Research Webinar: OERS and Cognitive Science

707 views
573 views

Published on

This webinar provides practical information on how to use published research findings and make contact with cognitive scientists in order to improve K-12 and university students’ learning from digital online resources, like Khan Academy videos or interactive mathematics exercises. The webinar focuses on how students’ motivation and grades have been increased by helping them believe they can take charge of their learning and become smarter, and how students can be supported in reflective thinking and seeking deep understanding, when questions and prompts for students to explain are inserted in videos and interactive exercises

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
707
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Bucket model of the mind“Instructionism”Integrating into webpage.EXAMPLES: Khan Academy. MOOC on power search.Learning to program, about product specifications, sales strategies, accounting procedures, management skills.
  • Normally, we absorb content.But actively processing should help, you have probably had the experience of understanding something better after explaining it to someone else, why a solution is correct – trying to teach is the best way to learn. Extensive evidence for this.Why? Why does explaining why help learning?How do you know when to ask learners for explanations?A question I’ve explored.Two views. General boost –pay attention & spend more time, more motivated. Or Selective. Drive people to discover principles.Many studies in real-world, hard to understand, so we did the first lab study with artificial materials. Image of robots. Explaining behavior.Learning about statistics concepts like variability.In lab or online, adult participants learn material.Asked a “why?” question. E.g. Explain category membership. Explain why someone behaved in a certain way. Explain the right answer.Control: Matched it for time. Choose any strategy, describe, write out or say aloud their thoughts.Measure learning. Why is that an X?Why does Y do…?Why is Z the right solution?
  • Not traditional, but ubiquitous
  • Research Webinar: OERS and Cognitive Science

    1. 1. Improving Online Educational Resources using Cognitive Science Joseph Jay Williams Office of Online Learning Stanford University September 2013
    2. 2. Improving Online Educational Resources using Cognitive Science (& Online Collaborations between Scientists and Educators) Joseph Jay Williams josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu www.josephjaywilliams.com/education Lytics Lab, Office of Online Learning, Graduate School of Education Stanford University Slides at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar 2
    3. 3. What’s different about Online Educational Resources? • A lot! • Align Scientists & Educators – Practical Improvements – Scientific Research • Refine Resources through Repeated Improvement • Facilitate Collaboration • Like Wikipedia? 3 Content Exercise
    4. 4. Overview • I. Applying cognitive science to online learning – I-a: How to increase motivation? – I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? – I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies – I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies • II. Online collaborations between Scientists & Educators – II-a: Learning, Education & Research Network (LEARN) – II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. criteria for Research-Practice friendly resources 4
    5. 5. I. Reviewing & Synthesizing Cognitive Science Research • Williams, J.J. (2013). tiny.cc/improveonlinelearningImproving Learning in MOOCs by Applying Cognitive Science. Paper to be presented at the MOOCshop Workshop, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, TN. • Harvey, A. G., Lee, J., Williams, J. J., Hollon, S., Walker, M., Thompson, M., & Smith, R. (in press). Improving outcome of psychosocial treatments by enhancing memory and learning. Perspectives in Psychological Science. • www.josephjaywilliams.com/education • Willingham, D. T. Why Don't Students Like School. Jossey-Bass (2010) • Willingham, D. T. (2012). When can you trust the experts: How to tell good science from bad in education. 5
    6. 6. I-a: How to increase motivation? • Many ways to increase motivation… • Change students’ implicit beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed or malleable (Dweck, 2011; Yeager & Walton, 2012) 6
    7. 7. Implicit beliefs about Intelligence • On a scale from 1 to 10, how much do you agree that? • Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can’t change very much. • No matter how much intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bit. • Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset (Dweck, 2006) – Self-fulfilling prophecy – Avoid uncomfortable challenges vs. Pursue Learning Opportunities – Avoid asking questions vs. Examining your mistakes 7
    8. 8. Research to link Science and Practice • Experiment: Using Motivation Research to boost students’ learning of Math online on Khan Academy • Approach: • 1. Quantify outcomes in real-world resource • Math exercises at www.khanacademy.org • 2. Synthesize recommendations from research • Believing intelligence is malleable increases motivation • 3. Embed experiment to evaluate • Upcoming slides… 8
    9. 9. 1. Learning from Math exercises on www.KhanAcademy.org • Typical Exercise 9 1. Number of Problems Completed 2. Percent Correct
    10. 10. 2. Synthesize Scientific Findings • Williams, J.J. (2013)Improving Learning in MOOCs by Applying Cognitive Science. Paper presented at the MOOCshop Workshop, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, TN. • www.josephjaywilliams.com/education • Teaching Growth Mindset of intelligence • Research at Stanford by Dweck (2008) & Yeager & Walton (2011) 10
    11. 11. 3. Add motivational messages 11 Practice-as-usual Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become! Growth Mindset Message
    12. 12. 3. Embedded in vivo Experiment 12 • Growth Mindset Message • "Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become.”, • "Mistakes help you learn. Think hard to learn from them.” • Practice-as-usual • Benefit of Growth Mindset Message? Jascha Sohl-Dickstein
    13. 13. Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar ‹#›
    14. 14. Practice-as-usualGrowth Mindset MessagePositive Message 3. Add Positive messages 14 Some of these problems are hard. Do your best!
    15. 15. Does any positive message work? 15 • Growth Mindset Message • "Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become.”, • "Mistakes help you learn. Think hard to learn from them.” • Positive Message • "Some of these problems are hard. Just do your best." • "This might be a tough problem, but we know you can do it.” • Practice-as-usual
    16. 16. Number of Problems Attempted Practice-as-usual Growth Mindset Message Positive Message Results to Analyze 16 Accuracy
    17. 17. Research to link Science & Practice 1. Outcomes in Online Resources 2. Recommendations from Research 3. Experiments Khan Academy Math Exercises Malleability of Intelligence Ongoing Experiments ? ? ? 17
    18. 18. I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? • Promote reflection with Socratic questions • Questions before: Problem-Based Learning • Questions during: Prompt for explanations • Questions after: Use assessments for instruction 18
    19. 19. 19 Add object to bucket Integrate webpage with internet Content Exercise Learning: Add vs. Integrate Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar
    20. 20. Before: Start with Questions & Problems • Problem Based Learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2006; Needham & Begg, 1998; Schwartz, 1998) 20 How do you…? Is it possible to…?
    21. 21. During: Request explanations • Fonseca & Chi, 2011 • Renkl, 1997 • McNamara, 2004 • Rittle-Johnson, 2006 • Williams & Lombrozo, 2010 21 Why…? How? What are you thinking? What next?
    22. 22. Explanation and Learning • Does explaining… – Provide a General boost to Learning Engagement – Selectively guide learners to look for patterns • The Subsumptive Constraints Theory: Interpret target of why-explanation in terms of a broader generalization (Williams & Lombrozo, 2010) • Discover general patterns (Williams & Lombrozo, 2010, Cognitive Science) • Use pre-existing knowledge (Williams & Lombrozo, 2013, Cog. Psych.) • May mistakenly overgeneralize by ignoring specific examples(Williams et al, 2013, JEP: General) 22
    23. 23. After: Use Assessments as Instructional Tools • “Testing Effect” & Ten Benefits of Testing (Roediger et al, 2011) 23 Right away: Study+Study ~= Study+Test Day/Week later: Study+Study < Study+Test Learners think: Study+Study > Study+Test
    24. 24. After: Achieve Mixing Effect with assessments • Mixing Effect (Rohrer, 2009) 24
    25. 25. Applying Cognitive Science • Learning: Add vs. Integrate Knowledge (Instructionism vs. Constructivism) • Questions before: Problem-Based Learning • Questions during: Prompt for explanations • Questions after: Use assessments for instruction • Further resources: www.josephjaywilliams.com/education 25
    26. 26. I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies • Spend a lesson teaching a concept vs. general strategy? • Online: Iteratively refine excellent lessons • Online: Repeatedly reinforce habits & educational behaviors • Teach “What? Why? How?” self- questioning/explanation strategies 26
    27. 27. Add “Socratic” prompts to explain & reflect Clickable link. + Prompts embedded into hints. Click here to learn about the What? Why? How? strategy 27
    28. 28. Embedded Prompts between Hint/Solution Steps 28
    29. 29. Self-questioning strategy: What? Why? How? 29
    30. 30. I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies • Learning Assistant: tiny.cc/learningassistant • Short 5 minute videos • Guided prompts • Growth Mindset • Self-Questioning strategy • Experiment: How do lessons influence grades? 30
    31. 31. II. Collaborations between Scientists & Educators • How to gain best of both worlds? • Ask Questions, “Crowdsource” answers • The Internet removes barriers to communication & connects people 31
    32. 32. II-a: Learning, Education And Research Network (LEARN) • www.learnnetwork.net • Creating a virtual community: • Educators, Researchers, Developers • Mailing List, & Member list • Discussion Forum – any teacher can ask a question, so can any researcher • Wiki of resources • Collaborate in improving online educational resources 32
    33. 33. II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. Criteria: Research on Online Resources • Can you collaborate to help your students & improve online resources? • Yes, if Online Educational Resources are: – Realistic – Experimental – Product – Evaluated – Accessible – Theoretically motivated • REPEAT – iteratively improve through revision & collaboration • http://edlab.tc.columbia.edu/ • Organizations like iNACOL! 33
    34. 34. Review • I. Applying cognitive science to online learning – I-a: How to increase motivation? – I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? – I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies – I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies • II. Online collaborations between Scientists & Educators – II-a: Learning, Education & Research Network (LEARN) – II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. criteria for Research-Practice friendly resources • Send advice & questions! josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu 34
    35. 35. Contact Info • Joseph Jay Williams • josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu • www.josephjaywilliams.com/education • Slides at http://tiny.cc/inacolwebinar

    ×