Positive Behaviour Support                         Team Workbook: Tier 1                                           Day 1 a...
How Should I Use this Workbook?The purpose of this workbook is to provide school teams in Western Australia with a practic...
Table of Contents                                                                                                         ...
Positive Behaviour SupportEstablishing a positive, proactive school-wide behaviour management practice is a necessary firs...
Frequently Used Acronyms   DoE                                   Department of Education   EBD                            ...
Informing a Schoolwide Approach     The focus is on positive behaviour for learning based on evidence based principles and...
How to Effectively Manage and Teach Behaviour in SchoolsStudents in our schools come from many different backgrounds and c...
Key Beliefs                  Belief Statement One          Unless educational change results           in altered teacher ...
Key Beliefs                                       Political   Funding           Visibility                          Policy...
National Safe Schools FrameworkThe National Safe Schools Framework helps Australian schools to develop effective student s...
How has childhood changed?Partner Activity    How was your childhood different from kids today?Team Activity         How a...
What are some of the challenges facing schools today?Schools today are facing intense scrutiny and are under tremendous pr...
What is Positive Behaviour Support?Since its inception, PBS has developed into a framework that can be used by any school ...
Why ‘Getting Tough’ Doesn’t WorkThe Traditional View of DisciplineApproaches to behaviour management in schools often rest...
Why ‘Getting Tough’ Doesn’t WorkIndividual ActivityRead the following classroom scenario. Write some teacher actions that ...
Rethinking Discipline   A Starting Point            We can’t make students learn or behave.            We can create env...
Rethinking Discipline                                                                              The science of behaviou...
The Science of BehaviourBehaviour is FunctionalPBS is grounded in the science of behaviour or applied behaviour analysis (...
Developing a Common PhilosophyIndividual ActivityThe following beliefs reflect current literature and best practices in sc...
The PBS Framework                        Outcomes, Data, Practices and SystemsAccurate and sustained implementation of any...
The PBS Framework                       Outcomes, Data, Practices and SystemsImplementation is Interactive and InformingEf...
Evidence Based Behavioural Practices and InterventionsBehaviour management practices adopted by PBS schools are based on w...
Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportA major advance in schoolwide discipline is the emphasis on schoolwide systems of...
Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportThe image below illustrates the continuum of support for PBS and its academic cou...
Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour Support  Notes:                                                                         ...
Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportActivity         List the current practices and interventions in place at your s...
WA PBS TIER 1 Seven Essential ComponentsThere are seven ‘essential component’ of PBS that together from a highly effective...
Component 1                                       Leadership                      Principal Support, Participation and   ...
What are the Systems, Data and Practices involved in the                   PBS leadership team?                           ...
PBS Leadership Team    “Every organisation has a culture, that history and underlying sense of unwritten expectations that...
Principal Support, Participation and Leadership“It appears indisputable that the Principal is the key to any major schoolw...
Principal Support, Participation and Leadership ctdSupport the PBS Team Meetings.The most important thing an principal can...
Principal Support, Participation and LeadershipTeam Activity                                                    Review the...
PBS Leadership TeamPBS is a collaborative process with administration and staff working together. Therefore it is essentia...
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2  version march 20 2013
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Wa pbs team workbook day 1 and 2 version march 20 2013

  1. 1. Positive Behaviour Support Team Workbook: Tier 1 Day 1 and 2 2013These training materials were adapted from the Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support Team Workbook (2011-2012) whohave worked in partnership with the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Center on Positive behavioural Interventionsand Supports (PBiS)Adapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  2. 2. How Should I Use this Workbook?The purpose of this workbook is to provide school teams in Western Australia with a practical resourceguide for implementing Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) in their school. It aims to provide PBS schoolswith information, tools and local examples of evidence based approaches to behaviour management andits effectiveness in terms of improving student behaviour, learning and school safety. New materials andadditional information on specific topics will be supplied to schools at PBS team training days 3 and 4.It is important to stress that this workbook is a reference tool. It does not replace the need for processsupport from a coordinator or coach who is experienced with change management in schools, behaviourscience, and PBS data, systems and practice. The information presented in this workbook will assist the‘coach’ to develop independence in the school leadership team as they develop their skills andunderstanding of the PBS implementation framework.Through the initial PBS Awareness Workshop, your school staff was provided with an overview of theWA PBS Seven Essential Components and the emphasis on teaching proactive and effectivesocial/behavioural skills. The teaching of these skills to staff and students is based on the sameinstructional strategies you use to teach academics, so will not require staff to learn a separate set ofskills. What it will require is a fundamental change in thinking for some staff so that social behaviour isviewed as a set of skills that should be clearly defined, encouraged, valued, taught and remediated. Howyour team will lead the staff in creating a school culture where this thinking is the norm will be a keycomponent of your team training.We look forward to working with your school PBS leadership team and supporting your progress not onlyin PBS but also in your outcomes for the staff and students in your community.PBS Implementation OutcomesSchools using this approach will:  Implement a PBS school-wide approach to behaviour.  Develop sustainable systems to support their staff to manage student behaviour.  Develop, analyse and monitor data about student behaviour and school effectiveness and identify targets for improvement.  Select evidence based interventions based on sound psychological theory.  Build on and integrate a range of existing strategies into sustainable improvement in behaviour, learning and safety. A Note on Implementation FidelityWhen a practice or program is implemented as intended by the researchers or developers, this isreferred to as fidelity of implementationResearch shows that when programs implemented with fidelity are compared to programs notimplemented with fidelity, the difference in effectiveness is profound. Those implemented with fidelityyield results that are two to three times higher. (Durlak & DuPre 2008) Page | 2Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  3. 3. Table of Contents Page Introduction o Frequently Used Acronyms o Developing a Common Philosophy o National Safe Schools Framework o What is PBS Positive Behaviour Support Overview o Data, Practices and Systems o Three Levels of Intervention Positive Behaviour Support Essential Components Component 1: Leadership o Administrator Support, Participation and Leadership o Team Operating Procedures o Developing a Purpose Statement o Team Roles and Responsibilities o Developing Team Norms o Leadership Team Meeting Agenda o Developing an Operational Plan o Communication Systems o Tier 1 Implementation Ladder o Working Smarter Matrix Component 2: Defining Expected Behaviour o Expectation Guidelines o Develop Visuals o Poster Competition Letter o The Behaviour Matrix Page | 3Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  4. 4. Positive Behaviour SupportEstablishing a positive, proactive school-wide behaviour management practice is a necessary first stepfor enabling schools to achieve the educational goals of all students. Positive Behaviour Support (PBS)also known as SWPBS, supports the development of an approach based on the underlying principles ofdecision making guided by data, the establishment of effective school wide routines and consistentresponding to behaviour, both positive and negative.PBS is a research-based process that, when correctly implemented, is proven to create safer and moreeffective schools. PBS relies on organisational change strategies to improve the social culture, learningand teaching environment in schools, and to provide the individual behaviour supports needed toachieve academic and social success for all students.Schools implementing PBS build on existing strengths, complimenting and organising currentprogramming and strategies. Positive Behaviour Support is not a curriculum, a program or anintervention. It differs from any program currently in place in that it is a whole school approach toimprovement. .The WA PBS Team Training program guides the members of the PBS leadership team in theimplementation of the seven essential components that make up the WA PBS framework.The 7 components are; 1. Leadership 2. Defining expected behaviour 3. Teaching expected behaviour 4. Encouraging expected behaviour 5. Essential classroom practice 6. Responding to unproductive behaviour 7. Ongoing monitoringThese components are covered over a series of 4 x 1 day workshops. The first two of these workshopsare held on consecutive days while the remaining two days are not concurrent.To ensure that the PBS Team Training is delivered effectively, the school principal needs to makethe following commitments: School staff have attended a PBS awareness workshop. There is >80% commitment to PBS by the staff. The school has selected a representative leadership team to implement PBS. The principal is a member of the school PBS leadership team. Student behaviour / pastoral care is identified as one of the school’s top three priorities. In addition, the school commits to: Involvement in evaluation of the WA PBS implementation. Page | 4Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  5. 5. Frequently Used Acronyms DoE Department of Education EBD Emotional/behaviour disorder IBMP Individual Behaviour Management Plan IEP Individual Education Plan IDP Individual Documented Plan ODR Office Discipline Referral Guides a monthly review of ODRs that are collated and graphed. The “Big 5 Report” includes: 1) Per Day Per Month 2) Problem Behaviour 3) Location 4) Time of Day 5) Number of Students Involved PBIS Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports -or- Positive Behavioural and Instructional Supports PBS Positive Behaviour Support PBS School Wide Positive Behaviour Support (also referred to as Effective Behaviour and Instruction Support – EBIS; Effective Behaviour Support – EBS) Tier 1 Interventions Schoolwide evidence informed interventions that are put in place for all Primary students Universal RtI Response to Intervention SAS Self-Assessment Survey Examines the current status and need for improvement of four behaviour support systems: (1) schoolwide discipline systems, (2) non-classroom management systems, (3) classroom management systems and (4) individual student systems. Tier 2 Interventions Interventions for a selected group of students Secondary SET Schoolwide Evaluation Tool Research-validated instrument to assess and evaluate the critical features of schoolwide effective behaviour support across an academic school year. The SET helps to determine: (1) the extent to which the school is already using PBS, (2) if training and technical assistance efforts result in change when using PBS, (3) if use of PBS procedures is related to valued changes in the safety, social culture and violent behaviour in the school. Tier 3 Interventions Interventions that are specifically developed for an individual Tertiary TIC Team Implementation Checklist Guides the development, implementation, monitoring and revision process for building a positive schoolwide culture. Helps to sustain efforts across time as well as through administrative and staff changes. Page | 5Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  6. 6. Informing a Schoolwide Approach The focus is on positive behaviour for learning based on evidence based principles and practices.BackgroundThe Department of Education position paper: Managing Student Behaviour requires our school leadersto institute school-wide approaches to manage bullying and other behaviours that make schools unsafeor disrupt the behaviour of other students. Improving student behaviour is a priority of the DepartmentFocus 2013: Directions for Schools.The position paper emphasises that all schools need to have systems where high standards areexpected, where there is consistency across staff in the approach taken, where there is a clear code ofconduct, where staff work together, where parents are involved, and where the staff use evidence topinpoint problems and plan action.The literature around school-wide approaches to positive behaviour management provides excellentmodels to manage organisational change to achieve these objectives. Schools implementing theseapproaches develop a school-wide multi tiered framework of interventions to improve behaviour,academic outcomes and school safety. These are based on sound psychological principles. Allstrategies are data driven and evidence based.The DoE is encouraging schools to view behaviour in educational terms. Teaching students expectedbehaviours, and ensuring educational adjustments complement behaviour interventions are cornerstonesof this approach. The Pipeline report highlighted the issue of disengaged students and students with lowlevel disruptive behaviours. As well as addressing more challenging behaviours, a key strategy inPositive Behaviour Support is for schools to implement universal strategies that have been shown tomaintain engagement and positive behaviour in about eighty percent of students.Positive Behaviour Support is a positive, proactive schoolwide organisational framework which utilises achange management model with the potential to address DoE priorities and result in improved academicoutcomes, student behaviour and school safety. Alignment with Department plans This approach is in accord with the intentions of the  Behaviour Management in Schools Policy  Managing Student Behaviour DET position paper  Director General’s Classroom First Strategy  Department of Education, Focus 2013, Directions for schools. Page | 6Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  7. 7. How to Effectively Manage and Teach Behaviour in SchoolsStudents in our schools come from many different backgrounds and cultures that view “behaviour”differently thus we cannot assume that students know how to behave appropriately when at school.Furthermore, many of our students are making poor choices when confronted with a conflict.Consequently, we must teach our students how to behave at school to ensure that they do make betterchoices. PBS views inappropriate behaviour in the same manner that problems in reading or math areviewed…as a skill deficit. When a skill deficit exists, we must teach the appropriate skill.The science of human behaviour has taught us that students are not “born with bad behaviour,” and theydo not learn better ways of behaving when given aversive consequences for their problem behaviours(Alberto and Troutman, 2001; Sulzer-Azaroff and Mayer, 1994; Walker et al., 1996). Successfullyaddressing problem behaviour requires an increased emphasis on proactive approaches in whichexpected and more socially acceptable behaviours are directly taught, regularly practised in the naturalenvironment, and followed by frequent positive reinforcement.A literature review conducted by Peter Hamilton, Director, Behaviour Standards and Wellbeing andpresented to Department of Education and Training State Executive (2005) found that there are ten keyelements apparent in schools that are effective in managing behaviour and in teaching positivebehaviours.These elements are that schools:  Adopt a whole school approach rather than an individual classroom approach.  Are proactive rather than only reactive  Respond by helping students reflect and learn rather than relying on punishment alone.  Have teachers who act with authority in and outside the classroom rather than being endlessly flexible.  Emphasise self-discipline rather than compliance with rules.  Have good support systems for teachers that keep them responsible for managing the behaviour of their students.  Have good support systems for individual students who need it.  Are proactive in terms of parent involvement.  Use evidence in planning to improve student behaviour.  Use outside help to build the capacity of the school to solve its own problems more skilfully rather than simply to fix the immediate problem.These elements have been incorporated into the Department’s BMIS policy. The policy states thatprincipals are responsible for developing behaviour management approaches which: are preventative innature; promote pro-social behaviour, student wellbeing and the development of self discipline; andfocus on early intervention. It also states that schools need to develop a whole school approach tobehaviour management that is underpinned by the following additional principles: appropriate curriculumand learning programs will encourage engagement; restorative and educative practices best promotepositive behaviour; student behaviour must not be viewed in isolation but as part of an interaction; andevidence-based decision making, reporting, recording and appropriate referral are vital. Establishing apositive, proactive schoolwide discipline plan is a necessary first step for enabling schools to achievetheir goals and responsibilities for all students. PBS supports the development of these approaches andunderlying principles Page | 7Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  8. 8. Key Beliefs Belief Statement One Unless educational change results in altered teacher practice in the classroom its impact on student achievement will not be great. Belief Statement Two Most educational change that is directed towards classroom practice fails not because the original ideas are without worth, but because the change is implemented so poorly. Awareness Comprehension Transfer What Was It About? Understand Key Uses The Learning Joyce and Showers 2002 What Were The Key Ideas? In The Classroom Ideas? Can Do The Skill In Setting? The Workshop? Input • Lecture/Tell • Talking 90% ------- 2 – 5% Head/Information Modelling/ Demonstration • Talks/Models 90% ------- 5% Practice And Check For Understanding 90% • Model/Practice/ 90% 10% Feedback Observation And Coaching • All Of The Above 90% 90% 90% • Observe Me Do It And Give Feedback Page | 8Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  9. 9. Key Beliefs Political Funding Visibility Policy Support LEADERSHIP TEAM (Coordination) Behavioral Training Coaching Evaluation Expertise Local School/District Implementation Demonstrations Belief Statement Three It is sometimes easier to behave your way into a new way of thinking than it is to think your way into a new way of behaving. Belief Statement Four There is no one right way to teach, but some are more effective than others. Page | 9Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  10. 10. National Safe Schools FrameworkThe National Safe Schools Framework helps Australian schools to develop effective student safety andwellbeing policies. The Australian Government collaborated with state and territory governments on theNational Safe Schools Framework (the Framework) as part of a national approach to supporting schoolsto build safe school communities.The Framework provides Australian schools with a vision and a set of guiding principles to help schoolcommunities be proactive in developing effective student safety and wellbeing policies. This visionincludes creating learning environments which are free from bullying, harassment, aggression andviolence.The Framework was endorsed by all ministers for education through the Ministerial Council forEducation, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs in December 2010. It was officially launchedby the Hon Peter Garrett, MP AM, Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth on March2011 to coincide with the inaugural National Day of Action Against Bullying and Violence.VisionThe National Safe Schools Framework is based on the following overarching vision:All Australian schools are safe, supportive and respectful teaching and learning communities thatpromote student wellbeing.Guiding principlesThe vision is supported by guiding principles for safe, supportive and respectful school communities.These guiding principles emphasis the importance of student safety and wellbeing for effective learningin all school settings.Australian schools:  affirm the rights of all members of the school community to feel safe and be safe at school  acknowledge that being safe and supported at school is essential for student wellbeing and effective learning  accept responsibility for developing and sustaining safe and supportive learning and teaching communities that also fulfill the school’s child protection responsibilities  encourage the active participation of all school community members in developing and maintaining a safe school community where diversity is valued  actively support young people to develop understanding and skills to keep themselves and others safe  commit to developing a safe school community through a whole-school andevidence-based approachThe framework also identifies nine elements in adopting a whole school approach to safety andwellbeing based on evidence-informed practices.The nine elements of the National Safe Schools Framework are: 1. Leadership commitment to a safe school 2. A supportive and connected school culture 3. Policies and procedures 4. Professional learning 5. Positive behaviour management 6. Engagement, skill development and a safe school curriculum 7. A focus on student wellbeing and student ownership 8. Early intervention and targeted support 9. Partnerships with families and community (MCEECDYA, 2011)Further information on the NSSF can be found at:http://deewr.gov.au/national-safe-schools-framework-0Many schools adopt a positive approach; however PBS goes a step further by incorporating thesepositive strategies into a framework for school improvement. This framework guides the process ofselection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence-based academic and behaviouralpractices for improving important academic and behaviour outcomes for all students. Page | 10Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  11. 11. How has childhood changed?Partner Activity How was your childhood different from kids today?Team Activity How are kids different today? How are they the same?There are five main areas that have experienced marked changes over the past 30-40 years whichmay explain the increases in problems for children and youth:  Demographic Changes  Economic Changes  Women in the Workforce  Changes in Family Structures  Increased Consuming Technologies Fiona Stanley, Sue Richardson and Margot Prior (2005) Page | 11Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  12. 12. What are some of the challenges facing schools today?Schools today are facing intense scrutiny and are under tremendous pressure for improvement. Colvin(2007) suggests that there are several major issues that place significant demands on schools.Increasing Diversity of StudentsOur schools are becoming increasingly ethnically, culturally, socially and economically diverse.Despite 20 years of economic growth, many people in Australia do not have at least a decent basicstandard of living.The recently released ‘Poverty and Inequality in Australia’ report shows that in Australia, one in eightpeople, including one in six children, were living at or below the poverty line. This equates to 2,265,000people (12.8% of all people) and significantly includes 575,000 children (17.3% of all children) who wereliving below the poverty line. (Australian Council of Social Service, 2012)These students bringeducational, social and familial problems schools are expected to overcome. (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey)Students with Special NeedsIncreasing proportions of our youth have complex diseases such as asthma, diabetes, intellectualdisabilities and particularly psychological problems such as depression/anxiety, suicide and eatingdisorders.Possibly the most worrying trend is the perceived dramatic increase in a range of behaviour problemssuch as attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and dangerous activities such as substance abuse.(Stanley, Richardsopn & Prioir, 2005) Even though these students represent a small proportion of ourschools’ enrolment, they typically account for more than 60% of the discipline problems, disrupt learning,and consume significant amounts of teacher and administrative time. (Sugai, Sprague, Horner & Walker2000; Taylor-Green et al., 1997) These students place high demands on staff, requiring carefullyplanned, individual support.Growing Student AlienationWith the increasing diversity and changes in home structures, teachers report that some students have adiminished respect for role-bound authority and a limited value for education. Alienation is one of thefactors contributing to students dropping out of school. (Scanlon & Millard, 2002) Educators are challenged to find interventions necessary to address reluctant students, includingrevising curriculum, academic and behaviour support, staff professional learning and parent/communitysupports.School Accountability for Academic Performance Page | 12Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  13. 13. What is Positive Behaviour Support?Since its inception, PBS has developed into a framework that can be used by any school to help improvethe social and learning behaviours of students and decrease disruptions that interfere with instruction.The PBS model has been successfully implemented in thousands of schools, resulting in reductions indisciplinary interventions and increases in academic achievement.School Wide Positive Behaviour Support:• Addresses the behavioural needs of all students with proven, easy to implement strategies.• Allows the school to create the “right fit” for them, so that practices are appropriate to the context and sustainable over time.• Is doable and does not have to overwhelm staff given the limited time and resources that schools generally experience.• Is affordable.• Helps to create a positive school climate.• Results in increased time for instruction and fewer disciplinary incidents.PBS is not a curriculum, intervention or practice, but is a decision making framework that guidesselection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence based academic and behaviouralpractices for improving important academic and behaviour outcomes for all students. It is a preventionmodel, based on the premise that all students can benefit from well implemented, evidence-basedpractices for improving student behaviour. PBS provides a comprehensive framework that can be usedby any school to design their own system of behavioural supports for all students. It also providesinformed decision making, based upon data analysis that guides the process of assessing student needsand providing additional levels of behavioural support to students in need.The following principles are used to guide decisions and actions when implementing PBS:  Establish school discipline as an instrument for academic and behaviour success  Consider and implement schoolwide practices and systems for all students, all staff, and all settings  Emphasise prevention  Utilise research-validated practices, interventions, and strategies  Integrate initiatives, programs, and interventions that have common outcomes  Build and sustain a continuum of behaviour support  Coordinate efforts with a schoolwide leadership team  Use data to guide decision making  Make decisions that are linked to important and measurable outcomes  Evaluate continuously  Emphasise an instructional approach to behaviour management  Adapt products, activities, actions, etc. to align with cultural and demographic characteristics of the local community.PBS applies evidence-based approaches, practices and strategies for all students to increase academicperformance, improve safety, decrease problem behaviour, and establish a positive school culture.Schools implementing PBS build on existing strengths, complementing and organising currentprogramming and strategies.PBS provides an organisational approach or framework for:  improving the social behavioural climate of schools  supporting or enhancing the impact of academic instruction on achievement  increasing proactive/positive/preventive management while decreasing reactive management  integrating academic and behaviour initiatives  improving support for all students, including students at risk and students with emotional behavioural disabilities (EBD) Page | 13Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  14. 14. Why ‘Getting Tough’ Doesn’t WorkThe Traditional View of DisciplineApproaches to behaviour management in schools often rest on authority, coercion, exclusion andregulation. These traditional and reactive approaches to discipline represent the challenge that schoolsface in relation to the resilience of particular practices and beliefs about problematic student behaviour,despite evidence of their ineffectiveness. When educators are asked to define discipline, a commonresponse is ‘punishment for rule breaking behaviour.’ Schools traditionally have developed a list ofprohibitive rules and a series of increasingly severe punishments for students who are unable to followthese rules.Attempts to respond to challenging behaviour in schools often result in an over reliance on the use ofaversive and exclusionary consequences. For example, teachers respond to chronic problem behaviourby increasing their use of verbal reprimands, loss of privileges, and exclusionary consequences. Ifstudent behaviour does not improve, school systems increase their reactive responses by establishingzero tolerance policies, increasing surveillance and excluding students from school. Justification for theincreased use of reactive management strategies is based on the erroneous assumption that the studentis ‘inherently bad’ and ‘will learn a better way of behaving next time’.This over reliance on reactive management practices is a predictable outcome because teachers,parents and school administration experience an immediate reduction or removal of the problembehaviour when they use strong aversive practices. Having experienced a reduction and relief from thestudent problem behaviour, they are more likely to use reactive management practices when futurestudent problem behaviour occurs. Unfortunately these reductions are temporary, and problembehaviours typically recur, sometimes at higher rates and more intensive levels.Although the use of aversive consequences can inhibit the occurrence of problem behaviour in studentswho are already relatively successful at school, these procedures tend to be least effective for studentswith the most severe problem behaviours. In addition a number of negative side effects are associatedwith the exclusive use of reactive approaches to discipline.  A punishing climate can be a setting event for problem behaviours. (Sulzer-Azaroff and Mayer, 1974)  A school climate relying on punishing consequences can provoke problem behaviours (Sulzer- Azaroff and Mayer, 1974) such as increases in anti social behaviour, breakdown of student- teacher relations, degradation of school/social climate, and/or decreases in academic achievement.  A literature review conducted by the National Safe Schools Framework (2011) found that when teachers use behaviour management strategies that are based on dominance and submission, they model this type of behaviour for students.Research shows that punishing problem behaviour without a positive,proactive, and instructional approach results in increased: • Aggression • Vandalism • Truancy • Dropouts • (Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1990; Skiba, Peterson & Williams, 1997)In reality, punishments satisfy the punisher, but have little lasting effect on the punished. (Losen, 2011)The use of exclusionary approaches is in direct conflict with schools missions to help all students achievetheir fullest potential. Punitive policies fail the very students they target. Is it reasonable to excludestudents with social, emotional and behavioural needs from the one environment that may allow them tolearn the vital skills, behaviours and attitudes necessary to function successfully, not only in school, butalso in the community and workforce? Page | 14Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  15. 15. Why ‘Getting Tough’ Doesn’t WorkIndividual ActivityRead the following classroom scenario. Write some teacher actions that would be a sure fire way toescalate the situation.Mark turns up to class lateand clearly agitated,muttering under his breath.He comes into class andslams the door loudly.He then sits down and putshis head on his desk.Partner ActivityThink about your schoolingand an effective teacher thatyou remember.What did they say or do tomanage unproductivebehaviour? Universal Needs Maslow Dreikurs Glasser Brendtro, Stanley et.al (1968) (1972) (1986) Brokenleg, & (2005) Van Bockern (1990)Survival Survival Mastery CompetenceBelonging Belonging Belonging Belonging BelongingLove Power Independence Independence AutonomyEsteem Fun Generosity ConnectednessSelf- Actualisation Freedom  “Teaching and learning in our society is a social process and we must create schools that satisfy the students’, and teachers’, needs to belong and be respected.” Bennett & Smilanich, 1994  The crux of successful behaviour management is acting to meet students’ needs rather than simply reacting when they misbehave. Managing Student Behaviour WA DoE Position Paper Page | 15Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  16. 16. Rethinking Discipline A Starting Point  We can’t make students learn or behave.  We can create environments that increase the likelihood that students will learn and behave.  Environments that increase this likelihood are guided by a core curriculum which is implemented with consistency and fidelity.Discipline is TeachingAs we seek to ensure inclusive learning environments, our thinking regarding discipline needs to change.Is discipline concerned with punishing misbehaviour or with preventing it? Discipline  teaching to act in accordance with rules;  activity, exercise, instruction, or a regimen that develops or improves a skill; training. Random House Unabridged Dictionary  (fr. Latin disciplina; teaching, learning) Instruction that corrects, molds or perfects character and develops self-control. Webster’s New Collegiate DictionaryDiscipline is synonymous with teaching. Given that most schools have a discipline policy that includesconsequences for inappropriate behaviour, our task is to develop a continuum of procedures fordiscouraging inappropriate behaviour that focuses on teaching and helping students to learn the desiredbehaviours instead of merely punishing (Lewis & Sugai, 1999).Discipline is the slow, ongoing, sometimes time consuming task of helping students see the sense ofacting in certain ways. This thinking is in line with the high probability explanation for many disciplineproblems today – skill deficit. This understands that many students come from environments that havenot taught or expected pro-social behaviour for school success and they have a limited repertoire ofbehaviours and do not know how to behave responsibly in a school setting. Blaming the student andresponding by ‘getting tough’ will not alter the skill deficit; teaching will.Reaching today’s students requires a teaching focus – teaching students how to be successful sndbehave responsibly in school. This is based on the belief that social behaviour is learned and cantherefore be taught. Students can be taught socially acceptable ways of behaving just as one wouldteach any academic subject. Discipline should be based on the very same instructional concepts used tofacilitate academic learning. Reasons for Inappropriate Behaviour: 1. Skill Deficit –absent skill levels or insufficient opportunity to learn and practice the expected behaviour 2. Performance Deficit – a lack of motivation to perform the preferred behaviour Either problem–absent skill or lack of motivation–requires more teaching and practice to resolve 3. Adult behaviour - inadvertently reinforces incorrect skills. Page | 16Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  17. 17. Rethinking Discipline The science of behaviour has taught us that If a child doesn’t know how to read we teach. students’ If a child doesn’t know how to spell we teach. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviours” If a child doesn’t know how to count we teach. • Do NOT learn better ways of behaving If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we.... teach? punish? when given aversive consequences. • Do learn better ways of behaving when behaviours are directly taught, regularly Why can’t we finish the last sentence as practised in the natural environment, and automatically as the others? followed by frequent positive reinforcement. Partner Activity – Correcting an academic error How did you get the correct response? Academic and Behaviour Errors: A Comparison of Approaches Error Type Approaches for Academic Errors Ineffective Approaches for Behaviour Errors Infrequent  Assume student is trying to make  Assume student is choosing to be correct response; error was accidental, bad, error was deliberate, a a skill deficit. performance deficit.  Provide assistance (teach, model,  Use consequences/punish. guide, check)  Provide more practise and feedback,  Practise not required. monitor progress.  Assume student has learned skill and  Assume student has learned lesson will perform correctly in the future. and will behave correctly in the future. Frequent  Assume student has learned the wrong  Assume the student is refusing to way or has inadvertently been taught cooperate; student knows what is right the incorrect way. and is being defiant.  Diagnose problem, determine more  Provide more severe consequences; effective way to teach. remove student from teaching context. (Office referral, detention, suspension etc.)  Adjust teaching arrangements to  Maintain student removal from accommodate learner needs. Provide teaching context. practise and feedback  Assume student has learned skill and  Assume student has learned lesson will perform correctly in the future. and will behave in the future. Page | 17Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  18. 18. The Science of BehaviourBehaviour is FunctionalPBS is grounded in the science of behaviour or applied behaviour analysis (ABA). Applied behaviouranalysis is the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications to produce sociallysignificant improvement in behaviour. In short, the science of behaviour focuses on changes in theenvironment to result in changed behaviour. Thus in PBS we are focusing on changing the behaviour ofthe adults to change the environment that will, in turn, encourage change in student behaviour.Behaviour is a form of communication and some students learn that problem behaviour is the best wayto get their needs met. As adults, we need to recognise that recurring misbehaviour occurs for a reasonand take this into account when determining how to respond to misbehaviour. When we are able toidentify the function or purpose of the behaviour, we can more effectively intervene.If a student repeatedly engages in problem behaviour, he/she is most likely doing it for a reason – it is‘paying off’ for the student. Therefore the behaviour is functional and serves a purpose for the student.Central to understanding applied behaviour analysis is knowing your ABCs;Antecedent – Behaviour – Consequence. That is, something happens preceding thebehaviour (the Antecedent), which in effect causes or influences the Behaviour, which results inConsequences.Remember that behaviour is functional; it is not good or bad. It is functional because it pays off in someway and the student is encouraged to repeat the behaviour.In PBS there is a strong focus on Antecedents, the things we can do as adults to support students to besuccessful in achieving behavioural outcomes. (A)Antecedent (B) Behaviour (C) Consequence  Conditions and  An observable act.  The resulting event or circumstances that increase outcome that occurs the probability of a behaviour  What the student says and immediately following the occurring. does in response to the behaviour. antecedent.  What happens before the  A consequence either behaviour occurs? increases or decreases the likelihood the behaviour will occur in the future. PBS Example  Expectations are displayed  Students walk quietly to line  Teacher provides class and on the school wide matrix. up, keeping voices quiet and individual students with hands and feet to sel. specific feedback and  Transition behaviour is encouragement. clearly defined and taught.  “Tim, thanks for being  Teacher gives a pre-correct respectful and using a quiet before the class begins voice.” transition.  Teacher gives student the  “Remember to be safe and school encouragement respectful by having a quiet system tangible. voice and keeping your hands and feet to yourself.”  Teacher actively supervises transition. Page | 18Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  19. 19. Developing a Common PhilosophyIndividual ActivityThe following beliefs reflect current literature and best practices in school discipline. Read and choosethe one that resonates with your beliefs. Complete a Quick Write explaining why you selected it.Partner ActivityShare your explanation with a partner1. Students today may not have had the opportunity to learn acceptable behaviour. We cannot assume that students know the behaviours and social skills required for success at school and in life. Behaviour is learned, therefore responsible behaviour can be taught.2. Punishment focuses on what not to do and does not teach the student alternative successful ways to behave. Student discipline is best achieved through instruction rather than punishment3. For behaviour change to occur, we must use positive approaches that strengthen teacher-student relationships4. Students need and want high standards for their behaviour. Maintaining high expectations does not require “get tough” or punitive approaches.5. Student discipline is a shared responsibility and requires a combined effort by all staff. All staff must work together, developing consensus on procedures and consistent implementation. Successful change in discipline practices requires school wide systematic approaches.6. Services for students with chronic or intense behaviours are most effective within the context of a larger schoolwide commitment to the social development of all students. Page | 19Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  20. 20. The PBS Framework Outcomes, Data, Practices and SystemsAccurate and sustained implementation of any approach in a school environment can often be hinderedby the demands of competing initiatives; the use of traditional disciplinary practices that are contrary tothe underlying philosophy of a positive behaviour approach or the tendency to adopt new strategies for ashort period of time. The PBS approach differs from others as it emphasises sustained use of effectivebehavioural practices from a systems perspective. (Greenwood, Delquadri, & Bulgren, 1993; Latham,1988)This systems perspective focuses on the collective actions of individuals within a school and how theycontribute to the way the school as a whole operates. Individuals within a school need school systemlevel supports to sustain the desired goal related behaviours.The ultimate goal is for school improvement to become embedded to the extent that: 1. It is established in the school’s direction 2. Leadership provides ongoing support for the practices 3. Staff possess the essential knowledge, attitudes and skills 4. Policies and procedures support the work.Four elements guide the systematic implementation of PBS – Outcomes, Data, Practices andSystems. Positive Behaviour Support is not a curriculum, a program or an intervention. It differs fromany program currently in place in that it is an approach to school improvement that requiresdevelopment of these four integrated elements: • Identifying outcomes in the form of agreed expectations for student and staff behaviour. Monitoring and reviewing these outcomes. “What do we want to see?” • Using data for decision making. PBS schools collect data about student behaviour, student responsiveness to behaviour interventions and teacher effectiveness in implementing agreed behaviour management practices. PBS schools have access to self assessment, audit and planning tools. “What do we currently see and know?” • Adopting practices with evidence that desired outcomes are achievable. “What practices could effectively, efficiently, and relevantly achieve what we want to see?”  Putting in place systems that efficiently and effectively support schools and teachers to implement these practices. Systems include a team identified to lead PBS in the school; data management systems, training arrangements and technical supports for teachers. “What needs to be in place to support: 1. the informed adoption of practices and 2. full implementation that is contextualised, accurate, and sustainable?” Page | 20Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  21. 21. The PBS Framework Outcomes, Data, Practices and SystemsImplementation is Interactive and InformingEffective implementation of an evidence based practice requires these four interactive elements.Following this framework enables continuous monitoring, informed decision making, and continuous selfenhancement. Page | 21Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  22. 22. Evidence Based Behavioural Practices and InterventionsBehaviour management practices adopted by PBS schools are based on well researched behaviourscience that accords with the Director General’s statement on Managing Student Behaviour. Thestatement highlights an educative (behaviour is learned and can be taught), ecological (behaviour isinfluenced by the situation in which it occurs) and functional (behaviour is purposeful) perspective onbehaviour.Students need to experience consequences so they know which behaviour is acceptable, and which isnot, but they do not learn better ways of behaving when only given aversive consequences. To learnbetter ways of behaving, students must be directly taught the replacement behaviours. To retain newbehaviours, students must be given specific, positive feedback and opportunities to practise in a varietyof settings. School procedures based on these principles are in line with current evidence based bestpractice in the educational literature.PBS emphasises the selection and implementation of the most appropriate, effective, efficient andrelevant practices and interventions that match the needs, resources and competence of users. Some ofthese behavioural interventions and practices are listed below. PBS Practices and InterventionsSchool Wide  Principal leadership and supportAll students, all staff,  Common behaviour purpose and approach to discipline lead by aacross all settings representative PBS leadership team.  Clearly defined behaviour expectations and behaviours  Procedures for teaching expected behaviours  A continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour  Continuum of procedures for responding to unproductive behaviour  Procedures for ongoing data based monitoring and evaluationClassroom  Classroom routines and procedures identified, taught and acknowledgedNon Classroom  Active teacher supervision by all staff, emphasising proximity, scanningSettings and frequent interactions  CMS Low key Responses  Winning Over  Pre corrections  4:1 ratio of specific positive feedback  Respectful, consistent redirection and error correction  Multiple opportunities to respond  Offering academic choiceStudent  Function based support planningIndividual or groups  Team and data based decision makingof students whose  Check in Check outbehaviours are not  Targeted social skills lessonsresponsive to Tier 1  Individualised instructional accommodationinterventions  Comprehensive person centered planning and wrap around processesFamily  Frequent, regular and positive contacts, communications andEngaging and acknowledgementssupporting family  Formal and active participation and involvement as equal partnersparticipation and  Access to system of integrated school and community resourcesaccess to resourcesof the school Page | 22Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  23. 23. Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportA major advance in schoolwide discipline is the emphasis on schoolwide systems of support that includeproactive strategies for defining, teaching, and supporting appropriate student behaviours. Instead ofusing a patchwork of individual behavioural management plans, a continuum of positive behavioursupport for all students is implemented in the classroom and non-classroom settings.Systems of support are implemented by making problem behaviour less effective, efficient, and relevant,and making desired behaviour more functional. A continuum is needed because a relatively smallproportion of students (1-15%) have learning histories that cause general schoolwide interventions (TierOne) to be ineffective. These students require additional specialised and individualised interventions.Schoolwide discipline systems should not be abandoned because the behaviours of these students areunresponsive. Instead, schools should think of schoolwide discipline systems as being importantfoundations for (a) supporting the majority of students, (b) preventing the development of chronicproblem behaviour for students with high risk backgrounds and learning histories, and (c) providingmore specialised and individualised behaviour supports for students with high intensity, difficult-to-change problem behaviours.PBS is designed to meet the unique behavioural needs of each school and every student through thiscontinuum of support which has three broad levels of implementation. These three levels operationaliseprevention from a public health perspective, and emphasise interventions that range from preventing thedevelopment of inappropriate behaviour (Tier 1 – Universal) to reducing the frequency or intensity of(Tier 2 and 3) problem behaviour occurrences. This continuum of school wide, instructional and positivebehaviour supports is a defining feature of PBS.Tier 1/Universal - Interventions for all studentsInitially, school PBS leadership teams develop Tier 1 or Universal school wide management strategiesdesigned to meet the needs of all students and develop a common language and focus for all schoolstaff, families, and community members. Tier 1 strategies are designed to be implemented consistentlyand efficiently across all school settings, classroom and non-classroom, staff and students. Thisincludes teaching specific behaviours or social skills that will lead to success in school, providingfrequent positive reinforcement for expected behaviour, consistently addressing social/ behaviouralerrors, and arranging teaching and learning environments to ensure success for all. This level shouldmeet the needs of approximately 80 percent of a school’s student body.Tier 2/Targeted Group - Interventions for some students (at risk)Tier 2 support is developed to provide targeted group based strategies for students whopresent high risk factors and who require repeated practice and environmental modifications toincrease their likelihood of academic and social/behavioural success. These strategies arematched to need or function-based and applied to the relatively small proportion of studentswho require more than Tier 1 prevention support for their social success in school. Althoughthey are linked to Tier 1 interventions, Tier 2 interventions are more intensive and typicallyrequire more adult attention and monitoring. The behavioural strategies of Tier 2 can be likenedto the small group academic interventions for students requiring additional instruction orpractise to keep up with the standard curriculum. Approximately 15 percent of students are atrisk and in need of Tier 2 interventions.Tier 3/Targeted Individual - Individual StudentsTier 3 systems of support are developed to provide highly specialised strategies for therelatively small number of students who engage in chronic challenging behaviour that isunresponsive to Tier 1 or Tier 2 interventions. At this level a team approach using inter agencysupport develop a team based and comprehensive behaviour intervention plan. This can belikened to the student who is unable to read using the standard curriculum and requires a highlyprescribed and individualised reading intervention approach. Approximately 5 percent of thestudent body will require indivualised attention. Page | 23Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  24. 24. Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportThe image below illustrates the continuum of support for PBS and its academic counterpart.The three tiered prevention logic organises practices and systems along a continuum of increasing intensity and/or complexity. Although the continuum is dynamic and blended the three tiers aregenerally described as follows: Tier 3: Intensive practices and systems for students whose behaviours have (Intensive) been documented as not responsive at tiers 1 and 2. Behaviours of 1- 10% of students Individualised to the specific needs and strengths of the student More intensive and specialised practices and systems for students Tier 2: whose behaviours have been documented as not responsive at tier (Targeted) Behaviours of 10- 30% of students 1. Generally provided in a standardised manner in small student groupings. Tier 1: (Universal) Practices and systems for all students and staff implemented across Behaviours of 70-90% of students all school settings.Continuum of supportMany aspects of this continuum may already be in place in your school, however many schoolsimplement such support strategies separately in an unconnected way. With the PBS process, all smallgroup and individual interventions are connected to the school wide Tier 1 system, using a commonlanguage, tying together systems and keeping all staff informed. When a true connected continuum ofsupports has a common base, schools are able to increase their effectiveness and efficiency insupporting students with challenging behaviour. Page | 24Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  25. 25. Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour Support Notes: Page | 25Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  26. 26. Three Tier Continuum of Behaviour SupportActivity  List the current practices and interventions in place at your school in each of these three levels of implementation.  Write an R or P next to each practice to describe whether they are preventative or reactive. Page | 26Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  27. 27. WA PBS TIER 1 Seven Essential ComponentsThere are seven ‘essential component’ of PBS that together from a highly effective approach to schoolwide discipline. Each component is vital; that is they operate together to ensure the positive andproactive approach to discipline that is likely to lead to behavioural and academic success. PBS Essential Description Components 1. The PBS leadership team includes the school principal and a team that is Leadership representative of the school staff. The team leads the school through a process of developing and gaining consensus on beliefs, expectations and procedures along with a written plan. This full staff involvement in the process is crucial, and effective leadership utilises effective and efficient group processes to engage staff, understand change and the stages of implementation, and provide effective professional development. Just as schools rely on the direction provided by their academic curriculums, 2. success with student discipline begins with clear behavioural expectations- a Defining behavioural curriculum. These expectations are a vision of responsible student Expected behaviour and social competence. Agreed upon expectations promote consistency Behaviour across staff through a common language and assists educators to be proactive in recognising students behaving responsibly. This agreed upon behavioural curriculum, consistently upheld, is one of the most important aspects of school discipline. 3. Once expectations have been defined, systematic teaching of the expected Teaching behaviours must be a routine part of the school day. This teaching uses the same Expected methods as teaching academic skills, through modelling, practise and feedback. Behaviour Lesson plans, teaching schedules and special activities and events are planned to guide the ongoing teaching of expected behaviours. Staff not only teach and model expected behaviour, but must also watch for and 4. provide regular feedback to students about their behavioural progress. Creating a Encouraging school culture where expected behaviours are the norm requires that staff interact Expected with students four times more frequently when they have engaged in appropriate Behaviour behaviour than when the student is misbehaving. 5. These practices impact academic learning time and ultimately student achievement Essential while ensuring a positive and welcoming learning environment. They represent the Classroom facets of classroom teaching under the teacher’s control that have been identified Practice as evidence based practices to maximise learning for all students while minimising discipline problems. 6. Unproductive behaviour also requires feedback and should be viewed as a teaching Responding to opportunity – a chance to clarify and re-teach expectations. The same calm Unproductive instructional approach used when students make academic errors should be used Behaviour to correct behavioural errors. The development of a continuum of responses to misbehaviour provides staff with the tools to effectively respond to and change student misbehaviour. The use of data focuses a schools efforts by identifying areas in need of 7. improvement as well as those operating well, and keep the effort alive by providing Ongoing feedback or knowledge of results that promote consistent implementation and Monitoring renewal. Data is used to monitor student behaviour and the PBS implementation process. Page | 27Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  28. 28. Component 1 Leadership  Principal Support, Participation and Leadership  PBS Leadership Team  Representative Membership  Operating Procedures  Roles and responsibilities  Scheduled meetings  Standard agenda format  Consensus strategies  Working Agreements  Purpose statement  Developing and following an action plan  Communication System  Disseminating information  Presenting data  Receiving feedback from stake holders (staff, students, families & community)  Working Smarter Page | 28Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  29. 29. What are the Systems, Data and Practices involved in the PBS leadership team? • Copies of meeting minutes • Copy of team roles/responsibilities • Copy of team norms • Guidelines for staff development DATA • Copy of parent brochure Supporting • Copy of classroom newsletters Decision Making • Copy of P&C newsletter • School Readiness Survey • Team Implementation Checklist (TIC • Schoolwide Evaluation Tool (SET)) • Copy of PBS action plan • Student representation on team (as age appropriate) • PBS included in school handbook PRACTICES • PBS information board Supporting • PBS information on school website Student • Classroom newsletters include PBS information Behaviour • P&C newsletter includes information about PBS • PBS expectations distributed to families • PBS discussed during parent teacher meetings • Administrator states frequent and public support for PBS by regular communication with staff, students, families and community. • Team is representative of staff/community • Time is scheduled for PBS leadership team to meet at least monthly. • Team has effective operating procedures. • Team members have clearly defined roles/responsibilities • Agenda for each meeting • Team creates purpose statement • Team develops meeting norms SYSTEMS • Team uses a PBS decision making model Supporting Staff • Stagger team membership so team membership rotates Behaviour • New staff encouraged to participate • Survey team members on process • Team creates and reviews action plan to guide work • Regular PBS updates are scheduled during staff meetings and staff provided with professional development. • Meetings on school calendar • PBS meeting minutes distributed to all staff • PBS information board in staffroom • Email reminders, encouragement and suggestions • PBS information on school website • PBS staff development Page | 29Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  30. 30. PBS Leadership Team “Every organisation has a culture, that history and underlying sense of unwritten expectations that shape everything about the school. A school culture influences the ways people think, feel and act.” Kent Peterson “In schools with good discipline, the staff believe in their school and in what its students can do, and they expend unusual amounts of energy to make that belief come true.” Commission on Discipline, 1982The process recommended for effective school improvement is based on strong leadership and shareddecision making and consensus building among all school staff. It begins with the formation of theschool PBS leadership team. This team will assist staff in the continual process of developing andmaintaining a positive shool environment where students behave responsibly.Staff members who serve on the PBS Leadership Team will have the opportunity to play a key role inshaping the school climate. Assigned to provide leadership, this team does not assume soleresponsibility for developing PBS in the school. Instead, they will thoughtfully involve the entire staff inrethinking their beliefs about student behaviour, reviewing existing procedures, and developing moreeffective evidence based practices and policies.When everyone has a hand in developing school wide discipline procedures, ownership is increased,consensus is more readily obtained and consistent staff implementation of procedures is ensured.The more difficulty that is anticipated as you undertake your behavioural school improvement effort –the amount of change required, a current lack of cohesiveness among staff, poor communicationbetween different year levels or between administrators and staff, etc. – the more important it is to havea strong PBS Leadership Team that involves the entire staff in the process. PBS is a process, ratherthan a product – a process of developing and gaining consensus on beliefs, expectations andprocedures, not just the completion of a written policy or staff discipline handbook. Full staff involvementin this process is crucial and effective leadership essential.Because PBS is a process, not a program, the length of time this approach takes varies by school.There are critical components that comprise the entire process. The components are individualised tomeet the specific needs of each school.PBS is a collaborative (team-based), educative, proactive, and functional process to promote positivebehaviour and develop effective interventions for inappropriate behaviour.In PBS, school based leadership teams are provided with training on: 1) Systems change and leadership principle and practices. 2) Application of research-validated instructional and management principles and practices for school wide, non classroom, classroom and individual student needs. Page | 30Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  31. 31. Principal Support, Participation and Leadership“It appears indisputable that the Principal is the key to any major schoolwide staff development activity.Consequently, any school improvement or reform effort needs to have solid and clearly defined support from the Principal for the endeavour to succeed.” Geoff Colvin School improvement will depend on principals who can foster the conditions necessary for sustained educational reform in a complex rapidly changing society. Michael FullanMost educators agree that principal support is necessary for any effective initiative. As the principalgoes, so goes the time, focus, resources and attention to any given school improvement effort. Tofurther define the role of the principal in the development and implementation of Positive BehaviourSupport, thirteen strategies are offered by Colvin (2007).Maintain Standards for Best Practice.Principals are the “clearinghouse” for research-based effective practices to address schoolimprovement. Principals must lead staff toward research-based practices and reject the myriad ofpractices and programs that may not be efficient and effective toward meeting school improvementgoals. By serving as the “gatekeeper”, the principal can maintain standards.Publically Provide Support.The words and actions of the principal are powerful. As an active member of his or her school’s positivebehaviour support teams, the principal will work with the team and school staff to develop a purposestatement to define why Positive Behaviour Support is important and needed. The principal’s role is tofollow through by making the PBS efforts visible to staff, students, families and the community.Establish a PBS Leadership Team.The principal gives staff a leadership role for SWPB by establishing a building level team to gain staffsupport for implementation. The team should be representative of the building. This can be achieved byincluding members that reflect the various stakeholders involved (teachers, paraprofessionals, canteensupervisors, parents, students in secondary schools, etc.) It is important for the principal to be amember of the team to provide the time and financial resources needed, but the principal sharesleadership with the entire teamSupport the PBS Team Members.Team members assume a big responsibility and time commitment to provide leadership for PBS to theschool. The principal can support the team members by recognising, privately and publicly, the effort ofeach leadership team member. In addition, the principal needs to be sensitive to members’ workloadand limit their participation in other committees and school activities.Guide the Decision Making Process.One leadership role the principal can provide is to teach and guide the team and entire staff through aprocess for making decisions. Voting and building consensus are decision making processes that theprincipal can lead.Take a Leadership Role in Problem Resolution:Some times when problems arise, they need to be solved in a timely manner. The principal may need tostep in at this point to lead the group to a workable solution. This may include reminding staff of theshared vision, encouraging effective communication and supporting effective processes to guidedecisions. Page | 31Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  32. 32. Principal Support, Participation and Leadership ctdSupport the PBS Team Meetings.The most important thing an principal can do to support the team is to consistently attend the PBSLeadership Team meetings. If a deputy principal regularly attends the PBS Leadership Team meetings,the head principal should attend the meeting when possible to show support and unity for the PBSinitiative.Provide Recognition for Staff and Team and Their Work.Showing sincere appreciation through notes or personal comments of gratitude for the effort teammembers is greatly appreciated. These efforts will help all continue to work needed to plan andimplement PBSServe as the Point Person for School-Related Groups.An important role of the principal is to communicate progress on the goals of the PBS initiative. Theprincipal will communicate with school and community groups such as the parent teacher organisations,district administrators, school board, and student organisations.Monitor Implementation Activities and Provide Feedback.Principals will need to learn the skills required to implement PBS. Principals can provide appreciationand recognition to staff members planning and implementing PBS. This is an important instructionalleadership role. Additionally, when staff members are not upholding their responsibilities toward thedevelopment of PBS, the principal can provide reminders of the expectations during meetings and inmemos. The principal may need to have private conversations to help individuals understandexpectations and to identify any support they may need to be able to implement the PBS practices.Review Data and Provide Feedback Regularly.Data collection, synthesis and review is an essential component of PBS. The principal will need toassign individuals on the Leadership Team responsibility for data monitoring. In addition, secretarialsupport staff may need support to enter and create efficient data charts for regular review by theprincipal and Leadership Team.Ensure Innovation is Sustained:A principal plays a crucial role in sustaining the PBS initiative over time. Staff interest and attention maywane if too many other initiatives are introduced or if the overt problem behaviours have been resolved.The principal must be diligent to keep all staff focused on the PBS purpose and goals. A plan must alsobe created to keep new staff, students and families knowledgeable of the school’s PBS efforts.Changing a culture takes timeMake a Time Commitment:The principal must understand that it takes time to bring everyone on board and to implement the PBSplan. Developing and implementation of PBS is not a sprint, it is a long distance run. The principal mustbe patient and persistent to continue the PBS initiative by continuing to provide support, participationand leadership. As the principal goes, so goes the school. Page | 32Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  33. 33. Principal Support, Participation and LeadershipTeam Activity Review the strategy below: Make a public statement of support: The words and actions of the principal are powerful. Those schools that participate in PBS will work to develop a purpose statement. This purpose statement will define why PBS is important and needed. The principal’s role is to then follow through by making the PBS efforts visible to staff, student, families and the community. Discuss how your principal/administration currently make public statements of support for other initiatives in your school. Are these effective? Where, when, to whom and how can your principal/administrators provide effective public statements of support for PBS? 1. Where? 2. When? 3. To Whom? 4. How?Adapted for Qld SWPBS by W Dawson 2011-03-04 Page | 33Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013
  34. 34. PBS Leadership TeamPBS is a collaborative process with administration and staff working together. Therefore it is essentialthat the team includes the principal and full representation of the school staff. It is important to establishand maintain a strong representative leadership team that involves the entire staff in the PBS process.Activity:How does your team match up? Guidelines for establishing a PBS leadership team  Principal is an active member  1-2 individuals with behaviour/classroom management competence  Between 6-10 team members  Coaching support Representative of demographics of school and community  Year level teachers  Subject level teachers  Specialist teachers  Support staff  School psychologist  Parent /community  Students  OtherDoes your team need to include other members to ensure representation? Page | 34Credits [DO NOT DELETE]: Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support and the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and SupportAdapted for WA PBS by S.Telfer Version March 2013

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