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The abc's of cbm for maths, spelling and writing
 

The abc's of cbm for maths, spelling and writing

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  • (Introduction of Presenters….) Today we will be talking about one form of Progress Monitoring: Curriculum-Based Measurement, or CBM.
  • Research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM to inform their instructional decision making, students learn more, teacher decision making improves, and students are more aware of their own performance (e.g., Fuchs, Deno, & Mirkin, 1984). CBM research, conducted over the past 30 years, has also shown CBM to be reliable and valid (e.g., Deno, 1985; Germann & Tindal, 1985; Marston, 1988; Shinn, 1989). A more in-depth bibliography of CBM research is available in the CBM manual. Resources: Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232. Fuchs, L.S., Deno, S.L., & Mirkin, P.K. (1984). Effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement of evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 449-460. Germann G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application on curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children, 52 , 244-265. Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time-series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education, 21, 13-26. Shinn, M.R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Specific subskill testing relies on mastery measurement where small domains of test items and mastery criteria are specified for each subskill. For example, a teacher wants to increase a students spelling proficiency so she needs to do two things. One, determine the subskill hierarchy for the spelling curriculum she is using and Two, design a criterion-referenced testing procedure to match each step on the hierarchy. These skills are then taught in sequence.
  • Specific subskill testing relies on mastery measurement where small domains of test items and mastery criteria are specified for each subskill. For example, a teacher wants to increase a students spelling proficiency so she needs to do two things. One, determine the subskill hierarchy for the spelling curriculum she is using and Two, design a criterion-referenced testing procedure to match each step on the hierarchy. These skills are then taught in sequence.
  • Skill Hierarchies, use a scope and sequence for instruction (usually based on theory not empirical evidence) Teacher-Made Tests, will have no technical adequacy to support them, while commercial criterion-referenced tests are no better. Not to mention the time and money it takes for teacher to make these tests. Retention and Generalization, is not assessed because only one skill in the hierarchy is assessed at any one time. Measurement of Short-Term Instructional Objectives, are always closely linked. This is problematic because the skill is only assessed on that one task and it may not generalize to other related tasks (only near transfer and not far transfer). Measurement Shifts, must occur each time a skill is mastered. So new assessments will always need to be developed and scores will drop each time a new skill is assessed until that student has mastered the skill.
  • CBM is USUALLY not mastery measurement but some math probes that look at specific skills and even some early reading probes like letter sounds may be considered mastery measurement because they assess a specific skill.
  • Skill Domains, instead the teacher identifies the domain they want to measure throughout the year (Typically this is the curriculum content for one school year). Retention and Generalization, the skills being assessed represent the current instructional focus along with those representing past and future instructional targets. Measurement for Long-Term Curricular Goal Performance, means the assessment is less sensitive to acquisition of the specific skills currently taught BUT it is sensitive enough for instructional decision making. And because it describes student performance in terms of proficiency on the critical behavior that are broadly indicative of the annual curriculum, content and criterion validity are high relative to mastery measurement. Measurement Shifts, do not occur because the difficulty of the assessment remains constant across the school year. So there are not high and then low points the student will experience. AND student growth can be indexed over time Test Construction, general outcome measurement uses a standardized way of obtaining assessment material, administering and scoring tests and summarizing and evaluating scores. It has documented reliability and validity which mastery measurement lacks.
  • Math can be done really well, spelling okay too. Reading and writing—NO. Need to make sure that standardization procedures are followed. Consistency is key.
  • Like spelling and writing, math can be administered to a group rather than individually. Why digits & not problems? Can only fit 20 or so problems per page, whereas each problem can have 1-20 digits in the correct, longest for answer. Provides a much more sensitive measure of growth.
  • Identify the skills: how many of each?
  • Difference in errors: 3CD—borrowed correctly in part, forgot the 5 was now a 4. 2CD—doesn’t get borrowing. Show slashing through wrong digits.
  • Practice finding median and plotting on SLA forms in binder. X = WRC O = Errors
  • Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.
  • Teachers should assess students at least 1 time per week preferably 2 to 3.
  • Homonym, same pronunciation, different meaning.
  • Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.
  • Survey level assessment is only done when there is a reason to- it is not done on a specific schedule.

The abc's of cbm for maths, spelling and writing The abc's of cbm for maths, spelling and writing Presentation Transcript