Collaborative Creativity and the test of time by Rishab Ghosh

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Innovation as a product of an ivory tower of individual ownership is not so much a thing of the past as an obsolescence. Many minds sharing freely solve problems faster.

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Collaborative Creativity and the test of time by Rishab Ghosh

  1. 1. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 1 Collaborative creativity and the test of time iSummit08 Sapporo, Japan July 31, 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh United Nations University – MERIT Collaborative Creativity Group
  2. 2. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 2 Collaboration in history James Watt, Lean's Reporter and the Cornish Pumping Engine
  3. 3. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 3 James Watt ?
  4. 4. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 4 James Watt James Watt's improved steam engine... was the key innovation that brought forth the Industrial Revolution. ... it gave us the modern world. A key feature of it was that it brought the engine out of the remote coal fields into factories where many mechanics, engineers, and even tinkerers were exposed to its virtues and limitations. It was a platform for generations of inventive men to improve. --Wikipedia
  5. 5. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 5 James Watt Lobbied for an Act of Parliament to extend his patent's lifetime to thirty-one years Drove the inventor of a superior engine to bankruptcy (Hornblower) Blocked innovation in steam engines – and steam engine sales – throughout the life-time of his patent When his patent ended, Cornwall – one of the biggest markets – boycotted his company, in protest at his former aggressive monopoly... sounds familiar?
  6. 6. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 6 James Watt “Duty” or efficiency of steam engines Nuvolari,A,2005.“Opensourcesoftwaredevelopment:Somehistoricalperspectives”.FirstMonday,10:10
  7. 7. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 7 1811 Lean's Reporter Monthly journal published by Cornish miners – the main user-developers of steam engines Published the full specifications of each improved engine, so they could be copied Improvements, performance skyrocketed New inventors (Trevithick, Woolf...) avoided patents, releasing specifications publicly
  8. 8. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 8 185 years later... Software published by user-developers of major innovative websites (Hotwired etc) Publish full specifications – source code – of each improved version Improvements, performance – and market share – skyrockets Many new inventors avoid patenting (proprietary copyrighting), releasing source code as free software
  9. 9. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 9 Web server market share Source:NetcraftWebServerSurvey,May2005-www.netcraft.com
  10. 10. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 10 195 years later... And IBM, Sun, etc release free software (Sadly, some never learn, and monopolistic practices still exist)
  11. 11. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 11 Barter
  12. 12. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 12 Barter < Profit > Profit
  13. 13. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 13 Purchase $1 $2
  14. 14. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 14 Purchase $1 $2 < $2 Profit $1 <Profit > $2 Profit $1 >Profit
  15. 15. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 15 Cooking-pot (easier to draw a cloud)
  16. 16. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 16 Cooking-pot (easier to draw a cloud) < Profit
  17. 17. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 17 How to divide the pot?
  18. 18. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 18 Digital fish! With knowledge goods, everyone gets a copy of the whole pot 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101 1010 0101
  19. 19. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 19 Altruism or self-interest?
  20. 20. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 20 A Hobbesian view?
  21. 21. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 21 Value: even without prices ● Existing FLOSS code – if a company were to recreate it, this would cost: – Euro 12 billion (substitution cost, till 2005) – 163 thousand person-years – Euro 100 billion (till 2010) ● Doubling in size every 18-24 months
  22. 22. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 22 The concept is old...
  23. 23. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 23 This scale is new...
  24. 24. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 24 Exciting novelty of collaboration CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy MIT Press, 2005 Rishab A. Ghosh, ed. Philippe Aigrain, Yochai Benkler, Boatema Boateng, David Bollier, James Boyle, John Clippinger, Paul David, Cori Hayden, Tim Hubbard, Chris Kelty, James Leach, James Love, Fred Myers, Anthony Seeger, Richard Stallman, Marilyn Strathern
  25. 25. (c) 2008 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 25 Thank you Rishab Aiyer Ghosh ghosh@merit.unu.edu UNU-MERIT Collaborative Creativity Group ccg.merit.unu.edu

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