Intro To Ia
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    Intro To Ia Intro To Ia Presentation Transcript

    • INF 311 - INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Introduction to Information Architecture
    • Question:
      • How do you define Information Architecture?
    • What information architecture is about
      • AIfIA definition
        • The structural design of shared information environments.
        • The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability.
        • An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape .
    • What information architecture is about
      • The art and science of structuring and organizing information systems to help people achieve their goals.
      • Information architects organize content and design navigation systems to help people find and manage information.
    • What is IA?
      • This is an emerging discipline in an evolving medium. DO YOU AGREE?? WHY??
      • Experts & Gurus disagree on the “right” answer.
    • What is IA?
      • A trick question or a tricky question?
        • Information Architecture (IA)
        • Interaction Design (ID)
        • Information Design (ID too)
        • User-centered Design (UCD)
        • User-interface Design (UI)
        • Usability/Usability Engineering (UE)
    • A Visual Definition questions answers IA
      • Users
      • audience types
      • information needs
      • Content
      • scope and volume
      • structure
      • metadata
      • Info. Architecture
      • org, label, nav, &
      • searching systems
      • Business
      • Context
      • strategy
      • resources
      • culture / politics
      • workflow
    • Information is arranged in many ways
      • Date
      • Alphabetical
      • Geography
      • Topic
      • Hierarchy
      • Faceted
      • Organic
      • Combination
      • Good IA allows access to information in many ways
    • Information Architecture
      • What do you think IA entails?
      • How does it effect the development of a product, web, system?
    • Why Information Architecture?
      • House analogy
      • Multidimensional nature of information spaces
      • Like buildings, web sites have architectures that cause us to react to them
        • Both good and bad
        • Why bad architectures – architects don’t live in/use buildings/sites they design; don’t understand customers; don’t stay around to deal with long term consequences
    • Why is IA Hard?
      • Stability must be balanced with flexibility
      • High level of ambiguity, competing goals, requirements, scope creep
      • No label clearly defines a page/title to everyone
      • No body of text is understood the same way by everyone
      • Users experience web sites differently and look for different things on a web site
    • Why is IA Difficult?
    • Concepts of Information Architecture
      • Key concepts of IA:
        • Information
        • Structure , Organization, Labeling
        • Finding and Managing (User needs + goals of the business)
        • Art and Science (Usability engineering, ethnography + experience, intuition and creativity)
    • Information
      • Many types of Information
      • Data – facts & figures
      • Relational DB – highly structured, specific answers & questions
      • Knowledge – what’s people know
      • Information Systems – No single answer to a question
        • Web sites, software, images, video, etc…
        • Metadata – terms used to describe something
    • Structure, Organizing, Labeling
      • Structure – determining appropriate levels of granularity
      • Organizing – grouping components into meaningful categories
      • Labeling – what to call above categories and the navigation links that relate to them
      • Ex: bookstores, libraries
    • Finding & Managing
      • Findability is critical to overall usability WHY???
      • IA balances the needs of users with business goals
      • Must have
        • Efficient content management
        • Clear policies and procedures – Ex: School of Mgmt
    • Art & Science
      • Art –
        • Willing to take risks
        • Trust intuition
        • Rely on experience & creativity
      • Science –
        • We have gotten better at running studies on user needs and experiences
      • BUT…..there is too much ambiguity and complexity in IA to solely rely on scientific data – Do you agree??
    • Information Architecture
      • “ Information Architecture is the term used to describe the process of designing, implementing and evaluating information spaces that are humanly and socially acceptable to their intended stockholders.”
      • Andrew Dillon
    • Information Architecture
      • If you look at this definition and activities of User-Centered Design you can see that there is a close relation to the definition. As Dillon explains it, IA is just a better name for User-Centered design.
      • IA is still an evolving discipline. Many researchers view IA as a field that deals only with the design of web sites. However, it seems difficult to maintain a clear division between information design issues in those that are web-based and those that are not.
    • Job Description - Information Architecture
      • Elevator pitch for explaining IA:
        • Information Architect = Internet Librarian
        • Information Architect = online merchandiser
        • Information Architect = professional who tackles information overload.
      • What is not IA?
        • Graphic design is NOT IA
        • Software development is NOT IA
        • Usability engineering is NOT IA
        • Do you agree???
    • Information Architecture
      • Gray areas:
        • Graphic designers do great deal of IA
        • Interaction designers are concerned with the behaviors tasks and process that users encounter
        • Usability Engineers concerned with aspects of the user experience including information architecture and graphic design
      • Gray areas are valuable
        • Force interdisciplinary collaboration which results in the best end product
    • Why is IA Important?
      • Consider the following cost and value propositions:
        • Cost of finding information
        • Cost of not finding information
        • Value of education
        • Cost of construction of web sites
        • Cost of maintenance of websites
        • Cost of training
        • Value of brand
        • Customer satisfaction
    • Statistics
      • Employees spend 35% of productive time searching for information online.
        • Working Council for Chief Information Officers
        • Basic Principles of Information Architecture
      • The Fortune 1000 stands to waste at least $2.5 billion per year due to an inability to locate and retrieve information.
        • IDC, The High Cost of Not Finding Information
      • Forfeited revenue: poorly architected retailing sites are underselling by as much as 50%.
        • Forrester Research, Why Most Web Sites Fail
    • Information Architecture
      • Information Architecture lives beneath the surface, not something people see instantly
      • How do we justify this invisible activities to our colleagues and make the case for information making?
    • Information Architecture Concepts
    • IA - Component Systems
    • Practicing Information Architecture
    • Practicing IA
      • IA is every where!
      • You can’t design Information Architecture in a vacuum.
      • Web sites and intranets have a dynamic and organic nature which is defined by the environment where they exist.
      • Every web site is unique & has IA
    • IA in your every day life
      • Can you think of some examples of IA in everyday life?
    • IA in Businesses
      • Large Companies – staff of IAs devoted to long term strategies of their web sites
      • Small Companies – usually hire consultants when they are redesigning their web site. They are there a short time and focus on the task at hand not long term goals
      • Good to have IAs from within (innies) and from outside the company (outies) -Different view points
    • IA in Businesses
      • Ideally – IAs would be solely responsible for IA and nothing else
      • Reality – This hardly ever happens. Most IAs wear many hats.
        • Most are the graphic designer or the web designer
        • Even the programmer!
    • Information Ecologies
      • Composed of users, content, and context and their dependencies
      • Technologies are carefully integrated into existing habits and practices, according to the values of the information ecology
      • An ecology responds to local environmental changes and local interventions. An ecology is a place that is scaled to individuals
    • Information Ecologies
      • Information ecologies is the basic of the model of Information Architecture:
      Context Content Users Business goals, funding,politics culture,technology, resources and constrains Audience, tasks, needs, information seeking behavior, experience Document/data types, content objects, volume, existing structure
    • Information Ecologies
      • Context:
        • Organizational goals, strategy, staff, processes and procedures, physical and technological infrastructure.
        • IA must be uniquely matched to the context.
        • Collective mix of capabilities, aspirations and resources for each organization
        • Understand business context – what makes it unique
        • Align the IA with business goals, strategy, culture of the business
    • Information Ecologies
      • Content:
        • Documents, applications, services, and metadata that people need to use or find on your web site.
        • Distinguishing factors of each information ecology:
          • Ownership, format, structure, metadata, volume, dynamism
    • Question:
      • How do you organize (or not) your:
      • Computer desktop/files
      • Physical desktop
      • Paper files
      • Books
    • Information Ecologies
      • Users:
        • Who uses your web site?
        • How often are they using it?
        • Differences in customer preferences and behaviors within the physical world translate into different information needs and information seeking behaviors
    • Planned vs. Unplanned IA
    • Where Does IA Fit in the Design Process?
      • The Elements of
      • User Experience
      • Jesse James Garrett
    • User Centered Information Architecture Design Methodology
        • Iterative process
          • Discovery
          • Definition/Conceptual Design
          • IA Design
          • Handoff-Implementation
        • Integrated with content development, interaction design, graphic design, usability
    • Communicating Ideas (deliverables)
        • Diagrams (conceptual)
        • Blueprints (structural)
        • Wireframes (relational)
        • Text (reports, taxonomies)
        • Interpersonal (meetings, conversation, blogs)
    • Project management & Information Architecture
        • PM & IA can be a powerful combination
        • Sources of tension
        • Big IA/Little IA vs. Big PM/Little PM
    • User Needs and Behaviors – Effect on IA
    • Users
      • Why did a user come to your site?
      • Information needs for each user differ therefore they have different information seeking behaviors
      • Why did you go to google last time?
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • Simplistic model of information retrieval
      User asks question Black magic User receives answers What is wrong with this model? Does it reflect all kinds of seeking behaviors?
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • When a user comes to our web site, What does she/he really want?
        • This is a question you need to know the answer to in order to design a usability web site or product
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • Information needs:
        • Known item search (The perfect catch)
          • User’s needs will only be satisfied if you find an specific piece of information.
        • Exploratory seeking (Lobster Trapping)
          • User is looking for useful information items
        • Exhaustive search (Indiscriminate drift netting)
          • User wants to find everything about a particular topic
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • What do users do to find information?
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • Building blocks for information seeking behavior:
        • Searching
        • Browsing
        • Asking
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • Other major aspects of information seeking include:
        • Integration
          • We often integrate searching, browsing and asking in the same session.
        • Iteration
          • Information seeking is an iterative process
          • Information needs may change along the way, causing us to try other new approaches with each iteration.
    • User Needs and Behaviors
      • Principles of the “Berry-picking” model for information retrieval (Marcia Bates).
        • User’s information needs and queries continually shift as a result of reading and learning through the search process.
        • User’s information needs are not satisfied by a single document but rather by a series of selections and bits of information found along the way.
      • Bates, Marcia The design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface. Online Review, 13 (October), pp. 407-424
    • User Needs and Behaviors Information need Query search system Scan results Ask person Reformulate query Examine document Formulate query Navigate Browsing system Examine document Examine document Berry-picking Model
    • General User Behaviors
      • Users don’t read
        • Keep text short and to the point
        • Print writing is different than web writing
        • Bullet points
      • Users don’t scroll
        • No horizontal scrolling
        • Keep important information above page fold
        • Think of alternative mice and scrolling could be difficult
    • General User Behaviors
      • Font size
        • Don’t make the font too small or big. Users will leave
        • Use font size to display importance
      • Number of Links
        • Don’t go overboard
        • Users can handle a lot of links if the page is laid out well and labeled
      • Users don’t see or click on banner ads
    • General User Behaviors
      • Key to great IA is not to make the users think.
      • They want to be on autopilot when viewing a web site
      • Users do not have a sense of direction on the web
    • User-Centered Design and IA
      • Information Architecture (IA) is not restricted to taxonomies, search capabilities, and other things that help the users find information.
      • IA starts with users and the reason why they visit a web site.
      • IA is considered by some researchers as a better name for User-Centered Design of web sites.
    • User-Centered Design
      • User-centered information systems design has five basic components:
        • Needs analysis: determining the goals, purposes and objectives.
        • Tasks analysis: Determining the tasks and activities that users accomplish in meeting their needs
        • Resource analysis: Investigating the resources (both cognitive and social) that are used in completing the tasks
        • User modeling: Synthesizing needs, tasks, and resources.
        • Designing for usability: Assessing how users’ needs, tasks, and resources interact with system characteristics to create usable systems.
    • User-centered Design
      • Identify a user population :
          • Who are the users? (individuals, groups, a combination of both)
          • Define a user population (characteristics, social and cognitive background)
          • Marketing considerations suggests that user populations identified for a service should be increasingly narrow and focused in nature.
    • User-centered Design
      • Investigate the information needs of user group:
        • The users identified in step 1 have a number of information needs. These can be investigated using several techniques (surveys, interviews, direct observation, etc.)
        • Key ideas that you should keep in mind:
        • No information system can meet all the user needs
        • Once you have collected the information needs select those that will be designed to meet.
    • User-Centered Design
      • Discover the tasks that users accomplish as they meet these information needs:
        • Different methods can be used in this step, (I.e. interviews, observation, log analysis)
        • Key element is to talk to the users and observe them as they work on meeting their information needs.
        • Identify:
          • Tasks that the user employs
          • Note sequential order of tasks
          • Distinguish between tasks that are essential and those that are optional
        • The result is one or more tasks models for each information tasks
    • User-Centered Design
      • Investigate the Resources that users require to complete these tasks :
        • Each tasks requires a variety of resources:
          • Background knowledge
          • Procedural knowledge
          • Abilities
        • Research methods to investigate resources possessed by users can be found in any text of psychometric
    • User-Centered Design
      • 5. Summarize the preceding information needs in user models .
        • For each user group there will be a set of needs
        • Fore each of the information needs there will be a number of tasks that are necessary
        • Integrate these into a user model that can be used to guide the design decisions
    • User-Centered Design
      • 6. Consider each design decision in the light of resource augmentation and enabling
        • The goal of the system design is to allow users to complete their information tasks that will meet their information needs.
        • System features that will augment the resources available to the users when necessary will enable them to accomplish their tasks
    • IA in practice
      • Find IA in: