Title
Intellectual property  in the fashion industry
Trademark protection
Trademark as design
 
Apparel design is too utilitarian to qualify for copyright protection
Too utilitarian?
The triumph of the  creative commons
An open creative  process
Copying & trends
Trendsetters
Trend spotters
The street
Fast fashion
The fashion industry  is thriving <ul><ul><ul><li>Annual sales in the U.S. fashion industry increased from $130 billion to...
Why hasn’t copying destroyed the  fashion industry?
The virtues of copying <ul><li>Democratization of fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster establishment of global trends ...
Innovative knock-offs “ Jelly Kelly” Miu Miu Knock-off
Effects on the  creative process
Making something too difficult to copy
Incentives to  not  copy
Fashion designers = comedians?
Heterogeneous  not  homogenous
Self-copying
Fashion’s  creative commons
International  Comparisons <ul><li>Is the fashion industry’s creative commons unique to the U.S.? </li></ul>
Japan <ul><li>Japanese Design Law covers apparel, but the novelty standard is extremely high.  </li></ul>
European  Union <ul><li>Community design system: apparel is protected, with a less stringent novelty standard than Japan. ...
How do we establish standards for “novelty?” In the EU, the novelty standard is too low.
Cuisine
Automobiles
Furniture
Magic  Tricks
Hairstyles
Open source software
Computer databases
Tattoos
Comedy
Fireworks
Games
Perfume
In the U.S., fashion isn’t the only thriving low-IP industry
What can commons-based  industries teach us?
Between idea and expression
Dueling forces in  intellectual property
Suggestions for research <ul><ul><ul><li>Identify best practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the bottom li...
The End
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Ready to Share: Fashion and the Commons by Johanna Blakley

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More than any other industry, fashion treats most of its creative output as a commons - shared resources that can be freely reused, recreated and recombined. How does the fashion industry manage to thrive with virtually no copyright protection?

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Ready to Share: Fashion and the Commons by Johanna Blakley

  1. 1. Title
  2. 2. Intellectual property in the fashion industry
  3. 3. Trademark protection
  4. 4. Trademark as design
  5. 6. Apparel design is too utilitarian to qualify for copyright protection
  6. 7. Too utilitarian?
  7. 8. The triumph of the creative commons
  8. 9. An open creative process
  9. 10. Copying & trends
  10. 11. Trendsetters
  11. 12. Trend spotters
  12. 13. The street
  13. 14. Fast fashion
  14. 15. The fashion industry is thriving <ul><ul><ul><li>Annual sales in the U.S. fashion industry increased from $130 billion to over $214 in the past decade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans purchase over $13.8 billion worth of clothing ONLINE each year </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Why hasn’t copying destroyed the fashion industry?
  16. 17. The virtues of copying <ul><li>Democratization of fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster establishment of global trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Induced obsolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration in creative innovation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Innovative knock-offs “ Jelly Kelly” Miu Miu Knock-off
  18. 19. Effects on the creative process
  19. 20. Making something too difficult to copy
  20. 21. Incentives to not copy
  21. 22. Fashion designers = comedians?
  22. 23. Heterogeneous not homogenous
  23. 24. Self-copying
  24. 25. Fashion’s creative commons
  25. 26. International Comparisons <ul><li>Is the fashion industry’s creative commons unique to the U.S.? </li></ul>
  26. 27. Japan <ul><li>Japanese Design Law covers apparel, but the novelty standard is extremely high. </li></ul>
  27. 28. European Union <ul><li>Community design system: apparel is protected, with a less stringent novelty standard than Japan. But very few designers register their garments or take their cases to court. Why? </li></ul>
  28. 29. How do we establish standards for “novelty?” In the EU, the novelty standard is too low.
  29. 30. Cuisine
  30. 31. Automobiles
  31. 32. Furniture
  32. 33. Magic Tricks
  33. 34. Hairstyles
  34. 35. Open source software
  35. 36. Computer databases
  36. 37. Tattoos
  37. 38. Comedy
  38. 39. Fireworks
  39. 40. Games
  40. 41. Perfume
  41. 42. In the U.S., fashion isn’t the only thriving low-IP industry
  42. 43. What can commons-based industries teach us?
  43. 44. Between idea and expression
  44. 45. Dueling forces in intellectual property
  45. 46. Suggestions for research <ul><ul><ul><li>Identify best practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the bottom line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foster multidisciplinary research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect low-IP industries from protection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. The End

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