iMinds The Conference: Christian Vanhove
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iMinds The Conference: Christian Vanhove

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Medical Imaging

Medical Imaging

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    iMinds The Conference: Christian Vanhove iMinds The Conference: Christian Vanhove Presentation Transcript

    • Christian Vanhove (November 8, 2012) SMALL ANIMAL IMAGINGTHE BRIDGE BETWEEN IN VITRO TECHNOLOGY AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE
    • The evolution of bio-imaging Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • The evolution of bio-imaging Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • Medical imagingUS RX CT MRI SPECT & PET
    • The evolution of bio-imaging Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • Microscopy & Optical imaging The human eye can focus from 20cm toinfinity control illumination and resolve to ±100 m however it can’t magnify The Nimrud Lens Babylon750-710 BC The British Museum
    • Molecular Biology Genomics Proteomics MetabolomicsThe ‘omics’ is very trendy today in daily science
    • Molecular Biology Translation DNA mRNA Proteins Metabolites±25000 genes ±500000 Nx107 Nx106 Transcription Effect of the environment (life style) Genomics Gene ≠ Proteomics Blueprint Metabolomics
    • The evolution of bio-imaging Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • The Bridge Small Animal ImagingMolecular Biology Medical Imaging
    • The evolution of bio-imaging Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • In the beginning there was … Wilhelm Röntgen 22 December 1895 23 January 1896Nobel Prize Physics 1901 Hand of Anna Berthe Hand of Albert von Kölliker, Discovery of X-rays a famous anatomist
    • … the first medical image ? The hand of a 12-year-old boy who had shot himself one month before his hand was examined by x-rays in 1896 at at Columbia University.
    • … the first medical image ? Find Fight Follow Up Diagnosis Treatment Follow-up The hand of a 12-year-old boy who had shot himself one month before his hand was examined by x-rays in 1896 at at Columbia University.
    • The medical imaging timeline Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • The medical imaging timeline1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 X-ray CT MRI Fiber optics SPECT PET
    • The medical imaging timeline 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 X-ray CT MRI Fiber optics SPECT Find Fight Follow Up PETDiagnosis Treatment Follow-up
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue: Structural Imaging
    • Imaging AnalogueHow can we (as foreign investigators) get more information about Earth?
    • Imaging AnalogueHow can we (as foreign investigators) get more information about Earth?
    • Imaging Analogue
    • Imaging Analogue: Functional Imaging Molecular Investigator Contrast Agent Radiotracer Imaging Probe Biomarker
    • Imaging Analogue: Functional imaging Carrier or Agent Label Specific moiety Moiety for detectionMoiety for localization of specific process Moiety for imaging signal
    • Imaging Analogue: Functional imaging
    • Micro-Macro-Structure-Function Weissleder and Pittet. Imaging in the era of molecular oncology. Nature 2008
    • Micro-Macro-Structure-Function Macroscopic MicroscopicAnatomyFunctional
    • Micro-Macro-Structure-Function Macroscopic MicroscopicAnatomyFunctional
    • Structural versus Functional Anatomic imagingSymptoms Clinical Symptoms Functional changes Treatment Follow-up Time / Course of disease Functional imaging
    • The importance of functional imaging Why was this disease not earlier detected ?
    • The importance of functional imaging1€ 100€ 1€ 100€
    • The importance of functional imaging Multi-modality imaging
    • The role of molecular biology Genomics Cancer Proteomics AlzheimerMetabolomics CAD
    • Biomarkers The FDA defines a biomarker as, "A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention". AgentOptical label (in vitro)Radioactive label (in vivo) Target
    • Uses of biomarkersIndividualized/Personalized Medicine
    • Scientific Publications Biomarkers
    • MICAD List contains today 5076 items !! Probably not complete Only 236 FDA Approved From which 123 Discontinued Thus 113 still available 47 SPECT and PET Tracers 3357 SPECT and PET tracers (66%) 47 FDA Approved
    • Biomarker development Multi-disciplinaryR. Weissleder, B.D. Ross, A. Rehemtulla, S.G. Gambhir (Eds.), Molecular Imaging: Principles and Practice.
    • Biomarker development In-vitro In-vivoR. Weissleder, B.D. Ross, A. Rehemtulla, S.G. Gambhir (Eds.), Molecular Imaging: Principles and Practice.
    • Biomarker development Cellular / Molecular level Cell culture Molecular Biology In-vitro Preclinical imagingClinical imaging In-vivo Human Small animal
    • Small animal imaging 70 kg 250 g 280x smaller in volume ±6.5 times smaller / direction 1 mm 150 µm
    • Small animal imaging 70 kg 20 g 3500x smaller in volume ±15 times smaller / direction 1 mm 66 µm
    • Small animal imagingClinical – Human Pre-Clinical – Animal !!! Optical Imaging !!! Bed Bench
    • Small animal imagingClinical – Human Pre-Clinical – Animal !!! Optical Imaging !!! Bed Bench Translational imaging
    • Small animal imaging Disease Progressionimaging quantitative parameters therapy Response to Therapy
    • Small animal imagingModality Study time Resolution Intrinsic Probe Dynamic Radiation Cost Contrast Sensitivity Imaging Dose SPECT 30-90 min 0.5-2 mm None <pM Yes 10-100cGy 700K PET 5-60 min 1-2 mm None <pM Yes 10-100cGy 700K MRI ±60 min <100 µm High µM - mM Yes - 1M CT 10-15 min <200 µm Low mM No 10-20cGy 350K US ±60 min <100 µm Low ? Yes - 200K BLI ±5 min ±1 cm None nM Yes - 250K FLI ±5 min <5 mm Variable nM No - 150K NIR ±10 min <5 mm None pM No - 250K Multi-modality imaging
    • Small animal imagingMulti-dimensional imaging Quantitative
    • In summary Small Animal ImagingMolecular Biology Medical Imaging
    • In summary Anatomy / Structure PhysiologyFunctional/Metabolism Molecular/CellularGenomics/Proteomics
    • In summary Anatomy / StructureImage-n-omics Physiology Functional/Metabolism Molecular/Cellular Genomics/Proteomics
    • In summary Small animal imagingMulti-modality Multi-dimensional Multi-disciplinary Multi-skilled
    • Christian Vanhove (November 8, 2012) SMALL ANIMAL IMAGINGTHE BRIDGE BETWEEN IN VITRO TECHNOLOGY AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE