(Introduction of Presenters….) Today we will be talking about one form of Progress Monitoring: Curriculum-Based Measurement, or CBM.
Research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM to inform their instructional decision making, students learn more, teacher decision making improves, and students are more aware of their own performance (e.g., Fuchs, Deno, & Mirkin, 1984). CBM research, conducted over the past 30 years, has also shown CBM to be reliable and valid (e.g., Deno, 1985; Germann & Tindal, 1985; Marston, 1988; Shinn, 1989). A more in-depth bibliography of CBM research is available in the CBM manual. Resources: Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232. Fuchs, L.S., Deno, S.L., & Mirkin, P.K. (1984). Effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement of evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 449-460. Germann G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application on curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children, 52 , 244-265. Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time-series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education, 21, 13-26. Shinn, M.R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.
Specific subskill testing relies on mastery measurement where small domains of test items and mastery criteria are specified for each subskill. For example, a teacher wants to increase a students spelling proficiency so she needs to do two things. One, determine the subskill hierarchy for the spelling curriculum she is using and Two, design a criterion-referenced testing procedure to match each step on the hierarchy. These skills are then taught in sequence.
Specific subskill testing relies on mastery measurement where small domains of test items and mastery criteria are specified for each subskill. For example, a teacher wants to increase a students spelling proficiency so she needs to do two things. One, determine the subskill hierarchy for the spelling curriculum she is using and Two, design a criterion-referenced testing procedure to match each step on the hierarchy. These skills are then taught in sequence.
Skill Hierarchies, use a scope and sequence for instruction (usually based on theory not empirical evidence) Teacher-Made Tests, will have no technical adequacy to support them, while commercial criterion-referenced tests are no better. Not to mention the time and money it takes for teacher to make these tests. Retention and Generalization, is not assessed because only one skill in the hierarchy is assessed at any one time. Measurement of Short-Term Instructional Objectives, are always closely linked. This is problematic because the skill is only assessed on that one task and it may not generalize to other related tasks (only near transfer and not far transfer). Measurement Shifts, must occur each time a skill is mastered. So new assessments will always need to be developed and scores will drop each time a new skill is assessed until that student has mastered the skill.
CBM is USUALLY not mastery measurement but some math probes that look at specific skills and even some early reading probes like letter sounds may be considered mastery measurement because they assess a specific skill.
Skill Domains, instead the teacher identifies the domain they want to measure throughout the year (Typically this is the curriculum content for one school year). Retention and Generalization, the skills being assessed represent the current instructional focus along with those representing past and future instructional targets. Measurement for Long-Term Curricular Goal Performance, means the assessment is less sensitive to acquisition of the specific skills currently taught BUT it is sensitive enough for instructional decision making. And because it describes student performance in terms of proficiency on the critical behavior that are broadly indicative of the annual curriculum, content and criterion validity are high relative to mastery measurement. Measurement Shifts, do not occur because the difficulty of the assessment remains constant across the school year. So there are not high and then low points the student will experience. AND student growth can be indexed over time Test Construction, general outcome measurement uses a standardized way of obtaining assessment material, administering and scoring tests and summarizing and evaluating scores. It has documented reliability and validity which mastery measurement lacks.
Math can be done really well, spelling okay too. Reading and writing—NO. Need to make sure that standardization procedures are followed. Consistency is key.
Like spelling and writing, math can be administered to a group rather than individually. Why digits & not problems? Can only fit 20 or so problems per page, whereas each problem can have 1-20 digits in the correct, longest for answer. Provides a much more sensitive measure of growth.
Identify the skills: how many of each?
Difference in errors: 3CD—borrowed correctly in part, forgot the 5 was now a 4. 2CD—doesn’t get borrowing. Show slashing through wrong digits.
Practice finding median and plotting on SLA forms in binder. X = WRC O = Errors
Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.
Teachers should assess students at least 1 time per week preferably 2 to 3.
Homonym, same pronunciation, different meaning.
Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.
Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.
Transcript
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The ABCs of CBM forMath, Spelling, & Writing Michelle Hosp, Ph.D.
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Objectives• Overview of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)• Review CBM measures in: math, spelling, and writing (including writing IEP goals and objectives)• Cover criteria for progress monitoring in math and spelling• Provide information on where to obtain measures for math, spelling, and writing 2
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CBM Research• CBM research has been conducted over the past 25+ years• Research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making: ♦ Students learn more ♦ Teacher decision making improves ♦ Students are more aware of their performance 3
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Salient Features of Mastery Measurement• Curriculum is broken down into specific subskills or short-term instructional objectives• Assess specific skill that is being taught Example ♦ Multidigit addition, with regrouping• Skills usually assessed using teacher- made tests or tests in curriculum 5
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Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum1. Multidigit addition with regrouping2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping3. Multiplication facts, factors to 94. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number6. Division facts, divisors to 97. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number8. Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators10. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 6
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Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum1. Multidigit addition with regrouping2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping3. Multiplication facts, factors to 94. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number6. Division facts, divisors to 97. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number8. Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators10. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 9
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Downsides to Mastery Measurement• Skill Hierarchies• Teacher-Made Tests ♦ Reliability & Validity are unknown• Retention & generalization of skills are not usually measured• Measurement of Short-Term Instructional Objectives• Measurement shifts occur making it difficult to monitor overall progress because: 1. different skills are measured at different points in time 2. different skills are not of equal difficulty and do not represent equal curriculum units 12
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Most Forms of ClassroomAssessment Are Mastery Measurement CBM is NOT Mastery Measurement CBM is a General Outcome Measure
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Fourth Grade Math Computation Curriculum1. Multidigit addition with regrouping2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping3. Multiplication facts, factors to 94. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number6. Division facts, divisors to 97. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number8. Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators10. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 14
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• Random Sheet #1 Computation 4 Password: ARM Name: Date numerals A 3 7 2 7 = B 16 + 3 = 7 C 4) 6 D 6 )7 8 E 87 5 within x 7 problems (considering F G H I J 6 9 24 4 x7 x0 6 )48 5 )2 0 x 7 specifications of problem K L M N O types) 2 )50 61 44 33 6 7 )3 0 44 20 x 10 x0• Random P Q R S T 95 22 5 74 - 2= 8 )3 2 11 56 7 38 + 75 26 8 28 24 x 33 + 83 placement of problem U 3 + 1 V W X Y types on 9 5 5 = 98 2 x5 4 7 )56 97 x1 page 15
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Sheet #2 Computation 4 Password: AIR• Random Name: Date A B C D E numerals within 9 )2 4 52 85 2 9 4 )7 2 82 85 + 64 70 8 x0 43 04 + 90 problems (considering F G H I J 6 )3 0 35 4 7 2 1 x 74 x5 x9 3 3 = specifications of problem types) K L M N O 32 8 5 )6 5 6 )30 34 - 1= x 23 x6 7• Random P Q R S T placement of 10 7 x 3 2) 9 41 6 44 5 + 3 11 11 = 6 x2 problem types on page U V 15 04 W X Y 41 + 6 = 14 41 9 )8 1 13 0 5 )1 0 2 x 7 16
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Donald’s Progress in Digits Correct Across the School Year Instructional Change 25 20 15Correct Digits 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 17 Weeks
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Salient Features of General Outcome Measurement• General domains, not subskills ♦ Keeps global curriculum outcomes intact and uses long-term goals• Makes no assumptions about instructional hierarchy for determining measurement (i.e., CBM fits with any instructional approach) ♦ No measurement shifts 18
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Salient Features ofGeneral Outcome Measurement (cont) • Incorporates automatic tests of retention and generalization ♦ Measurement of Long-Term Curricular Goal Performance • Test Construction ♦ Standardized procedures used to assess performance on the long-term goal ♦ Reliability & validity can be determined 19
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Downsides to General Outcome Measurement• Often lacks information on specific subskills ♦ If interested in identifying specific skills to teach, GOM not appropriate ♦ Need to use a diagnostic measure• Fidelity of implementation is important 20
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CBM and Math• The number of correctly written digits in 2 minutes from the end-of-year curriculum• Correct digits ♦ Not correct problems or answers ♦ 2 minutes 22
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Math CBM• Student(s) are given a sheet of math problems and pencil• Student(s) complete as many math problems as they can in 2 minutes• At the end of 2 minutes the number of correctly written digits is counted 23
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Example of a 4th grade math curriculum1. Multidigit addition with regrouping2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping3. Multiplication facts, factors to 94. Multiply 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number6. Division facts, divisors to 97. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number8. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators9. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 24
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Sheet #1 Computation 4Password: ARMName: DateA B C D E 3 2 6 = 1 + 3= 7 4) 6 6 )7 8 87 5 7 7 x 7F G H I J 6 9 24 4 6 )48 5 )2 0 x7 x0 x 7K L M N O 2 )50 61 44 33 6 7 )3 0 44 20 x 10 x0P Q R S T 95 22 5 74 - 2= 8 )3 2 11 56 7 38 + 75 26 8 28 24 x 33 + 83U V W X Y 3 + 1 9 5 = 98 2 4 5 x5 7 )56 97 x1 25
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Math scoring criteria• If the answer is correct, the student earns the score equivalent to the number of correct digits written using the “longest method” taught to solve the problem, even if the work is not shown• If a problem has been crossed out, credit is given for the correct digits written• If the problem has not been completed, credit is earned for any correct digits written 26
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A “correct digit” is the right numeral in the right place 4507 4507 4507 2146 2146 2146 2361 2461 2441 4 3 2 correct correct correct digits digits digits 27
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Weekly growth rates for math (Correct Digits [CD] in 2 minutes) Grade Realistic Weekly Ambitious Weekly Growth Rate Growth Rate 1 .3 CD .5 CD 2 .3 CD .5 CD 3 .3 CD .5 CD 4 .70 CD 1.15 CD 5 .75 CD 1.20 CD 6 .45 CD 1 CDFrom Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, & Germann (1993) 31
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How often?• Progress Monitoring (Formative) ♦ 1x Week for at-risk & students with disabilities ♦ 1x Month for typically developing students ♦ 1x Quarter for above average students• Benchmarking/ Norming (Summative) ♦ 1x Quarter for all students• Survey Level (Summative) ♦ 1x At the beginning of progress monitoring ♦ 1x Identify students’ instructional level 32
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IEP Goals & Objectives• Time (the amount of time the goal is written for) ♦ “In 1 year…”• Learner (the student for whom the goal is being written) ♦ “...Jose will…”• Behavior (the specific skill the student will demonstrate) ♦ “…read aloud…”• Level (the grade the content is from) ♦ “… a second-grade…” 34
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IEP Goals & Objectives (cont)• Content (what the student is learning about) ♦ “…reading…”• Material (what the student is using) ♦ “…passage from ORF CBM progress-monitoring material…”• Criteria (the expected level of performance, including time and accuracy) ♦ “…at 90 words read correctly in 1 minute with greater than 95% accuracy.” 35
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Math goals & objectives• In 30 weeks, Larry will calculate addition and subtraction problems from second-grade mixed-math CBM progress-monitoring material at 45 correct digits in 2 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy.• In 10 weeks, Larry will calculate addition and subtraction problems from second-grade mixed-math CBM progress-monitoring material at 20 CD in 2 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy. 36
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Spelling CBM1. Student(s) are given a blank sheet of lined paper2. Teacher dictates a spelling word every 10 seconds (grades 1-3) every 7 seconds (grades 4-8)3. Stop at the end of 2 minutes and count the number of correct letter sequences (CLS) 38
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Scoring Spelling CBM• TEAM = 5 correct letter sequences TEAM TM TEM 39
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Conducting Spelling CBM• Say each word twice. Use homonyms in a sentence. Read. He read the book.• Say a new word every 10 (or 7) seconds ♦ 12-13 words for grades 1-3 ♦ 17-18 words for grades 4-8• Dictate words for 2 minutes. 40
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How often?• Progress Monitoring (Formative) ♦ 1x Week for at-risk & students with disabilities ♦ 1x Month for typically developing students ♦ 1x Quarter for above average students• Benchmarking/ Norming (Summative) ♦ 1x Quarter for all students 42
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Spelling CBM Goals and Objectives• In 30 weeks, Roberto will spell words from a fourth-grade spelling list from Spelling CBM progress-monitoring material at 70 correct letter sequences in 2 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy.• In 10 weeks, Roberto will spell words from a fourth-grade spelling list from Spelling CBM progress-monitoring material at 25 correct letter sequences in 2 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy. 43
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Curriculum-Based Measurement: Written Expression• Provides an indicator of student performance in writing• Three scoring methods ♦ Total Words Written (TWW) ♦ Words Spelled Correctly (WSC) ♦ Correct Writing Sequences (CWS)• Can be group administered• District or Classroom Norms 45
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PRIMARY STORY STARTERS1. The best birthday I ever had was…2. It was a warm sunny day when the two boys…3. A big blue turtle was coming down the street whenhe…4. Yesterday the children went on a picnic and…5. The noise came so suddenly that…6. It was raining with the wind blowing when…7. The fog was so thick I could hardly see…8. Mickey Mouse came to my birthday party and…9. The cat climbed the telephone pole and…10. I knew it was cold when… 46
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INTERMEDIATE STORY STARTERS1. She’s gone, now I’m going to find…2. Mary knew that if her parents found out, they…3. Everything was just fine, until I met…4. Something’s coming out of the sink and it’s a…5. The children were playing on the each when they found the strange footprints of a…6. One day I lost my dog when…7. “Will you keep quiet,” whispered Bob, “if you don’t someone will…8. I opened the door and found a huge wooden crate and…9. The magician pulled a white rabbit out of his hat instead of a…10. A spaceship landed in my backyard and… 47
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ADVANCED STORY STARTERS1. At first the noise was very faint and seemed far away, but then…2. Mary knew that if her parents found out, they…3. It all began in the laboratory of Professor Hall when…4. The teenagers were walking along the beach when they found the strange footprints of…5. I woke up one morning feeling very strange when I noticed…6. “Can you keep a secret,” whispered Joe. “No one else knows that…7. Buried beneath a tree with just a bit of it showing was…8. I knew it was going to be one of thos4 days when…9. I suppose I shouldn’t have laughed, but I couldn’t help myself when… 48
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Total Words Written (TWW)• The total number of words written regardless of spelling or context.• Abbreviations: ♦ Commonly used abbreviations are counted as words• Hyphenated Words: ♦ Each morpheme separated by a hyphen(s) is counted as an individual word if it can stand alone.• Story Titles ♦ Words written in the title are counted as words written 49
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Correct Writing Sequences (CWS)• Two adjacent writing units (word/word or word/punctuation) that are acceptable within the context of what is written• Correct spelling, syntax, and semantics are taken into account when scoring Correct Writing Sequences 53
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How often?• Progress Monitoring (Formative) ♦ 1x Week for at-risk & students with disabilities ♦ 1x Month for typically developing students ♦ 1x Quarter for above average students• Benchmarking/ Norming (Summative) ♦ 1x Quarter for all students 56
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Written Expression IEP Goals and Objectives• In 30 weeks, Jose will write from sixth- grade writing story starter CBM progress-monitoring material at 47 correct writing sequences in 3 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy.• In 10 weeks, Jose will write from sixth- grade writing story starter CBM progress-monitoring material at 30 correct writing sequences in 3 minutes with greater than 95% accuracy. 57
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CBM Materials•AIMSweb /Edformation•Edcheckup•McGraw-Hill•Pro-Ed, Inc.•Vanderbilt University 58
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