%: Preadolescent (10-12 years old) 51%: Adolescent (13-17 years old) 21%: Young adult (18-25 years old) 2% Adult (26-40 years): 2% 18% Don’t know: 18%The majority (59%) of harassment comesfrom other minors
  • Characteristics related to youthharassmentType of psychosocial problemOdds of psychosocial problems givenreport of Internet harassmentYISS1 YISS2 GuwM W2Peer problemsInterpersonal victimization / offline bullying 3.1 *** + 1.5 * 1.8 **Social problems 2.4 **Behavior problemsDepression 3.6 * +Substance useAlcohol use 2.3 **Inhalant and other ‘hard’ drug use 4.7 **Respond to stimuli with anger 1.07 **Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from theSecond Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177.Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. JAdolescent Health. 2007 Dec;41(6 Suppl 1):S42-50.Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav.2004 Apr;7(2):247-57.
  • Impact of Internet harassmentAbout one in three youth targeted byInternet harassment report feelingvery/extremely upset (or afraid) becauseof the incident: 30% in YISS-1 38% in YISS-2 25% in GuwM (wave 2)
  • Prevalence rates of unwanted sexualsolicitation across time and ages2%8%14% 14%23%25% 25%21%0%5%9%10%15%18%19%15%6% 6%12%13%23% 24%5%13%10%18%22%7%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17YISS-1YISS-2GuwM W1GuwM W2
  • Unwanted sexual solicitation: Who isthe solicitor?Based upon data from the YISS2 (Wolak, Mitchell,Finkelhor, 2006). 43%: 17 years of age and younger 30%: 18-25 years of age 9%: 26+ years of age 18%: don’t knowRoughly half (43%) of sexual solicitationscome from other minors
  • Concurrent psychosocial problemsType of psychosocial problemOdds of psychosocial problems givenreport of unwanted sexual solicitationYISS1 GuwM W2Caregiver child relationshipsPoor emotional bond 1.1 *Coercive discipline 1.2 *Peer problemsInterpersonal victimization / offline bullying 1.8 * - 1.9 * 2.0 **Behavior problemsSymptoms of depression 3.0 ***Troubled (e.g., negative life event, depression, childabuse) 1.7 **Substance / alcohol use 2.6 *** 3.4 ***Delinquent behavior 1.8 **Weapon carrying at school 10.0 **Life challenge 2.9 * +Mitchell KJ, Finkelhor D, Wolak J. Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth. JAMA. 2001;285(23):3011-4.Ybarra ML, Leaf PJ, Diener-West M. Sex differences in youth-reported depressive symptomatology and unwanted internet sexual solicitation. JMed Internet Res. 2004 Feb 6;6(1):e5.Mitchell K, Ybarra M, Finkelhor D. The relative importance of online victimization in understanding depression, delinquency, and substance use.Child Maltreatment. 2007; 12(4): 314-324.
  • Impact of unwanted sexual solicitationAcross studies, about one in three solicitedyouth report feeling very/extremely upset(or afraid) because of the incident: YISS1: 26% YISS2: 31% GuwM: 39% (at Wave 2)
  • Frequency of intentional exposure(GuwM)10%11%13% 13%10%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20%2006 (n=1588 10-15 yo) 2007 (n=1206 11-16 yo)InternetMagazinesMovies
  • Intentional exposure to x-ratedmaterial across age and time0% 0%2%6%10% 10%12%14%1% 2%3%10%12%17%22%19%1%7%6%8%22%13%1%6%10%18%13%12%0%5%10%15%20%25%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17YISS-1 (2000)YISS-2 (2005)GuwM W1 (2006)GuwM W2 (2007)
  • Characteristics of youth looking atinternet porn (GuwM)Among 1,206 11-16 year old youth in Oct-Dec, 2007: 80% male (OR = 4.2, p<.001) 14.4 years old (OR = 1.3, p<.001)How did they hear about the site? (top 5): From a friend: 53% Search engine: 30% Another web site: 29% Typed in an address to see what would come up: 22% Pop-up ad: 22%
  • Frequency of exposure to violent websites (GuwM)2% 4%51%42%47%54%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%Hate sites Death sitesYesNoI dont know what youre talking about
  • Frequency of exposure to violent websites (GuwM)22%18%49%46%29%36%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%News sites Violent cartoon sitesYesNoI dont know what youre talking about
  • Final thoughts In order to develop targeted prevention programs, weneed to understand what youth are doing online andoffline Each environment represents an opportunity for riskidentification and targeted vulnerability – especiallythe internet.