Intro To Ia
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Intro To Ia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INF 311 - INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Introduction to Information Architecture
  • 2. Question:
    • How do you define Information Architecture?
  • 3. What information architecture is about
    • AIfIA definition
      • The structural design of shared information environments.
      • The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability.
      • An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape .
  • 4. What information architecture is about
    • The art and science of structuring and organizing information systems to help people achieve their goals.
    • Information architects organize content and design navigation systems to help people find and manage information.
  • 5. What is IA?
    • This is an emerging discipline in an evolving medium. DO YOU AGREE?? WHY??
    • Experts & Gurus disagree on the “right” answer.
  • 6. What is IA?
    • A trick question or a tricky question?
      • Information Architecture (IA)
      • Interaction Design (ID)
      • Information Design (ID too)
      • User-centered Design (UCD)
      • User-interface Design (UI)
      • Usability/Usability Engineering (UE)
  • 7. A Visual Definition questions answers IA
    • Users
    • audience types
    • information needs
    • Content
    • scope and volume
    • structure
    • metadata
    • Info. Architecture
    • org, label, nav, &
    • searching systems
    • Business
    • Context
    • strategy
    • resources
    • culture / politics
    • workflow
  • 8. Information is arranged in many ways
    • Date
    • Alphabetical
    • Geography
    • Topic
    • Hierarchy
    • Faceted
    • Organic
    • Combination
    • Good IA allows access to information in many ways
  • 9. Information Architecture
    • What do you think IA entails?
    • How does it effect the development of a product, web, system?
  • 10. Why Information Architecture?
    • House analogy
    • Multidimensional nature of information spaces
    • Like buildings, web sites have architectures that cause us to react to them
      • Both good and bad
      • Why bad architectures – architects don’t live in/use buildings/sites they design; don’t understand customers; don’t stay around to deal with long term consequences
  • 11. Why is IA Hard?
    • Stability must be balanced with flexibility
    • High level of ambiguity, competing goals, requirements, scope creep
    • No label clearly defines a page/title to everyone
    • No body of text is understood the same way by everyone
    • Users experience web sites differently and look for different things on a web site
  • 12. Why is IA Difficult?
  • 13. Concepts of Information Architecture
    • Key concepts of IA:
      • Information
      • Structure , Organization, Labeling
      • Finding and Managing (User needs + goals of the business)
      • Art and Science (Usability engineering, ethnography + experience, intuition and creativity)
  • 14. Information
    • Many types of Information
    • Data – facts & figures
    • Relational DB – highly structured, specific answers & questions
    • Knowledge – what’s people know
    • Information Systems – No single answer to a question
      • Web sites, software, images, video, etc…
      • Metadata – terms used to describe something
  • 15. Structure, Organizing, Labeling
    • Structure – determining appropriate levels of granularity
    • Organizing – grouping components into meaningful categories
    • Labeling – what to call above categories and the navigation links that relate to them
    • Ex: bookstores, libraries
  • 16. Finding & Managing
    • Findability is critical to overall usability WHY???
    • IA balances the needs of users with business goals
    • Must have
      • Efficient content management
      • Clear policies and procedures – Ex: School of Mgmt
  • 17. Art & Science
    • Art –
      • Willing to take risks
      • Trust intuition
      • Rely on experience & creativity
    • Science –
      • We have gotten better at running studies on user needs and experiences
    • BUT…..there is too much ambiguity and complexity in IA to solely rely on scientific data – Do you agree??
  • 18. Information Architecture
    • “ Information Architecture is the term used to describe the process of designing, implementing and evaluating information spaces that are humanly and socially acceptable to their intended stockholders.”
    • Andrew Dillon
  • 19. Information Architecture
    • If you look at this definition and activities of User-Centered Design you can see that there is a close relation to the definition. As Dillon explains it, IA is just a better name for User-Centered design.
    • IA is still an evolving discipline. Many researchers view IA as a field that deals only with the design of web sites. However, it seems difficult to maintain a clear division between information design issues in those that are web-based and those that are not.
  • 20. Job Description - Information Architecture
    • Elevator pitch for explaining IA:
      • Information Architect = Internet Librarian
      • Information Architect = online merchandiser
      • Information Architect = professional who tackles information overload.
    • What is not IA?
      • Graphic design is NOT IA
      • Software development is NOT IA
      • Usability engineering is NOT IA
      • Do you agree???
  • 21. Information Architecture
    • Gray areas:
      • Graphic designers do great deal of IA
      • Interaction designers are concerned with the behaviors tasks and process that users encounter
      • Usability Engineers concerned with aspects of the user experience including information architecture and graphic design
    • Gray areas are valuable
      • Force interdisciplinary collaboration which results in the best end product
  • 22. Why is IA Important?
    • Consider the following cost and value propositions:
      • Cost of finding information
      • Cost of not finding information
      • Value of education
      • Cost of construction of web sites
      • Cost of maintenance of websites
      • Cost of training
      • Value of brand
      • Customer satisfaction
  • 23. Statistics
    • Employees spend 35% of productive time searching for information online.
      • Working Council for Chief Information Officers
      • Basic Principles of Information Architecture
    • The Fortune 1000 stands to waste at least $2.5 billion per year due to an inability to locate and retrieve information.
      • IDC, The High Cost of Not Finding Information
    • Forfeited revenue: poorly architected retailing sites are underselling by as much as 50%.
      • Forrester Research, Why Most Web Sites Fail
  • 24. Information Architecture
    • Information Architecture lives beneath the surface, not something people see instantly
    • How do we justify this invisible activities to our colleagues and make the case for information making?
  • 25. Information Architecture Concepts
  • 26. IA - Component Systems
  • 27. Practicing Information Architecture
  • 28. Practicing IA
    • IA is every where!
    • You can’t design Information Architecture in a vacuum.
    • Web sites and intranets have a dynamic and organic nature which is defined by the environment where they exist.
    • Every web site is unique & has IA
  • 29. IA in your every day life
    • Can you think of some examples of IA in everyday life?
  • 30. IA in Businesses
    • Large Companies – staff of IAs devoted to long term strategies of their web sites
    • Small Companies – usually hire consultants when they are redesigning their web site. They are there a short time and focus on the task at hand not long term goals
    • Good to have IAs from within (innies) and from outside the company (outies) -Different view points
  • 31. IA in Businesses
    • Ideally – IAs would be solely responsible for IA and nothing else
    • Reality – This hardly ever happens. Most IAs wear many hats.
      • Most are the graphic designer or the web designer
      • Even the programmer!
  • 32. Information Ecologies
    • Composed of users, content, and context and their dependencies
    • Technologies are carefully integrated into existing habits and practices, according to the values of the information ecology
    • An ecology responds to local environmental changes and local interventions. An ecology is a place that is scaled to individuals
  • 33. Information Ecologies
    • Information ecologies is the basic of the model of Information Architecture:
    Context Content Users Business goals, funding,politics culture,technology, resources and constrains Audience, tasks, needs, information seeking behavior, experience Document/data types, content objects, volume, existing structure
  • 34. Information Ecologies
    • Context:
      • Organizational goals, strategy, staff, processes and procedures, physical and technological infrastructure.
      • IA must be uniquely matched to the context.
      • Collective mix of capabilities, aspirations and resources for each organization
      • Understand business context – what makes it unique
      • Align the IA with business goals, strategy, culture of the business
  • 35. Information Ecologies
    • Content:
      • Documents, applications, services, and metadata that people need to use or find on your web site.
      • Distinguishing factors of each information ecology:
        • Ownership, format, structure, metadata, volume, dynamism
  • 36. Question:
    • How do you organize (or not) your:
    • Computer desktop/files
    • Physical desktop
    • Paper files
    • Books
  • 37. Information Ecologies
    • Users:
      • Who uses your web site?
      • How often are they using it?
      • Differences in customer preferences and behaviors within the physical world translate into different information needs and information seeking behaviors
  • 38. Planned vs. Unplanned IA
  • 39. Where Does IA Fit in the Design Process?
    • The Elements of
    • User Experience
    • Jesse James Garrett
  • 40. User Centered Information Architecture Design Methodology
      • Iterative process
        • Discovery
        • Definition/Conceptual Design
        • IA Design
        • Handoff-Implementation
      • Integrated with content development, interaction design, graphic design, usability
  • 41. Communicating Ideas (deliverables)
      • Diagrams (conceptual)
      • Blueprints (structural)
      • Wireframes (relational)
      • Text (reports, taxonomies)
      • Interpersonal (meetings, conversation, blogs)
  • 42. Project management & Information Architecture
      • PM & IA can be a powerful combination
      • Sources of tension
      • Big IA/Little IA vs. Big PM/Little PM
  • 43. User Needs and Behaviors – Effect on IA
  • 44. Users
    • Why did a user come to your site?
    • Information needs for each user differ therefore they have different information seeking behaviors
    • Why did you go to google last time?
  • 45. User Needs and Behaviors
    • Simplistic model of information retrieval
    User asks question Black magic User receives answers What is wrong with this model? Does it reflect all kinds of seeking behaviors?
  • 46. User Needs and Behaviors
    • When a user comes to our web site, What does she/he really want?
      • This is a question you need to know the answer to in order to design a usability web site or product
  • 47. User Needs and Behaviors
    • Information needs:
      • Known item search (The perfect catch)
        • User’s needs will only be satisfied if you find an specific piece of information.
      • Exploratory seeking (Lobster Trapping)
        • User is looking for useful information items
      • Exhaustive search (Indiscriminate drift netting)
        • User wants to find everything about a particular topic
  • 48. User Needs and Behaviors
    • What do users do to find information?
  • 49. User Needs and Behaviors
    • Building blocks for information seeking behavior:
      • Searching
      • Browsing
      • Asking
  • 50. User Needs and Behaviors
    • Other major aspects of information seeking include:
      • Integration
        • We often integrate searching, browsing and asking in the same session.
      • Iteration
        • Information seeking is an iterative process
        • Information needs may change along the way, causing us to try other new approaches with each iteration.
  • 51. User Needs and Behaviors
    • Principles of the “Berry-picking” model for information retrieval (Marcia Bates).
      • User’s information needs and queries continually shift as a result of reading and learning through the search process.
      • User’s information needs are not satisfied by a single document but rather by a series of selections and bits of information found along the way.
    • Bates, Marcia The design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface. Online Review, 13 (October), pp. 407-424
  • 52. User Needs and Behaviors Information need Query search system Scan results Ask person Reformulate query Examine document Formulate query Navigate Browsing system Examine document Examine document Berry-picking Model
  • 53. General User Behaviors
    • Users don’t read
      • Keep text short and to the point
      • Print writing is different than web writing
      • Bullet points
    • Users don’t scroll
      • No horizontal scrolling
      • Keep important information above page fold
      • Think of alternative mice and scrolling could be difficult
  • 54. General User Behaviors
    • Font size
      • Don’t make the font too small or big. Users will leave
      • Use font size to display importance
    • Number of Links
      • Don’t go overboard
      • Users can handle a lot of links if the page is laid out well and labeled
    • Users don’t see or click on banner ads
  • 55. General User Behaviors
    • Key to great IA is not to make the users think.
    • They want to be on autopilot when viewing a web site
    • Users do not have a sense of direction on the web
  • 56. User-Centered Design and IA
    • Information Architecture (IA) is not restricted to taxonomies, search capabilities, and other things that help the users find information.
    • IA starts with users and the reason why they visit a web site.
    • IA is considered by some researchers as a better name for User-Centered Design of web sites.
  • 57. User-Centered Design
    • User-centered information systems design has five basic components:
      • Needs analysis: determining the goals, purposes and objectives.
      • Tasks analysis: Determining the tasks and activities that users accomplish in meeting their needs
      • Resource analysis: Investigating the resources (both cognitive and social) that are used in completing the tasks
      • User modeling: Synthesizing needs, tasks, and resources.
      • Designing for usability: Assessing how users’ needs, tasks, and resources interact with system characteristics to create usable systems.
  • 58. User-centered Design
    • Identify a user population :
        • Who are the users? (individuals, groups, a combination of both)
        • Define a user population (characteristics, social and cognitive background)
        • Marketing considerations suggests that user populations identified for a service should be increasingly narrow and focused in nature.
  • 59. User-centered Design
    • Investigate the information needs of user group:
      • The users identified in step 1 have a number of information needs. These can be investigated using several techniques (surveys, interviews, direct observation, etc.)
      • Key ideas that you should keep in mind:
      • No information system can meet all the user needs
      • Once you have collected the information needs select those that will be designed to meet.
  • 60. User-Centered Design
    • Discover the tasks that users accomplish as they meet these information needs:
      • Different methods can be used in this step, (I.e. interviews, observation, log analysis)
      • Key element is to talk to the users and observe them as they work on meeting their information needs.
      • Identify:
        • Tasks that the user employs
        • Note sequential order of tasks
        • Distinguish between tasks that are essential and those that are optional
      • The result is one or more tasks models for each information tasks
  • 61. User-Centered Design
    • Investigate the Resources that users require to complete these tasks :
      • Each tasks requires a variety of resources:
        • Background knowledge
        • Procedural knowledge
        • Abilities
      • Research methods to investigate resources possessed by users can be found in any text of psychometric
  • 62. User-Centered Design
    • 5. Summarize the preceding information needs in user models .
      • For each user group there will be a set of needs
      • Fore each of the information needs there will be a number of tasks that are necessary
      • Integrate these into a user model that can be used to guide the design decisions
  • 63. User-Centered Design
    • 6. Consider each design decision in the light of resource augmentation and enabling
      • The goal of the system design is to allow users to complete their information tasks that will meet their information needs.
      • System features that will augment the resources available to the users when necessary will enable them to accomplish their tasks
  • 64.  
  • 65. IA in practice
    • Find IA in: