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Principles of Information
Systems, Tenth Edition
Chapter 12
Systems Development:
Investigation and Analysis
1
Principles and Learning Objectives
• Effective systems development requires a team
effort from stakeholders, users, manage...
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Systems development often uses tools to select,
implement, and monitor pr...
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
– Identify several factors that influence the success or
failure of a syste...
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Systems development starts with investigation and
analysis of existing sy...
Why Learn About Systems
Investigation and Analysis?
• In this chapter:
– You will see how you can initiate the systems
dev...
An Overview of Systems Development
• In today’s businesses:
– Managers and employees in all functional areas
work together...
Participants in Systems Development
• Development team:
– Determines objectives of the information system
– Delivers syste...
Participants in Systems Development
(continued)
• Stakeholders:
– People who ultimately benefit from project

• Users:
– P...
Participants in Systems Development
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

10
Individual Systems Developers and
Users
• Individual systems developer:
– Person who performs all of the systems
developme...
Initiating Systems Development
• Systems development initiatives:
– Arise from all levels of an organization
– Can be plan...
Initiating Systems Development
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

13
Information Systems Planning and
Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
• Information systems planning:
– Translating strategic a...
Information Systems Planning and
Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edi...
Establishing Objectives for Systems
Development
• Mission-critical systems:
– Play pivotal role in organization’s continue...
Establishing Objectives for Systems
Development (continued)
• Performance objectives:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Output quality or use...
Establishing Objectives for Systems
Development (continued)
• Cost objectives:
– Development costs
– Costs related to the ...
Systems Development Life Cycles
• The later in the SDLC an error is detected, the
more expensive it is to correct
– Reason...
Systems Development Life Cycles
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

20
Systems Development Life Cycles
(continued)
• Common systems development life cycles:
–
–
–
–

Traditional
Prototyping
Rap...
The Traditional Systems Development
Life Cycle
• Systems investigation:
– Identifies problems and opportunities and consid...
The Traditional Systems Development
Life Cycle (continued)
• Systems implementation:
– Creates or acquires various system ...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

24
The Traditional Systems Development
Life Cycle (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

25
Prototyping
• An iterative approach
• Operational prototype:
– Prototype that works
– Accesses real data files, edits inpu...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

27
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

28
Prototyping (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

29
Rapid Application Development, Agile
Development, and Other Systems
Development Approaches
• Rapid application development...
Rapid Application Development, Agile
Development, and Other Systems
Development Approaches (continued)

Principles of Info...
Outsourcing and On-Demand
Computing
• Reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand
computing approaches:
–
–
–
–

To reduce...
Outsourcing and On-Demand
Computing (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

33
Factors Affecting Systems
Development Success
• Successful systems development:
– Delivers a system that meets user and
or...
Degree of Change
• Continuous improvement projects versus
reengineering:
– Continuous improvement projects have a high
deg...
Degree of Change (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

36
Quality and Standards
• Quality of project planning:
– Bigger the project, the more likely that poor planning
will lead to...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

38
The Importance of Planning
• The bigger the project:
– The more likely that poor planning will lead to
significant problem...
Use of Project Management Tools
• Project schedule:
– Detailed description of what is to be done

• Project milestone:
– C...
Use of Project Management Tools
(continued)
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique
(PERT):
– Creates three time estimat...
Use of Computer-Aided Software
Engineering (CASE) Tools
• CASE tools:
– Automate many tasks required in a systems
developm...
Object-Oriented Systems
Development
• Combines logic of systems development life cycle
with power of object-oriented model...
Object-Oriented Systems
Development (continued)
• OOSD tasks (continued):
–
–
–
–

Designing the system
Programming or mod...
Systems Investigation
• What primary problems might a new or enhanced
system solve?
• What opportunities might a new or en...
Initiating Systems Investigation
• Systems request form:
– Submitted by someone who wants IS department to
initiate system...
Participants in Systems Investigation
• Members of development team change from phase
to phase
• Keys to successful invest...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

48
Feasibility Analysis
• Assesses:
–
–
–
–
–

Technical feasibility
Economic feasibility
Legal feasibility
Operational feasi...
Feasibility Analysis (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

50
Object-Oriented Systems Investigation
• Object-oriented approach:
– Can be used during all phases of systems
development

...
Object-Oriented Systems Investigation
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

52
The Systems Investigation Report
• Summarizes results of systems investigation
• Summarizes the process of feasibility ana...
The Systems Investigation Report
(continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

54
Systems Analysis
• Overall emphasis of analysis:
–
–
–
–

Gathering data on existing system
Determining requirements for n...
General Considerations
• Steps of a formalized analysis procedure:
–
–
–
–

Assembling participants for systems analysis
C...
Participants in Systems Analysis
• Includes members of the original investigation team
• Systems analysis team develops:
–...
Data Collection
• Identifying sources of data:
– Internal and external sources

• Collecting data:
– Interviews
– Direct o...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

59
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

60
Data Analysis
•
•
•
•
•

Data modeling
Activity modeling
Application flowcharts
Grid charts
CASE tools

Principles of Info...
Requirements Analysis
• Purpose is to determine user, stakeholder, and
organizational needs
• Techniques used to capture s...
Requirements Analysis (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

63
Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
• Identify problems or potential opportunities
• Identify key participants and collect da...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

65
The Systems Analysis Report
• Elements:
– Strengths and weaknesses of existing system from a
stakeholder’s perspective
– U...
Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

67
Summary
• Systems development team:
– Stakeholders, users, managers, systems
development specialists, and various support
...
Summary (continued)
• Rapid application development (RAD):
– Reduces paper-based documentation
– Automates program source ...
Summary (continued)
• Participants in systems investigation:
– Stakeholders, users, managers, employees,
analysts, and pro...
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Transcript of "IS740 Chapter 12"

  1. 1. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition Chapter 12 Systems Development: Investigation and Analysis 1
  2. 2. Principles and Learning Objectives • Effective systems development requires a team effort from stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel, and it starts with careful planning – Identify the key participants in the systems development process and discuss their roles – Define the term information systems planning and list several reasons for initiating a systems project Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 2
  3. 3. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development often uses tools to select, implement, and monitor projects, including prototyping, rapid application development, CASE tools, and object-oriented development – Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-user systems development life cycles Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 3
  4. 4. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) – Identify several factors that influence the success or failure of a systems development project – Discuss the use of CASE tools and the objectoriented approach to systems development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 4
  5. 5. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development starts with investigation and analysis of existing systems – State the purpose of systems investigation – Discuss the importance of performance and cost objectives – State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss some of the tools and techniques used in this phase of systems development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 5
  6. 6. Why Learn About Systems Investigation and Analysis? • In this chapter: – You will see how you can initiate the systems development process – You will see how you can use the systems development approach to start your own business • First two steps of the systems development process: – Systems investigation and systems analysis Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 6
  7. 7. An Overview of Systems Development • In today’s businesses: – Managers and employees in all functional areas work together and use business information systems • This chapter will: – Help you avoid systems development failures or projects that go over budget Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 7
  8. 8. Participants in Systems Development • Development team: – Determines objectives of the information system – Delivers system that meets objectives • Project: – Planned collection of activities that achieves a goal • Project manager: – Responsible for coordinating all people and resources needed to complete a project on time Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 8
  9. 9. Participants in Systems Development (continued) • Stakeholders: – People who ultimately benefit from project • Users: – People who will interact with the system regularly • Systems analysts: – Professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems • Programmer: – Responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 9
  10. 10. Participants in Systems Development (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 10
  11. 11. Individual Systems Developers and Users • Individual systems developer: – Person who performs all of the systems development roles • Individual users: – Acquire applications for both personal and professional use • End-user systems development: – Describes any systems development project in which business managers and users assume the primary effort Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 11
  12. 12. Initiating Systems Development • Systems development initiatives: – Arise from all levels of an organization – Can be planned or unplanned • Mergers and acquisitions can trigger many systems development projects Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 12
  13. 13. Initiating Systems Development (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 13
  14. 14. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals • Information systems planning: – Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals: – Critical for successful systems development effort • Developing a competitive advantage: – Creative analysis – Critical analysis Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 14
  15. 15. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 15
  16. 16. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development • Mission-critical systems: – Play pivotal role in organization’s continued operations and goal attainment • Critical success factors (CSFs): – Factors essential to success of a functional area of an organization Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 16
  17. 17. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development (continued) • Performance objectives: – – – – – – – Output quality or usefulness Output accuracy Speed at which output is generated Flexibility of the system Ease of use of the application Scalability of resulting system Risk of the system Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 17
  18. 18. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development (continued) • Cost objectives: – Development costs – Costs related to the uniqueness of the system application – Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment – Ongoing operating costs Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 18
  19. 19. Systems Development Life Cycles • The later in the SDLC an error is detected, the more expensive it is to correct – Reason for mounting costs: • Previous phases must be reworked • More people are affected Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 19
  20. 20. Systems Development Life Cycles (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 20
  21. 21. Systems Development Life Cycles (continued) • Common systems development life cycles: – – – – Traditional Prototyping Rapid application development (RAD) Individual development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 21
  22. 22. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle • Systems investigation: – Identifies problems and opportunities and considers them in light of business goals • Systems analysis: – Studies existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement • Systems design: – Defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem’s solution Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 22
  23. 23. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) • Systems implementation: – Creates or acquires various system components detailed in systems design, assembles them, and places new or modified system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: – Ensures the system operates as intended – Modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 23
  24. 24. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 24
  25. 25. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 25
  26. 26. Prototyping • An iterative approach • Operational prototype: – Prototype that works – Accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, and produces real output • Nonoperational prototype: – A mock-up, or model – Includes output and input specifications and formats Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 26
  27. 27. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 27
  28. 28. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 28
  29. 29. Prototyping (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 29
  30. 30. Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches • Rapid application development (RAD) – Employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development • Other approaches to rapid development – Agile development – Extreme programming (XP) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 30
  31. 31. Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 31
  32. 32. Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing • Reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand computing approaches: – – – – To reduce costs To obtain state-of-the-art technology To eliminate staffing and personnel problems To increase technological flexibility Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 32
  33. 33. Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 33
  34. 34. Factors Affecting Systems Development Success • Successful systems development: – Delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget • Critical for most systems development projects: – Getting users and stakeholders involved Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 34
  35. 35. Degree of Change • Continuous improvement projects versus reengineering: – Continuous improvement projects have a high degree of success – Reengineering projects tend to have a high degree of risk but also a high potential for benefits • Managing change: – It is essential to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 35
  36. 36. Degree of Change (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 36
  37. 37. Quality and Standards • Quality of project planning: – Bigger the project, the more likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems • Capability Maturity Model (CMM): – One way to measure organizational experience Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 37
  38. 38. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 38
  39. 39. The Importance of Planning • The bigger the project: – The more likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems • Important factor for systems development success: – Organizational experience with the systems development process Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 39
  40. 40. Use of Project Management Tools • Project schedule: – Detailed description of what is to be done • Project milestone: – Critical date for completion of a major part of the project • Project deadline: – Date that the entire project is to be completed and operational • Critical path: – Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 40
  41. 41. Use of Project Management Tools (continued) • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): – Creates three time estimates for an activity: • Shortest possible time • Most likely time • Longest possible time • Gantt chart: – Graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 41
  42. 42. Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools • CASE tools: – Automate many tasks required in a systems development effort – Encourage adherence to SDLC • Upper-CASE tools: – CASE tools that focus on activities associated with the early stages of systems development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 42
  43. 43. Object-Oriented Systems Development • Combines logic of systems development life cycle with power of object-oriented modeling and programming • OOSD tasks: – Identifying potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO approach – Defining what kind of system users require Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 43
  44. 44. Object-Oriented Systems Development (continued) • OOSD tasks (continued): – – – – Designing the system Programming or modifying modules Evaluation by users Periodic review and modification Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 44
  45. 45. Systems Investigation • What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? • What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system? • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)? • What are the associated risks? Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 45
  46. 46. Initiating Systems Investigation • Systems request form: – Submitted by someone who wants IS department to initiate systems investigation – Information included: • • • • Problems in or opportunities for system Objectives of systems investigation Overview of proposed system Expected costs and benefits of proposed system Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 46
  47. 47. Participants in Systems Investigation • Members of development team change from phase to phase • Keys to successful investigation teams: – Cooperation and collaboration Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 47
  48. 48. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 48
  49. 49. Feasibility Analysis • Assesses: – – – – – Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Legal feasibility Operational feasibility Schedule feasibility Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 49
  50. 50. Feasibility Analysis (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 50
  51. 51. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation • Object-oriented approach: – Can be used during all phases of systems development • Use case diagram: – Part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is used in object-oriented systems development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 51
  52. 52. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 52
  53. 53. The Systems Investigation Report • Summarizes results of systems investigation • Summarizes the process of feasibility analysis • Recommends a course of action: – Continue on into systems analysis – Modify the project in some manner – Drop the project • Reviewed by steering committee Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 53
  54. 54. The Systems Investigation Report (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 54
  55. 55. Systems Analysis • Overall emphasis of analysis: – – – – Gathering data on existing system Determining requirements for new system Considering alternatives Investigating feasibility of solutions • Primary outcome of systems analysis: – Prioritized list of systems requirements Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 55
  56. 56. General Considerations • Steps of a formalized analysis procedure: – – – – Assembling participants for systems analysis Collecting data and requirements Analyzing data and requirements Preparing a report on existing system, new system requirements, and project priorities Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 56
  57. 57. Participants in Systems Analysis • Includes members of the original investigation team • Systems analysis team develops: – List of objectives and activities – Schedule for meeting the objectives and completing the specific activities – Deadlines for each stage – Statement of the resources required at each stage Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 57
  58. 58. Data Collection • Identifying sources of data: – Internal and external sources • Collecting data: – Interviews – Direct observation – Questionnaires Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 58
  59. 59. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 59
  60. 60. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 60
  61. 61. Data Analysis • • • • • Data modeling Activity modeling Application flowcharts Grid charts CASE tools Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 61
  62. 62. Requirements Analysis • Purpose is to determine user, stakeholder, and organizational needs • Techniques used to capture systems requirements: – – – – – Asking directly Critical success factors (CSFs) IS plan Screen and report layout Requirements analysis tools Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 62
  63. 63. Requirements Analysis (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 63
  64. 64. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis • Identify problems or potential opportunities • Identify key participants and collect data • With the OO approach a class is used to describe different types of objects Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 64
  65. 65. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 65
  66. 66. The Systems Analysis Report • Elements: – Strengths and weaknesses of existing system from a stakeholder’s perspective – User/stakeholder requirements for new system – Organizational requirements for new system – Description of what new information system should do to solve the problem Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 66
  67. 67. Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 67
  68. 68. Summary • Systems development team: – Stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel • Five phases of the traditional SDLC: – Investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and review • Advantages of the traditional SDLC: – Provides for maximum management control – Creates considerable system documentation – Produces many intermediate products for review Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 68
  69. 69. Summary (continued) • Rapid application development (RAD): – Reduces paper-based documentation – Automates program source code generation – Facilitates user participation in development activities • Factors that affect systems development success: – Degree of change introduced by the project – Continuous improvement and reengineering – Use of project management tools Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 69
  70. 70. Summary (continued) • Participants in systems investigation: – Stakeholders, users, managers, employees, analysts, and programmers • Data collection methods: – Observation, interviews, questionnaires, and statistical sampling • Requirements analysis: – Determines the needs of users, stakeholders, and the organization in general Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition 70
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