INF 311 - INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Introduction to Information Architecture
Question: <ul><li>How do  you  define Information Architecture? </li></ul>
What information architecture is about <ul><li>AIfIA definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structural design of shared info...
What information architecture is about <ul><li>The art and science of structuring and organizing information  systems  to ...
What is IA? <ul><li>This is an emerging discipline in an evolving medium. DO YOU AGREE?? WHY?? </li></ul><ul><li>Experts &...
What is IA? <ul><li>A trick question or a tricky question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architecture (IA) </li></ul><...
A Visual Definition questions answers IA <ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>audience types </li></ul><ul><li>information need...
Information is arranged in many ways <ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul...
Information Architecture <ul><li>What do you think IA entails? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it effect the development of a p...
Why Information Architecture? <ul><li>House analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional nature of information spaces </li><...
Why is IA Hard? <ul><li>Stability must be balanced with flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>High level of ambiguity, competing g...
Why is IA Difficult?
Concepts of Information Architecture <ul><li>Key concepts of IA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Information <ul><li>Many types of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Data – facts & figures </li></ul><ul><li>Relational DB – h...
Structure, Organizing, Labeling <ul><li>Structure – determining appropriate levels of granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Organi...
Finding & Managing <ul><li>Findability is critical to overall usability WHY??? </li></ul><ul><li>IA balances the needs of ...
Art & Science <ul><li>Art –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to take risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust intuition </li><...
Information Architecture <ul><li>“ Information Architecture is the term used to describe the process of designing, impleme...
Information Architecture <ul><li>If you look at this definition and activities of User-Centered Design you can see that th...
Job Description - Information Architecture <ul><li>Elevator pitch for explaining IA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Arc...
Information Architecture <ul><li>Gray areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic designers do great deal of IA </li></ul></ul><u...
Why is IA Important? <ul><li>Consider the following cost and value propositions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of finding inf...
Statistics <ul><li>Employees spend 35% of productive time searching for information online. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working ...
Information Architecture <ul><li>Information Architecture lives beneath the surface, not something people see instantly </...
Information Architecture Concepts
IA - Component Systems
Practicing Information Architecture
Practicing IA <ul><li>IA is every where! </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t design Information Architecture in a vacuum. </li></u...
IA in your every day life <ul><li>Can you think of some examples of IA in everyday life? </li></ul><ul><li>http://flickr.c...
IA in Businesses <ul><li>Large Companies – staff of IAs devoted to long term strategies of their web sites </li></ul><ul><...
IA in Businesses <ul><li>Ideally – IAs would be solely responsible for IA and nothing else </li></ul><ul><li>Reality – Thi...
Information Ecologies <ul><li>Composed of users, content, and context and their dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Technologie...
Information Ecologies <ul><li>Information ecologies is the basic of the model of Information Architecture: </li></ul>Conte...
Information Ecologies <ul><li>Context:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational goals, strategy, staff, processes and procedu...
Information Ecologies <ul><li>Content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents, applications, services, and metadata that people n...
Question: <ul><li>How do you organize (or not) your: </li></ul><ul><li>Computer desktop/files </li></ul><ul><li>Physical d...
Information Ecologies <ul><li>Users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who uses your web site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often ar...
Planned vs. Unplanned IA
Where Does IA Fit in the Design Process? <ul><li>The Elements of  </li></ul><ul><li>User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Jess...
User Centered Information Architecture Design Methodology <ul><ul><li>Iterative process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dis...
Communicating Ideas (deliverables) <ul><ul><li>Diagrams (conceptual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blueprints (structural) </...
Project management & Information Architecture <ul><ul><li>PM & IA can be a powerful combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
User Needs and Behaviors –  Effect on IA
Users <ul><li>Why did a user come to your site? </li></ul><ul><li>Information needs for each user differ therefore they ha...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Simplistic model of information retrieval </li></ul>User asks  question Black magic User ...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>When a user comes to our web site, What does she/he really want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Th...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Information needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known item search (The perfect catch) </li></ul>...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>What do users do to find information? </li></ul>
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Building blocks for information seeking behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching </li></...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Other major aspects of information seeking include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </l...
User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Principles of the “Berry-picking” model for information retrieval (Marcia Bates). </li></...
User Needs and Behaviors Information need Query search system Scan results Ask person Reformulate query Examine document F...
General User Behaviors <ul><li>Users don’t read  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep text short and to the point </li></ul></ul><ul...
General User Behaviors <ul><li>Font size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make the font too small or big. Users will leave </li...
General User Behaviors <ul><li>Key to great IA is not to make the users think. </li></ul><ul><li>They want to be on autopi...
User-Centered Design and IA <ul><li>Information Architecture (IA) is not restricted to taxonomies, search capabilities, an...
User-Centered Design <ul><li>User-centered information systems design has five basic components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nee...
User-centered Design <ul><li>Identify a user population : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the users? (individuals, group...
User-centered Design <ul><li>Investigate the information needs of user group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The users identified i...
User-Centered Design <ul><li>Discover the tasks that users accomplish as they meet these information needs: </li></ul><ul>...
User-Centered Design <ul><li>Investigate the Resources that users require to complete these tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
User-Centered Design <ul><li>5.   Summarize the preceding information needs in user models . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For eac...
User-Centered Design <ul><li>6. Consider each design decision in the light of resource augmentation and enabling </li></ul...
 
IA in practice <ul><li>Find IA in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.digital-web.com/ </li></ul></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Intro To Ia

1,268

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,268
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Intro To Ia

  1. 1. INF 311 - INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Introduction to Information Architecture
  2. 2. Question: <ul><li>How do you define Information Architecture? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What information architecture is about <ul><li>AIfIA definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structural design of shared information environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What information architecture is about <ul><li>The art and science of structuring and organizing information systems to help people achieve their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Information architects organize content and design navigation systems to help people find and manage information. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is IA? <ul><li>This is an emerging discipline in an evolving medium. DO YOU AGREE?? WHY?? </li></ul><ul><li>Experts & Gurus disagree on the “right” answer. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is IA? <ul><li>A trick question or a tricky question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architecture (IA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction Design (ID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Design (ID too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-centered Design (UCD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-interface Design (UI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability/Usability Engineering (UE) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Visual Definition questions answers IA <ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>audience types </li></ul><ul><li>information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>scope and volume </li></ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul><ul><li>metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Info. Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>org, label, nav, & </li></ul><ul><li>searching systems </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>strategy </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>culture / politics </li></ul><ul><li>workflow </li></ul>
  8. 8. Information is arranged in many ways <ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Faceted </li></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Good IA allows access to information in many ways </li></ul>
  9. 9. Information Architecture <ul><li>What do you think IA entails? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it effect the development of a product, web, system? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why Information Architecture? <ul><li>House analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional nature of information spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Like buildings, web sites have architectures that cause us to react to them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both good and bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why bad architectures – architects don’t live in/use buildings/sites they design; don’t understand customers; don’t stay around to deal with long term consequences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why is IA Hard? <ul><li>Stability must be balanced with flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>High level of ambiguity, competing goals, requirements, scope creep </li></ul><ul><li>No label clearly defines a page/title to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>No body of text is understood the same way by everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Users experience web sites differently and look for different things on a web site </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why is IA Difficult?
  13. 13. Concepts of Information Architecture <ul><li>Key concepts of IA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure , Organization, Labeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding and Managing (User needs + goals of the business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art and Science (Usability engineering, ethnography + experience, intuition and creativity) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Information <ul><li>Many types of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Data – facts & figures </li></ul><ul><li>Relational DB – highly structured, specific answers & questions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge – what’s people know </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems – No single answer to a question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites, software, images, video, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata – terms used to describe something </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Structure, Organizing, Labeling <ul><li>Structure – determining appropriate levels of granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing – grouping components into meaningful categories </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling – what to call above categories and the navigation links that relate to them </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: bookstores, libraries </li></ul>
  16. 16. Finding & Managing <ul><li>Findability is critical to overall usability WHY??? </li></ul><ul><li>IA balances the needs of users with business goals </li></ul><ul><li>Must have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient content management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear policies and procedures – Ex: School of Mgmt </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Art & Science <ul><li>Art – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to take risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on experience & creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have gotten better at running studies on user needs and experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT…..there is too much ambiguity and complexity in IA to solely rely on scientific data – Do you agree?? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Information Architecture <ul><li>“ Information Architecture is the term used to describe the process of designing, implementing and evaluating information spaces that are humanly and socially acceptable to their intended stockholders.” </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Dillon </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information Architecture <ul><li>If you look at this definition and activities of User-Centered Design you can see that there is a close relation to the definition. As Dillon explains it, IA is just a better name for User-Centered design. </li></ul><ul><li>IA is still an evolving discipline. Many researchers view IA as a field that deals only with the design of web sites. However, it seems difficult to maintain a clear division between information design issues in those that are web-based and those that are not. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Job Description - Information Architecture <ul><li>Elevator pitch for explaining IA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architect = Internet Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architect = online merchandiser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architect = professional who tackles information overload. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is not IA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic design is NOT IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software development is NOT IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability engineering is NOT IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you agree??? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Information Architecture <ul><li>Gray areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic designers do great deal of IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction designers are concerned with the behaviors tasks and process that users encounter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability Engineers concerned with aspects of the user experience including information architecture and graphic design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gray areas are valuable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force interdisciplinary collaboration which results in the best end product </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Why is IA Important? <ul><li>Consider the following cost and value propositions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of finding information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of not finding information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of construction of web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance of websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Statistics <ul><li>Employees spend 35% of productive time searching for information online. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Council for Chief Information Officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Principles of Information Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Fortune 1000 stands to waste at least $2.5 billion per year due to an inability to locate and retrieve information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDC, The High Cost of Not Finding Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forfeited revenue: poorly architected retailing sites are underselling by as much as 50%. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forrester Research, Why Most Web Sites Fail </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Information Architecture <ul><li>Information Architecture lives beneath the surface, not something people see instantly </li></ul><ul><li>How do we justify this invisible activities to our colleagues and make the case for information making? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Information Architecture Concepts
  26. 26. IA - Component Systems
  27. 27. Practicing Information Architecture
  28. 28. Practicing IA <ul><li>IA is every where! </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t design Information Architecture in a vacuum. </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites and intranets have a dynamic and organic nature which is defined by the environment where they exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Every web site is unique & has IA </li></ul>
  29. 29. IA in your every day life <ul><li>Can you think of some examples of IA in everyday life? </li></ul><ul><li>http://flickr.com/groups/everyday-information-architecture/pool </li></ul>
  30. 30. IA in Businesses <ul><li>Large Companies – staff of IAs devoted to long term strategies of their web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Small Companies – usually hire consultants when they are redesigning their web site. They are there a short time and focus on the task at hand not long term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Good to have IAs from within (innies) and from outside the company (outies) -Different view points </li></ul>
  31. 31. IA in Businesses <ul><li>Ideally – IAs would be solely responsible for IA and nothing else </li></ul><ul><li>Reality – This hardly ever happens. Most IAs wear many hats. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are the graphic designer or the web designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the programmer! </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Information Ecologies <ul><li>Composed of users, content, and context and their dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies are carefully integrated into existing habits and practices, according to the values of the information ecology </li></ul><ul><li>An ecology responds to local environmental changes and local interventions. An ecology is a place that is scaled to individuals </li></ul>
  33. 33. Information Ecologies <ul><li>Information ecologies is the basic of the model of Information Architecture: </li></ul>Context Content Users Business goals, funding,politics culture,technology, resources and constrains Audience, tasks, needs, information seeking behavior, experience Document/data types, content objects, volume, existing structure
  34. 34. Information Ecologies <ul><li>Context: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational goals, strategy, staff, processes and procedures, physical and technological infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IA must be uniquely matched to the context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective mix of capabilities, aspirations and resources for each organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand business context – what makes it unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Align the IA with business goals, strategy, culture of the business </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Information Ecologies <ul><li>Content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents, applications, services, and metadata that people need to use or find on your web site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing factors of each information ecology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership, format, structure, metadata, volume, dynamism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Question: <ul><li>How do you organize (or not) your: </li></ul><ul><li>Computer desktop/files </li></ul><ul><li>Physical desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Paper files </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul>
  37. 37. Information Ecologies <ul><li>Users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who uses your web site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often are they using it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in customer preferences and behaviors within the physical world translate into different information needs and information seeking behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Planned vs. Unplanned IA
  39. 39. Where Does IA Fit in the Design Process? <ul><li>The Elements of </li></ul><ul><li>User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Jesse James Garrett </li></ul><ul><li>http://jjg.net </li></ul>
  40. 40. User Centered Information Architecture Design Methodology <ul><ul><li>Iterative process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition/Conceptual Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IA Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handoff-Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated with content development, interaction design, graphic design, usability </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Communicating Ideas (deliverables) <ul><ul><li>Diagrams (conceptual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blueprints (structural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireframes (relational) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text (reports, taxonomies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal (meetings, conversation, blogs) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Project management & Information Architecture <ul><ul><li>PM & IA can be a powerful combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big IA/Little IA vs. Big PM/Little PM </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. User Needs and Behaviors – Effect on IA
  44. 44. Users <ul><li>Why did a user come to your site? </li></ul><ul><li>Information needs for each user differ therefore they have different information seeking behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you go to google last time? </li></ul>
  45. 45. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Simplistic model of information retrieval </li></ul>User asks question Black magic User receives answers What is wrong with this model? Does it reflect all kinds of seeking behaviors?
  46. 46. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>When a user comes to our web site, What does she/he really want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a question you need to know the answer to in order to design a usability web site or product </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Information needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known item search (The perfect catch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User’s needs will only be satisfied if you find an specific piece of information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory seeking (Lobster Trapping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User is looking for useful information items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustive search (Indiscriminate drift netting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User wants to find everything about a particular topic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>What do users do to find information? </li></ul>
  49. 49. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Building blocks for information seeking behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Other major aspects of information seeking include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We often integrate searching, browsing and asking in the same session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iteration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information seeking is an iterative process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information needs may change along the way, causing us to try other new approaches with each iteration. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. User Needs and Behaviors <ul><li>Principles of the “Berry-picking” model for information retrieval (Marcia Bates). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User’s information needs and queries continually shift as a result of reading and learning through the search process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User’s information needs are not satisfied by a single document but rather by a series of selections and bits of information found along the way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bates, Marcia The design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface. Online Review, 13 (October), pp. 407-424 </li></ul>
  52. 52. User Needs and Behaviors Information need Query search system Scan results Ask person Reformulate query Examine document Formulate query Navigate Browsing system Examine document Examine document Berry-picking Model
  53. 53. General User Behaviors <ul><li>Users don’t read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep text short and to the point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print writing is different than web writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullet points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users don’t scroll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No horizontal scrolling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep important information above page fold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of alternative mice and scrolling could be difficult </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. General User Behaviors <ul><li>Font size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make the font too small or big. Users will leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use font size to display importance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t go overboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can handle a lot of links if the page is laid out well and labeled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users don’t see or click on banner ads </li></ul>
  55. 55. General User Behaviors <ul><li>Key to great IA is not to make the users think. </li></ul><ul><li>They want to be on autopilot when viewing a web site </li></ul><ul><li>Users do not have a sense of direction on the web </li></ul>
  56. 56. User-Centered Design and IA <ul><li>Information Architecture (IA) is not restricted to taxonomies, search capabilities, and other things that help the users find information. </li></ul><ul><li>IA starts with users and the reason why they visit a web site. </li></ul><ul><li>IA is considered by some researchers as a better name for User-Centered Design of web sites. </li></ul>
  57. 57. User-Centered Design <ul><li>User-centered information systems design has five basic components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs analysis: determining the goals, purposes and objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks analysis: Determining the tasks and activities that users accomplish in meeting their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource analysis: Investigating the resources (both cognitive and social) that are used in completing the tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User modeling: Synthesizing needs, tasks, and resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing for usability: Assessing how users’ needs, tasks, and resources interact with system characteristics to create usable systems. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. User-centered Design <ul><li>Identify a user population : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the users? (individuals, groups, a combination of both) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define a user population (characteristics, social and cognitive background) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing considerations suggests that user populations identified for a service should be increasingly narrow and focused in nature. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. User-centered Design <ul><li>Investigate the information needs of user group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The users identified in step 1 have a number of information needs. These can be investigated using several techniques (surveys, interviews, direct observation, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key ideas that you should keep in mind: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TALK TO THE USERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No information system can meet all the user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once you have collected the information needs select those that will be designed to meet. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. User-Centered Design <ul><li>Discover the tasks that users accomplish as they meet these information needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different methods can be used in this step, (I.e. interviews, observation, log analysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key element is to talk to the users and observe them as they work on meeting their information needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks that the user employs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note sequential order of tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between tasks that are essential and those that are optional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result is one or more tasks models for each information tasks </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. User-Centered Design <ul><li>Investigate the Resources that users require to complete these tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each tasks requires a variety of resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Background knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research methods to investigate resources possessed by users can be found in any text of psychometric </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. User-Centered Design <ul><li>5. Summarize the preceding information needs in user models . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For each user group there will be a set of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fore each of the information needs there will be a number of tasks that are necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate these into a user model that can be used to guide the design decisions </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. User-Centered Design <ul><li>6. Consider each design decision in the light of resource augmentation and enabling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of the system design is to allow users to complete their information tasks that will meet their information needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System features that will augment the resources available to the users when necessary will enable them to accomplish their tasks </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. IA in practice <ul><li>Find IA in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.digital-web.com/ </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×