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  • 1. SWPBS Workbook 1 School-wide Positive Behavior Support Getting Started Workbook 1 Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports University of Oregon & Connecticut Ver. April 27, 20101 This document is supported in part by the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventionsand Supports ( The Center is supported by a grant from the Office of SpecialEducation Programs, US Department of Education (H326S98003). Opinions expressed herein arethose of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the US Department ofEducation, and such endorsements should not be inferred.
  • 2. SWPBS Workbook 2 School-Wide Positive Behavior Support OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports2 University of Oregon & Connecticut The OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports is grateful tothe students, educators, administrators, families, support providers, researchers, andteacher trainers who have worked tirelessly to improve educational outcomes for allstudents and who have contributed to our understanding of the critical practices andsystems of school-wide positive behavior support. These training materials have been developed to assist schools in their efforts toimprove school climate and school-wide positive behavior support for all students. Anindividual personal copy may be made without permission and by citing Center on PBISas source. Multiple copy photocopying, use, and/or sale of these materials areforbidden without expressed written permission by the OSEP Center on PositiveBehavioral Interventions and Supports. For additional information about use of thesematerials, contact the Center at The Center is supported by a grant from the Office of Special Education Programs, USDepartment of Education (H326S980003). Opinions expressed herein are those of the authorsand do not necessarily reflect the position of the US Department of Education, and suchendorsements should not be inferred.
  • 3. SWPBS Workbook 3 How Should I Use this Workbook?What is the Purpose of this Workbook? To provide implementers of a School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)approach with supplemental, user-friendly information to supporton-going training andimplementation.Who Should Use this Workbook? Trainers, Coaches, Facilitators – to support efforts to implement SWPBS at the school level Coordinators and Administrators – to provide an overview of and reference to the content and process of SWPBS to others School and District Implementation Leadership Teams – to support and guide development, implementation, and monitoring of SWPBS implementationHow is this Workbook Organized? Each chapter generally has the following organizational features: Organizingintroduction (green) that provides rationale, definitions, “big ideas,” etc. Implementation guidelines (blue) that are used to support training, self- assessment, and action planning. Generic activity worksheets (yellow) that guide contextualized implementation and product development. Generic action planning (red) that structures commitments to follow-up activities and tasks. The Table of Contents serves as a summary and roadmap to the organization ofthe content and process of SWPBS. Generally, the chapter sequence approximates thetypical order in which SWPBS trainers, coordinators, and coaches guide SchoolLeadership Teams through the practices and processes of SWPBS. Appendices include (a) tools and instruments, (b) supporting stand-aloneinformation and activities, and (c) materials referenced in workbook sections.
  • 4. SWPBS Workbook 4 Table of ContentsPage Chapter Appendices Description 5 7 1 – Overview of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support What is SWPBS? Why not “get tough” with problem behavior? What principles guide implementer use of SWPBS? What operational elements define SWPBS? What evidence-based behavioral interventions are included in SWPBS? What is the school-wide continuum of behavior support? o Responsiveness-to-intervention o Practices and systems by prevention tier o Developing a SW continuum of PBS What is the SWPBS team-based implementation process? o Basic action planning41 2 – Getting Started with School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Primary prevention tier Step 1 – Establish team membership  Conducting leadership team meetings worksheet Step 2 – Develop brief statement of behavior purpose Step 3 – Identify positive school-wide behavior expectations Step 4 – Develop procedures for teaching school-wide expectations Step 5 – Develop procedures for teaching classroom-wide behavior expectations Step 6 – Develop continuum of procedures for encouraging and strengthening student use of school-wide behavior expectations Step 7 – Develop continuum of procedures for discouraging student behavior violations of school-wide behavior expectations Step 8 – Develop data-based procedures for monitoring implementation of SWPBS (primary tier)75 3 – SWPBS Practices and Systems in Non-Classroom Settings84 4 – Classroom Management Practices and Systems
  • 5. SWPBS Workbook 5 Appendices Appendix DescriptionA School-Wide PBS An example of one school’s implementation of SWPBS is Implementation Example provided: leadership team, behavior purpose statement, school-wide and classroom-wide behavioral expectations, teaching matrices, encouragement procedures, behavior expectation violation procedures, and progress monitoring and data systemsB Committee/Group/Team This standalone activity gives leadership teams a Self-Assessment and Action structure for identifying what behavioral initiatives, Planning programs, and interventions are in place, and evaluating how SWPBS fits with these efforts. The specific goal is to develop an effective, efficient, and relevant continuum of positive behavior support practices and processes for all studentsC Effective Behavior Support This self-assessment is used by leadership teams to Self-Assessment Survey determine staff perceptions about the status of the social and behavioral climate of the school. Perceptions about supports for school-wide, classroom, nonclassroom, and individual students are assessed.All school staff are usually included.D Team Implementation Leadership teams and coaches use this self-assessment Checklist (TIC) to monitor their initial and on-going SWPBS implementation. As such, leadership teams self-manage their implementation efforts.E SWPBS Team Monthly This organizational tool is used by leadership teams, Planning Guide coaches, coordinators teams to supplement their review and action planning efforts, especially at the beginning and end of the school year. Emphasis is on first year implementation of primary intervention tierof SWPBS. The pF Detention and Suspension: This FAQ has been developed to provide a general Frequently Asked Questions summary of the implementation considerations and features of detention and suspension consequences. A question/answer format is used.G Functional Assessment and Two self-assessment checklists are provided to enable Behavior Support Plan review of the components and processes of completing a Checklists functional behavioral assessment and developing a behavioral intervention plan.
  • 6. SWPBS Workbook 6H Functional Assessment The FACTS is an instrument used to guide the completion Checklists for Teachers and of a functional behavioral assessment and facilitate the Staff development of a behavior intervention plan.I Emergency Prevention and This primer provides general guidelines and Response considerations for being prepared, preventing, and responding to crises and emergency situations.J Teaching Social Skills A basic and general lesson plan and examples for teaching social behavior are provided.K SWPBS and RtI A brief overview of the similar and different features of school-wide positive behavior support and responsiveness to intervention.L Selected References These references provide additional and supporting information for the contents of this workbook.M Data-based Decision Making Guidelines and examples for establishing efficient and and Office Discipline effective data-based decision making systems. Emphasis Referrals is on formalizing and enhancing office disciplinary procedures.N Restraint and Seclusion Guidelines and considerations for the appropriate and Considerations and SWPBS ethical use of restraint and seclusion in the context of the implementation of SWPBS.O Planning for the Worksheet to guide planning for the beginning and end Beginning/Ending of the of the school year in a SWPBS school. School Year
  • 7. SWPBS Workbook 7 CHAPTER 1Overview of School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports
  • 8. SWPBS Workbook 8 SWPBS Message Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990) What is SWPBS? School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) provides an organizationalapproach or framework for improving the social behavior climate of the schools andsupporting or enhancing the impact of academic instruction on achievement andincreasing proactive (positive/preventive) management.
  • 9. SWPBS Workbook 9 The SWPBS approach or framework is comprised of evidence-based behavioralinterventions and practices that can be implemented by real users to effectively addressand support the socially and educationally important behavioral needs of students andtheir families. SWPBS has its conceptual foundations in Behavioral Theory - Behavior is learned, lawful, and malleable Applied Behavior Analysis - Behavioral theory, principles, and practices are applied to sociallyimportant observable behaviors in the applied settings in which they are observed Positive Behavior Support – Behavioral supports are considered in the larger context of improving quality of life
  • 10. SWPBS Workbook 10 Why “Not Get Tough” with Problem Behavior? When students display problem behavior that is unresponsive to our typicalconsequences or interventions, we often get stern or “tough” to see if the student’sbehavior will eventually improve. For many students this level of consequence worksbecause the student has strong alternative ways of responding that access successwithout having to use the problem behavior. The problem behavior of some students continues to be unresponsive, and weget “tougher” to get the student’s attention, make a clear statement or point about thebehavior, and minimize the likelihood of future occurrences. A few students respond tothis level of consequence but the improvement is often not long lasting. So, the problem behavior of a few students continues to be observed, and weresort to further intensifying the presumed aversiveness of our responses to force“compliance” and a halt to the problem behavior.
  • 11. SWPBS Workbook 11 See below for example of “Get Tough” Sequence “GET TOUGH” BEHAVIOR RESPONSEInitial problem Given initial “aversive” Behavior of many students improve; behavior consequence, e.g., however, for some their problem behavior continues Say “no.” Remove “privilege Send to “think seat” Further Give additional and more Behavior of a few more studentsoccurrences of “aversive” consequence, e.g., improve; however, for a few individual problem students, their behavior continues Scream “NO!” louder behavior Move closer and point finger Complete office discipline referral Threaten and establish bottom line Send to in-school detention Continued Increase intensity, frequency, and Behavior escalates in intensity,occurrences and duration of “aversive” frequency, and duration to levels that increasing consequences, e.g., severely interfere with teaching and intensity of learning Establish and enforce zero problem tolerance policies behavior Increase monitoring and security Physically assist or intervene Give out of school suspension
  • 12. SWPBS Workbook 12 Why do we get tougher when student’s behavior does not improve? Becausewe… 1. Assume the student is inherently bad, and stubborn behaviors require much more intensive consequences. 2. Assume the student must “learn” to take responsibility for their own behavior, and prove that they deserve to be part of the classroom or group. 3. Assume aversive consequences “teach” the student to behave better. 4. The behavior of some students does improve….albeit short-lived; so, we get temporary relief. 5. Learn “tougher” consequences remove the student with irritating behavior which brings relief in the immediate environment, and the student’s behavior will be better “tomorrow.” 6. Experience an initial improvement in problem behavior, when the student responds. So, what’s wrong with a get tough approach?The research is clear that if theonly thing we do is get tough and tougher when students display problem behavior, 1. Environments of control are fostered 2. Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced 3. Shared accountability is shifted away from school and to the student, family, and/or community 4. Child/youth-adult relationships are devalued and put at risk 5. Link between academic achievement and social behavior programming is weakened So, what should we do? The science on human behavior has taught us thatstudents…. 1. Are not born with bad (or good) behavior 2. Do not learn through the sole use of “aversive” consequences 3. Learn better ways of behaving by being taught social skills directly and receiving positive feedback about what they are doing correctly or appropriately.
  • 13. SWPBS Workbook 13 In addition, results from research on the prevention of youth violenceconsistently indicates that preventing the development and occurrence of violent andbehavior is associated with the following: Youth Violence Prevention Sample Sources • Positive, predictable school-wide • Surgeon General’s Report on climate Youth Violence (2001) • High rates of academic & social success • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., • Formal social skills instruction 2003) • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • Positive adult role models • White House Conference on • Multi-component, multi-year school- School Violence (2006) family-community effort
  • 14. SWPBS Workbook 14 What Principles Guide Implementer Use of SWPBS? Implementers of SWPBS use the following principles to guide their decisions andactions: 1. Use data to guide decision making 2. Establish school discipline as instrument for academic and behavior success 3. Make decisions that are linked to important and measurable outcomes 4. Utilize research-validated practices, interventions, and strategies 5. Emphasize an instructional approach to behavior management 6. Emphasize prevention 7. Integrate initiatives, programs, interventions that have common outcomes 8. Adapt products, activities, actions, etc. to align with cultural and contextual characteristics of local environment (e.g., family, neighborhood, community) 9. Build and sustain a continuum of behavior support 10. Consider and implement school-wide practices and systems for all students, all staff, and all settings 11. Evaluate continuously 12. Coordinate efforts with a school-wide leadership team
  • 15. SWPBS Workbook 15 What Operational Elements Define SWPBS? Effective, efficient, and relevant school-wide discipline is based on a balance offour key and interactive elements: Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES MS Supporting DA Supporting E ST TA Decision Staff Behavior SY Making PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
  • 16. SWPBS Workbook 16 DATA: What do we currently see and know?Data-based decision making guides selection and modification of curricula andpractices, evaluation of progress, and enhancement of systems. OUTCOMES: What do we want to see?Clearly specified outcomes are related to academic achievement and socialcompetencePRACTICES: What practice could effectively, efficiently, and relevantly achieve what we want to see?Evidenced-based practices have a high probability of outcome achievement forstudents. SYSTEMS: What needs to be in place to support (a) practice adoption that is informed and (b) full implementation that is contextualized, accurate, and sustainable?Systems support adult adoption, high fidelity implementation, and sustained use ofeffective practices.
  • 17. SWPBS Workbook 17 What Evidence-based Behavioral Interventions are Included in SWPBS? SWPBS emphasizes selection and implementation of the most appropriate,effective, efficient, and relevant practices and interventions that match the needs,resources, and competence of users. These practices and interventions are organized infive SWPBS subsystems:SUBSYSTEMS PRACTICES, PROCESSES, AND SYSTEMS FOR…… School-wide All students and staff members, across all settings Classroom Settings in which delivery of instruction is emphasized Settings and contexts in which the emphasis is on supervision andNonclassroom monitoring, not instruction (e.g., sporting events, assemblies, lunchrooms, hallways, buses, field trips, etc.). Individual students whose behaviors are not responsive to school- Student wide or primary tier prevention (secondary/tertiary tiers) Engaging and supporting family participation in the activities and Family access to resources of the school.
  • 18. SWPBS Workbook 18 Behavioral Interventions and Practices 1. Leadership team 2. Common behavior purpose & approach to discipline 3. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors School-Wide 4. Procedures for teaching expected behavior school-wide & classroom- wide 5. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 6. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 7. Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation 1. All school-wide above. 2. Maximum structure & predictability (e.g., routines, environment) 3. Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised Classroom-Wide 4. Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices 5. Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior , including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior contracts, token economies 6. Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior, including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic and social behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned ignoring, response cost, and time out. 1. Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged/acknowledgedNon-Classroom 2. Active supervision by all staff, emphasizing scanning, moving, & Settings interacting 3. Precorrections, prompts, & reminders 4. Positive reinforcement
  • 19. SWPBS Workbook 19 1. Behavioral competence at school & district levels Individual Student 2. Function-based behavior support planning 3. Team- & data-based decision making 4. Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes 5. Targeted social skills & self-management instruction 6. Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations 1. Continuum of positive behavior support for all familiesEngagement 2. Frequent, regular, & positive contacts, communications, & Family acknowledgements 3. Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partners 4. Access to system of integrated school & community resources
  • 20. SWPBS Workbook 20 What is the PBS School-wide Continuum of Behavior Support?3 A relatively small proportion of students (1-15%) have learning histories thatcause general school-wide interventions to be ineffective (i.e., behavior not responsive),and these students require additional specialized and individualized interventions. Thus,school-wide discipline systems should not be abandoned because the behaviors of thesestudents are unresponsive. Instead, schools should think of school-wide discipline systems as beingimportant foundations for 1. Supporting the majority of students 2. Preventing the development of chronic problem behavior for students with high risk backgrounds and learning histories 3. Identifying (screening) and providing more specialized and individualized behavior supports for students with high intensity, difficult-to-change problem behaviors.3Also referred to as “RtI” or Responsiveness-to-Intervention
  • 21. SWPBS Workbook 21 The three tiered prevention logic organizes practices and systems along acontinuum of increasing intensity and/or complexity. Student behavior responsivenessto intervention is used to match intervention intensity. Although the continuum isdynamic and blended, the three tiers are generally described as follows:Prevention General Response Description Tier CriteriaPrimary Practices and systems for all students and staff Behaviors of 70-(Universal) implemented across all settings. 90% of students More intensive and specialized practices and systems for students whose behaviors have been documented as not responsive at the primary tier,Secondary and generally provided in a common or standardized Behaviors of 10-(Targeted) manner in small student groupings, which provide 30% of students more regular supervision, monitoring, interactions, corrective feedback, and positive reinforcement with and by adults and peers. Most intensive and specialized practices and systems for students whose behaviors have been documented as not responsive at the primary orTertiary Behaviors of 1- secondary tiers, and generally are highly(Intensive) 10% of students individualized to the specific needs and strengths of an individual student. Family and community involvement is increased.
  • 22. SWPBS Workbook 22 The following figure illustrates this important concept: Tertiary Prevention: CONTINUUM OF Specialized SCHOOL-WIDE Individualized INSTRUCTIONAL & Systems for Students POSITIVE BEHAVIOR ~5% with High-Risk Behavior SUPPORT Secondary Prevention: ~15% Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students The following figure illustrates the an “applied” continuum of support in whichsequencing and integration of practices and supports varies by setting (e.g., elementaryv. middle v. high school; alternative programming; rural v. urban) and individual studentstrengths and needs:
  • 23. SWPBS Workbook 23
  • 24. SWPBS Workbook 24 How does SWPBS Relate to Responsiveness to Intervention? “Responsiveness-to-Intervention” (RtI) has been described as an approach forestablishing and redesigning teaching and learning environments so that they areeffective, efficient, relevant, and durable for all students, families, and educators.Specifically, RTI is shaped by six defining characteristics4:4 Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005; Christ, Burns, & Ysseldyke, 2005; Fuchs & Deschler, 2007; Fuchs& Fuchs, 2007; Fuchs, Mock, Morgan, & Young, 2003; Gresham, 2005; Gresham et al., 2005;Kame’enui, 2007; National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2006; Severson,Walker, Hope-Doolittle, Kratochwill, & Gresham, 2007; Sugai, 2007
  • 25. SWPBS Workbook 25 RtI Feature Description Learner performance and progress should be reviewed on a regular basis and in a systematic manner to identify students1. Universal who are (a) making adequate progress, (b) at some risk of screening failure if not provided extra assistance, or (c) at high risk of failure if not provided specialized supports. Information that directly reflects student learning based on2. Data-based measurable and relevant learning criteria and outcomes should decision making be used to guide decisions regarding instructional and problem effectiveness, student responsiveness, and intervention solving adaptations and modifications3. Continuous Student progress should be assessed on a frequent and regular progress basis to identify adequate or inadequate growth trends and monitoring support timely instructional decisions. Priority should be given to early and preventive assessment and intervention so that (a) conditions that promote the4. Prevention & development of problem behavior are avoided and of prosocial Early behavior are established, and (b) triggering antecedent and Intervention maintaining consequence events of problem behavior are removed and of appropriate behavior are added An integrated and sequenced curriculum should be available such that a (a) core curriculum is provided for all students, (b) modification of this core is arranged for students who are identified as nonresponsive, and (c) specialized and intensive curriculum is developed for students whose performance is5. Continuum of deemed nonresponsive to the modified core. Elements of this evidence-based continuum must have empirical evidence to support efficacy interventions (intervention is linked to outcome), effectiveness (intervention outcomes are achievable and replicable in applied settings), relevant (intervention can be implemented by natural implementers and with high fidelity), and durable (intervention implementation is sustainable and student outcomes are durable). Team-based structures and procedures are in place to ensure6. Implementation and coordinate appropriate adoption and accurate and fidelity sustained implementation of the full continuum of intervention practices.
  • 26. SWPBS Workbook 26
  • 27. SWPBS Workbook 27 Practices and Systems by Prevention Tier and SWPBS Working Elements Prevention Tier Primary Secondary Tertiary Office discipline Office disciplinary FACTS referrals (ODR) referrals FBA EBS Self- Points earned Academic Assessment token economy competence SET Academic Curriculum based Benchmarks of competence measurement Data Quality Curriculum based School Safety measurement Survey FACTS Academic performance Curriculum based measurementSWPBS Working Elements ~80% of students ~15% of students Individualized Outcomes with 0-1 major ODR with 2-5 major academic and ~1/500 ODR behavior objectives students/day ~5% of students with >6 major ODR Teach and Universal screening Function-based encourage small Group social skills Individualized number of school- instruction behavior support wide behavioral Daily performance plan expectations and feedback Targeted social behaviors Self-management skills instruction Practices Continuum of instruction Academic consequences for At least hourly accommodations violations of positive and supports behavior reinforcement Family expectations Family engagement participation Active supervision Effective classroom management
  • 28. SWPBS Workbook 28 SW leadership team Behavioral Specialized Formative data- competence behavioral and team-based Weekly program competence decision making review Team-basedSystems and action planning Team based coordination and High priority coordination and decision making Active decision making Daily program administrator Direct link to review involvement school-wide primary tier prevention system
  • 29. SWPBS Workbook 29 Developing a School-wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support The development of a SW continuum of requires a careful consideration of localcontext (features and data), desired outcomes (data, priority needs, etc.), evidence-based practices, and systems capacities and supports. To enhance efficiency and relevance, the following steps for selecting practiceswithin a school-wide continuum of positive behavior supports should be considered: Steps for Selecting Practices within a School-Wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Identify what practices (e.g., interventions, programs, strategies) are available at each prevention tier. (See Practices Evaluation Chart) Step 2: Evaluate each practice against the following evaluation criteria Evidence-based – Does experimental research evidence exist to support the selection and use of a practice to achieve desired outcome? Outcome Data – Are relevant data collected to measure effectiveness? Non-Responder Decision Rule – Are data-based rules available and used to modify intervention for students who do not respond to practice? Implementation Fidelity – Are data collected to assess and improve accuracy of practice implementation? Effectiveness – Have data demonstrated that practice is effective in achieving desired outcomes? Step 3: Based on the above results, decide whether to (a) eliminate or discontinue, (b) integrate with other practices, (c) modify and continue or integrate, or (d) sustain as is. Step 4: Based on the above results, do new or different practices need to be considered and adopted to complete the continuum? Identify outcome that needs to be achieved. Evaluate practices that have experimental evidence of their effectiveness and are likely to produce desired outcome. Insert new practice into Practices Evaluation Chart Step 5: Complete display of continuum of behavior support practices (see following Continuum of School-wide Behavior Support triangle continuum)
  • 30. SWPBS Workbook 30 Practices Evaluation Chart Evaluation Non- Outcome Implem. Practices Evidence- Responder Data Fidelity Effective? Decision Based? Decision Collected? Assessed? Rule? Y ? N5 Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S6 Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Primary Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M SPrevention Tier Secondary Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Tertiary Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N Y ? N E I M S5Yes ?No6Eliminate, Modify, Integrate, Sustain
  • 31. SWPBS Workbook 31 Continuum of School-wide Positive Behavior SupportDirections: Insert evaluated and selected practices and strategies into this table toestablish a continuum of school-wide positive behavior supports. Tertiary Secondary Primary
  • 32. SWPBS Workbook 32Example: Continuum of School-wide Positive Behavior Support Function-based support Wraparound/person-centered planning Specialized & individualized instruction/intervention Tertiary Crisis prevention & intervention Check in/out Targeted social skills training Peer-based tutoring Secondary Social skills club Behavioral contracting Cognitive-behavioral counseling Teaching &rewarding positive school-wide behavioral expectations Proactive school-wide discipline Effective academic instruction/curriculum Primary Parent engagement Active supervision
  • 33. SWPBS Workbook 33 What is the SWPBS Team-Based Implementation Process? SWPBS implementation process or approach is premised on the finding thatsporadic one-time or occasional high intensity training events are ineffective andinefficient at achieving system or organization-wide implementation of an interventionor practice that is sustainable and accurate. Typical school inservice or professionaldevelopment events are more likely to be “train-and-hope” (Stokes and Baer, 1977)events:
  • 34. SWPBS Workbook 34 In contrast, the SWPBS approach adopts a continuous multi-component, multi-year organizational approach. The features of the general team based implementationprocess are summarized in the following: Team Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
  • 35. SWPBS Workbook 35 When engaged in the general SWPBS implementation steps, consider thefollowing guidelines: Guidelines Yes No ? 1. Adequate representation Yes No ? 2. Active administrator membership and involvement Form Team 3. Efficient means for communications within team and with faculty Yes No ? as a whole Yes No ? 4. Capacity for on-going data-based decision making Yes No ? 5. Priority and status among committees and initiatives Yes No ? 6. Behavioral capacity on team Yes No ? 1. Commitment to 3-4 years of priority implementation Yes No ? 2. Use of 3-tiered prevention logic and continuum Establish Agreements Yes No ? 3. Administrator participation and membership Yes No ? 4. On-going coaching and facilitation supports 5. Dedicated resources and time Yes No ? 6. Agreement about operating procedures for roles, agenda, meeting times, action planning, etc. Yes No ? 7. Top three school-wide initiatives based on need Yes No ? 1. Regular self-assessment Data-based Action Plan Yes No ? 2. Review and use of existing discipline data Yes No ? 3. Multiple subsystems of evidence-based behavioral interventions Yes No ? 4. Team-based decision making and action planning Yes No ? 5. Efficient system of data input, storage, and summarization
  • 36. SWPBS Workbook 36 Yes No ? 1. Emphasis on evidence based practices and interventionsImplementation Action Plan with Fidelity and Develop Procedures and Supports for Yes No ? 2. Active administrator participation Yes No ? 3. Continuous staff involvement in planning 4. Efficient and effective support for staff training and Durability Yes No ? implementation 5. Continuous monitoring of fidelity of implementation and Yes No ? progress 6. Regular and effective staff acknowledgements for participation Yes No ? and accomplishments Yes No ? 7. Team coordinated and managed implementation Yes No ? 1. Team- and data-based decision making and planningContinuous Evaluation Fidelity of Implementation and Outcome Yes No ? 2. Relevant and measurable outcome indicators Yes No ? 3. Efficient input, storage, and retrieval of data Progress Yes No ? 4. Effective, efficient, and informative visual displays Yes No ? 5. Regular data review 6. Continuous monitoring of fidelity of implementation and Yes No ? progress
  • 37. SWPBS Workbook 37 Basic Action Planning Action planning is a process of organizing and using resources to enableindividuals to engage in activities designed to achieve specific and important outcomes.The process is guided by the following principles: Process Principles 1. Align with district goals. 2. Focus on measurable outcomes. 3. Base and adjust decisions on data and local characteristics. 4. Give priority to evidence-based programs. 5. Invest in building sustainable implementation supports. 6. Consider effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, and efficacy in decision making The action planning process can be facilitated by considering the followingquestions: Facilitating Questions Question Notes 1. What need (problem, issue, concern, etc.) are we trying to address? 2. What evidence do we have to confirm, understand, characterize, etc. the need?
  • 38. SWPBS Workbook 383. What factors seem to be contributing to the need?4. How high of a priority is addressing this need?5. What would the solution (data, strategy, policy, etc.) look like to address the need?6. What existing activities also are addressing this need?7. What would we see if we have been successful in addressing this need in 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, etc.?8. What would a 1-3 year action plan look like to address this need?9. What factors ($, roadblocks, agreements, capacity, leadership, etc.) need to be considered to support and maximize the successful implementation of this action plan?
  • 39. SWPBS Workbook 39 The following flowchart has been designed to improve decisions related toselection and use of instructional and behavioral interventions. Start Review questions Does problem Specify features of & data on regular Yes exist? need/problem basis No Identify practice that addresses need/problem Is practice Is evidence of Consider another research No effectiveness No practice based? available? Yes Yes Can practice No be adapted? Yes No Implement & monitor effects Is adequate progress observed? Yes Improve efficiency & sustainability of practice implementation
  • 40. SWPBS Workbook 40 Generic Action Planning Worksheet – Example #1Action Plan Outcome (measurable, achievable, priority):Due Date: Activity Persons Due Outcome Notes 1.
  • 41. SWPBS Workbook 41 GENERAL PLANNING WORKSHEET – Example #2 Planning Questions Planning1. What did we propose to accomplish?2. What have we done so far? Data?3. How much have we accomplished? Are we satisfied?4. What do we need to accomplish next?5. What do we need to do What Who When next? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
  • 42. SWPBS Workbook 42 Actions Needed for Using SWPBS Basic Information and Concepts Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 43. SWPBS Workbook 43 CHAPTER 2Getting Started with School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports
  • 44. SWPBS Workbook 44 GETTING STARTED WITH SWPBS: PRIMARY PREVENTION TIER In the following sections, planning steps for getting started with the implementation ofSWPBS are described. Examples of outcomes for each step are provided in the Appendices. GuidelinesYes No ?7 STEP 1 - Establish Leadership Team MembershipYes No ? STEP 2 - Develop Brief Statement of Behavior PurposeYes No ? STEP 3 - Identify Positive School-wide Behavioral ExpectationsYes No ? STEP 4 - Develop Procedures for Teaching School-wide Behavior ExpectationsYes No ? STEP 5 - Develop Procedures for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavioral ExpectationsYes No ? STEP 6 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and Strengthening Student Use of School-wide Behavior ExpectationsYes No ? STEP 7 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student Behavior Violations of School-wide Behavior ExpectationsYes No ? STEP 8 - Develop Data-based Procedures for Monitoring Implementation of SWPBS (Primary Tier) Descriptions for each step (pink) include Guidelines (blue) for improving the completion of each step Sample worksheets (yellow) for completing each step Action planning (red) forms to organize and manage “next activities”7 Uncertain, unknown, more information needed
  • 45. SWPBS Workbook 45 STEP 1 - Establish Team Membership When establishing a school-wide PBS leadership team, consider the followingguidelines: GuidelinesYes No ?8 1. Representative of demographics of school and communityYes No ? 2. 1-2 individuals with behavior/classroom management competenceYes No ? 3. Administrator active memberYes No ? 4. Schedule for presenting to whole staff at least monthlyYes No ? 5. Schedule for team meetings at least monthlyYes No ? 6. Integration with other behavior related initiatives and programsYes No ? 7. Appropriate priority relative to school and district goalsYes No ? 8. Rules and agreements established regarding voting, confidentiality and privacy, conflict/problem solving, record-keeping, etc.Yes No ? 9. Schedule for annual self-assessments EBS Self-Assessment Survey Review Office Discipline Referrals Benchmarks of Quality School-wide Evaluation ToolYes No ? 10. Coaching support (school and/or district/region)8 ? = uncertain, unknown, more information needed
  • 46. SWPBS Workbook 46 Team Profile and AgreementsSchoolName: ___________________________ Level: El, Md/Jr, Sr, other_________City: _____________________________ State: ________________________District: __________________________Team Member Name by RolePrincipal: _______________________ Teacher: ______________________Teacher: _______________________ Teacher: ______________________Teacher: _______________________ Teacher: ______________________Counselor: _____________________ Parent: _______________________Classified: ______________________ Classified9: _____________________Special Educator: ________________ Student10: _______________________Other: _________________________ Other: ________________________Other: _________________________ Other: ________________________CoachingName: ________________________ Email: ________________________Contact Telephone: ______________Agreements for Getting StartedDates for next two team meetings: ______________ ________________Date for next presentation to whole staff: ______________Date for completion of EBS Self-Assessment Survey: ________________Date for collection and summarization of office discipline data: ______________Date for completion/review of action plan: ______________9 Representatives from non-classroom settings (e.g., office staff, cafeteria and hallwaysupervisor, bus driver, school resource officer, custodian, community member)10 Students are recommended particularly for secondary level school teams.
  • 47. SWPBS Workbook 47 Conducting Leadership Meetings Worksheet How did we do? PreparingH M L na11 Review agreements/tasks from previous minutes H M L na Identify/review/develop agenda items H M L na Invite/remind/prepare participants H M L na Prepare/review materials H M L na Check/confirm logistics (e.g., room, location, time) H M L na Other: Beginning H M L na Acknowledge/introduce participants H M L na Review purpose H M L na Review/assign roles H M L na Review/modify agenda items (e.g., discussion, decision, information) H M L na Assign # of minutes for each agenda item H M L na Set/review meeting rules/routines (Routines below) H M L na Other: Conducting H M L na Follow agenda items H M L na Stay within timelines H M L na Follow/review rules/routines H M L na Restate/review/remind of purpose/outcomes H M L na Other:11 H = high, M = medium, L = low, na = not applicable
  • 48. SWPBS Workbook 48 ConcludingH M L na Review purposeH M L na Review/summarize agreements/products/assignmentsH M L na Review/evaluate extent to which agenda items addressedH M L na Review new agenda itemsH M L na Review compliance with rules/routinesH M L na Acknowledge/reinforce participation/actions/outcomesH M L na Indicate next meeting date/time/placeH M L na Other: Following-UpH M L na Distribute minutesH M L na Complete agreements/products/assignmentsH M L na Contact/remind participantsH M L na Prepare for next agendaH M L na Other: Other Notes/Observations
  • 49. SWPBS Workbook 49 Routines for Conducting Effective and Efficient Meetings1. How are decisions made?2. How are problems/conflicts/disagreements resolved and processed?3. How are roles/responsibilities (e.g., leadership, facilitation, recording minutes, reporting) assigned and conducted?4. How is participation encouraged and reinforced?
  • 50. SWPBS Workbook 50 Actions Needed for Establishing Team Membership and Agreements Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 51. SWPBS Workbook 51 STEP 2 - Develop Brief Statement of Behavior Purpose Each school has or should develop a brief statement of purpose relative to thedevelopment and support of the social and behavioral climate of the school. When reviewing or developing this purpose statement, consider the followingguidelines: GuidelinesYes No ? 1. Positively statedYes No ? 2. 2-3 sentences in lengthYes No ? 3. Supportive of academic achievementYes No ? 4. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)Yes No ? 5. Comprehensive in scope (school-wide – ALL students, staff, and settings)Yes No ? 6. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? 7. Communicated to stakeholders (e.g., families, community members, district administrators)Yes No ? 8. Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters, newsletters) School-wide Behavior Purpose Statement
  • 52. SWPBS Workbook 52 Actions Needed for Developing Brief Statement of Behavior Purpose Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 53. SWPBS Workbook 53STEP 3 - Identify Positive School-wide Behavior Expectations When identifying 3-5 positive school-wide behavior expectations (a.k.a., rules,character traits, values), consider the following guidelines: GuidelinesYes No ? 1. Linked to social culture of school (e.g., community, mascot).Yes No ? 2. Considerate of social skills and rules that already exists.Yes No ? 3. 3-5 in numberYes No ? 4. 1-3 words per expectationYes No ? 5. Positively statedYes No ? 6. Supportive of academic achievementYes No ? 7. Comprehensive in scope (school-wide – ALL students, staff, and settings)Yes No ? 8. Mutually exclusive (minimal overlap)Yes No ? 9. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)Yes No ? 10. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? 11. Communicated to stakeholders (e.g., families, community members, district administrators)Yes No ? 12. Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters, newsletters)
  • 54. SWPBS Workbook 54 School-wide Behavior Expectations1.
  • 55. SWPBS Workbook 55 Actions Needed for Identifying Positive School Wide BehaviorExpectations Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 56. SWPBS Workbook 56 STEP 4 - Develop Procedures for Teaching School-wide Behavior Expectations Teach Social Behavior Like Academic Skills A frequent misrule is that social behavior is learned and encouraged through theuse of aversive consequences (especially, for errors). However, these types ofconsequences do little to promote desired social skills, except to signal that an error hasoccurred. “A behavior is a behavior” regardless of whether it is an academic or a social skill.As such, whether teaching an academic skill or concept, a social skill, or a character trait,the basic instructional process is the same. The following figure illustrates those basicinstructional steps, beginning with “define the skill.” ADJUST for DEFINE Efficiency Simply MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE MODEL Continuously PRACTICE In Setting Like academic skills that have been learned initially, social skills must bepracticed regularly and acknowledged/reinforced frequently for mastery, sustained use,and generalized applications to be realized. If a student has a firmly learned problembehavior, then formally and continually prompting, practicing, and reinforcing thedesired alternative becomes especially important and necessary.
  • 57. SWPBS Workbook 57 SETTING Teaching Library/ Matrix All Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria Computer Assembly Bus Settings Lab Be on task. Eat all your Give your food. Study, Respect Sit in one Watch for best effort. Walk. Have a plan. Select read, Ourselves spot. your stop. Be healthy compute. prepared. foods.Expectations Be kind. Use normal Play safe. Hands/feet Listen/watch. Use a quiet voice Include Practice Whisper. Respect to self. Use voice. volume. others. good table Return Others Help/share appropriate Stay in your Walk to Share manners books. with applause. seat. right. equipment. others. Pick up Use Replace Push in Wipe your Recycle. litter. equipment trays & chairs. Pick up. Respect feet. Clean up Maintain properly. utensils. Treat Treat chairs Property Sit after self. physical Put litter in Clean up books appropriately. appropriately. space. garbage can. eating area. carefully. High School Example ROUTINE/SETTING Library & Cafeteria Common Area Hallways Parking Lot Activities Classroom Computer Lab Respect RULE/EXPECTATION Responsibility Community
  • 58. SWPBS Workbook 58 RAH – AthleticsRAH Practice Competitions Eligibility Lettering Team TravelRespect Listen to coaches Show positive Show up on time Show up on time Take care of your directions; push sportsmanship; for every practice for every practice own possessions yourself and Solve problems in and competition. and competition; and litter; be where encourage mature manner; Compete x%. you are directed to teammates to excel. Positive inter- be. actions with refs, umps, etc.Achievement Set example in the Set and reach for Earn passing Demonstrate Complete your classroom and in both individual and grades; Attend academic assignments missed the playing field as team goals; school regularly; excellence. for team travel. a true achiever. encourage your only excused teammates. absencesHonor Demonstrate good Suit up in clean Show team pride in Suit up for any Remember you are sportsmanship and uniforms; Win with and out of the competitions you acting on behalf of team spirit. honor and integrity; school. Stay out of are not playing. the school at all Represent your trouble – set a good Show team honor. times and school with good example for others. Cheer for demonstrate team conduct. teammates. honor/pride. Teaching Matrix Activity Classroom Lunchroom Bus Hallway Assembly • Arrive on • Use inside • Eat your own • Stay in your Respect • Stay to right time to voice food seat Others • _________ speaker • ________ •__________ •_________ •__________ Respect • Recycle • Keep feet on • Put trash in • Take litter • Return trays Environment paper •__________ floor cans with you & Property •_________ •__________ •_________ •__________ • Wash your • Be at stop on • Use your • Listen to Respect • Do your best hands time words speaker Yourself •__________ •__________ •__________ •__________ •__________ • Have • Go directly • Discuss topic • Eat balanced • Go directly Respect materials from bus to in class w/ diet to class Learning ready class others •__________ •__________ •__________ •__________ •__________
  • 59. SWPBS Workbook 59 The following worksheet provides a task analysis of the main steps involved indeveloping a teaching matrix for school-wide behavior expectations: Date Implementation Worksheet Completed Develop and list on the Teaching Matrix 3-5 positively stated rules or expectations that support the school’s mission/purpose. These rules should use common and few words (e.g., Respect Others, Respect Yourself, Respect Property), and should apply to all students and staff members. Identify and list on the Teaching Matrix all school setting or classroom contexts in which rules are expected For each rule or expectation, provide at least two positively stated, observable behavioral indicators or examples (e.g., Walk with hands and feet to self, return lunch tray to kitchen) for each setting Develop a standard lesson plan for teaching each expectation (e.g., Cool Tool). Develop a schedule for presenting each lesson plan. Develop a procedure for prompting, precorrecting, and encouraging appropriate displays of expectations. Develop a procedure for proactively correcting errors in displays of expectations. Develop system for determining the extent to which students (a) have acquired the rule or expectation and (b) are using the expectation in natural school settings or classroom contexts.
  • 60. SWPBS Workbook 60 When developing lesson plans for teaching school-wide behavior expectations,consider the following guidelines: GuidelinesYes No ? 1. Considerate of main school settings and contexts (e.g., classroom, common areas, hallways, cafeteria, bus)Yes No ? 2. Considerate of lessons that already exists.Yes No ? 3. Specification of 2-3 positive observable behavior examples for each expectation and each setting/context.Yes No ? 4. Teach social behavior like academic skills.Yes No ? 5. Involvement by staff, students, families in developmentYes No ? 6. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)Yes No ? 7. Schedule for initial instruction in natural and typical contextsYes No ? 8. Schedule for regular review, practice, and follow-up instructionYes No ? 9. Prompts, reminders, or precorrections for display of behaviors in natural contexts and settingsYes No ? 10. Feedback (corrections and positive acknowledgements) for displays of behaviors in natural contexts and settingsYes No ? 11. Procedures for providing instruction to new faculty, staff, studentsYes No ? 12. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district administrators, substitute teachers & staff)Yes No ? 13. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? 14. Schedule for continuous evaluation of effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of teachingYes No ? 15. Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose behaviors do not respond to teaching school-wide behavior expectationsYes No ? 16. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)
  • 61. SWPBS Workbook 61 School-Wide Teaching Matrix Typical School-Wide Behavior ExpectationsSettings/Contexts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  • 62. SWPBS Workbook 62 Actions Needed for Developing Plan for Teaching School-wide Behavior Expectations Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 63. SWPBS Workbook 63 STEP 5 - Develop Procedures for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavior Expectations When developing lesson plan for teaching classroom-wide behavior expectations, theschool leadership team’s goal is to increase consistency between school-wide and classroom-wide expectations and procedures. However, individual teachers should fit examples, activities,etc. to the context of their individual classrooms, students, and routines. GuidelinesYes No ? 1. School-wide action plan for classroom management practices and procedures based on results from Classroom Self-AssessmentYes No ? 2. Definitions and processes for responding to classroom versus office- managed (minor) or administrator-managed (major) violations of behavior expectations.Yes No ? 3. Teaching matrix, procedures, and schedules developed for teaching school- wide behavior expectations in typical classroom contexts and routines.Yes No ? 4. Data system in place to monitor office discipline referral from classroomsYes No ? 5. Procedures in place for obtaining behavior support for students whose behaviors are not responsive to classroom-wide managementYes No ? 6. Prompts (reminders and precorrections) for display of behaviors in natural contexts and routinesYes No ? 7. Feedback (corrections and positive acknowledgements) for displays of behaviors in natural contexts and routinesYes No ? 8. Involvement by staff, students, and families in developmentYes No ? 9. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)Yes No ? 10. Schedule for initial instructionYes No ? 11. Schedule for regular review, practice, follow-up instructionYes No ? 12. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? 13. Schedule for continuous evaluation of effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of teachingYes No ? 14. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks) Classroom-Wide Teaching Matrix
  • 64. SWPBS Workbook 64 Typical Classroom-Wide Behavior ExpectationsContexts/Routines 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  • 65. SWPBS Workbook 65 Actions Needed for Developing Plan for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavior Expectations Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 66. SWPBS Workbook 66 STEP 6 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and Strengthening Student Use of School-wide Behavior Expectations When developing continuum of procedures for encouraging and strengtheningstudent use of school-wide behavior expectations, consider the following guidelines: GuidelinesYes No ? 1. Easy and quick form of acknowledgement (e.g., object, event) for all staff members to use.Yes No ? 2. Considerate of strategies/processes that already exists.Yes No ? 3. Contextually appropriate name for acknowledgementsYes No ? 4. Culturally, developmentally, contextually appropriate/relevant form of acknowledgementYes No ? 5. Back- or follow-up acknowledgementsYes No ? 6. Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students and staffYes No ? 7. Use by all staff (e.g., office, security, supervisors, bus drivers)Yes No ? 8. Schedule for initial introduction of acknowledgements.Yes No ? 9. Schedule for regular boosters or re-implementation of acknowledgementsYes No ? 10. Procedures for providing orientation to new faculty, staff, studentsYes No ? 11. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district administrators, substitute teachers & staff)Yes No ? 12. Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose behaviors do not respond to school-wide acknowledgementsYes No ? 13. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? 14. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)Yes No ? 15. Instructions and practice on how to pair acknowledgements with positive social acknowledgementsYes No ? 16. Means for keeping track of number of acknowledgements versus number of disciplinary or corrective actions for violations of behavior expectations.Yes No ? 17. Schedule and procedures for regular review and enhancement of acknowledgements.
  • 67. SWPBS Workbook 67 Acknowledgements Worksheet Type of AcknowledgementConsiderationWhatWhenBy WhomHow OftenHow ManyWhere
  • 68. SWPBS Workbook 68 Actions Needed forDeveloping Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and Strengthening Student Use of School-wide Behavior Expectations Action Person(s) Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
  • 69. SWPBS Workbook 69 STEP 7 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student Behavior Violations of School-wide Behavior Expectations When developing procedures for discouraging violations of school-wide behaviorexpectations, consider the following guidelines: Guidelines 1. Specification of Definitions for Violations of School-wide Behavior ExpectationsYes No ? a. Contextually appropriate labels/namesYes No ? b. Definitions represent continuum of severity (e.g., minor, major, illegal)Yes No ? c. Definitions comprehensive in scope (school-wide)Yes No ? d. Definitions in measurable termsYes No ? e. Mutually exclusive (minimal overlap) 2. Specification of Procedures for Processing Violations of School-wide Behavior ExpectationsYes No ? a. Agreement regarding office staff versus teacher/staff responsibilitiesYes No ? b. Office discipline form for tracking discipline events that specifies the following: Who violated rule (name, grade) Who observed and responded to the violation of behavior expectations When (day, time) the violation of behavior expectation occurred Where the violation of behavior expectation occurred Who else was involved in the problem situation What was the possible motivation or purpose of the problem behavior What school-wide behavior expectation was violatedYes No ? c. Agreement regarding options for continuum of consequencesYes No ? d. Data decision rules for intervention and support selection
  • 70. SWPBS Workbook 70 3. Implementation of ProceduresYes No ? a. Use by all staff (e.g., office, security, supervisors, bus drivers)Yes No ? b. Schedule for teaching to students and staff membersYes No ? c. Schedule for regular review of use and effectivenessYes No ? d. Procedures for providing orientation to new faculty, staff, studentsYes No ? e. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district administrators, substitute teachers & staff)Yes No ? f. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffYes No ? g. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)Yes No ? h. Means for keeping track of number of acknowledgements versus number of disciplinary or corrective actions for violations of behavior expectations.Yes No ? i. Schedule and procedures for regular review and enhancement of acknowledgements.Yes No ? j. Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students and staffYes No ? k. Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters, newsletters)Yes No ? l. Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose behaviors do not respond to school-wide continuum of consequences for violations of behavior expectations. • Pre-referral intervention or behavior support team • Data-decision rule for initiating positive behavior support (e.g., 3 office discipline referrals for major rule violating infraction) • Precorrection intervention to prevent future occurrences of problem behavior • Formal procedures for teaching, practicing, and reinforcing positively prosocial behaviors to replace problem behavior • Adult mentor/advocate
  • 71. SWPBS Workbook 71
  • 72. SWPBS Workbook 72 Behavior Expectation Violations Level I. II. III. IV.Name/LabelDefinitionExamplesProcedures
  • 73. SWPBS Workbook 73 Actions Needed forDeveloping Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student Behavior Violations of School-wide Rules Action Person(s) Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
  • 74. SWPBS Workbook 74 STEP 8 - Develop Data-based Procedures for Monitoring Implementation of SWPBS Establishment of a data system is preceded by determination of what questionsyou want to answer. To guide this process, four steps should be considered: Steps for Selecting Practices within a School-Wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Develop evaluation questions. What do you want to know? Step 2: Identify indicators or measures for answering each question. What information can be collected? Step 3: Develop methods and schedules for collecting and analyzing indicators. How and when should this information be gathered? Step 4: Make decisions and action plan from analysis of indicators. How was the question answered and what should be done next? To ensure the effective, efficient, relevant, and sustained implementation of aschool-wide discipline system, school staff members must receive information that isaccurate, timely, and easily available to guide decision making. In general, a recordkeeping and decision making system must have (a) structures and routines for datacollection, (b) mechanisms for data entry, storage, and manipulation, and (c) proceduresand routines for review and analysis of data. In general, record keeping and datadecision making systems must be effective, efficient, and relevant.A readily availablesource of information about the disciplinary climate of a school is the office disciplinesystem. After a specific question has been answered and a specific outcome isdetermined, a practice or intervention must be selected to achieve that outcome. Ingeneral, an evidence-based practice should be identified. However, if an evidence-basedpractice is not identified, a promising practice can be carefully considered. See decision-making flowchart described previously.
  • 75. SWPBS Workbook 75 Data and Evaluation Worksheet When do they Who needs the Data Indicators & Data Collection Evaluation Question need the information? Sources Methods & Schedule information?
  • 76. SWPBS Workbook 76 Guidelines 1. General data collection proceduresYes No ? a. Data collection procedures that are integrated into typical routines (e.g., office discipline referrals, attendance rolls, behavior incident reports).Yes No ? b. Data collection procedures regularly checked for accuracy of useYes No ? c. Data collection limited to information that answers important student, classroom, and school questionsYes No ? d. Structures and routines for staff members to receive weekly/monthly data reports about the status of school-wide disciplineYes No ? e. Decision rules for guiding data analysis and actionsYes No ? f. Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students and staffYes No ? g. Data system managed by 2-3 staff membersYes No ? h. No more than 1% of time each day for managing data system.Yes No ? i. Efficient, timely, and graphic displays of data 2. Office discipline referral proceduresYes No ? a. Agreed upon definitions of violations of behavior expectations organized in a continuum of increasing intensity (see Step 7).Yes No ? b. A form for documenting noteworthy behavior incidents (e.g., office discipline referral form, behavior incident report)Yes No ? c. School-wide procedures for processing or responding to violations of behavior expectations.Yes No ? d. Efficient and user-friendly procedures for inputting and storing informationYes No ? e. Efficient and user-friendly procedures for summarizing and analyzing information.Yes No ? f. Efficient and user-friendly procedures for producing visual displays of the data.Yes No ? g. Procedures for presenting data to staff on routine basis.Yes No ? h. Procedures for making decisions and developing actions based on the data.
  • 77. SWPBS Workbook 77 Actions Needed forDeveloping Data-based Procedures for Monitoring Implementation of SWPBS Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 78. SWPBS Workbook 78 CHAPTER 3SWPBS Practices and Systems in Non- Classroom Settings
  • 79. SWPBS Workbook 79 Problematic Non-Classroom Settings Development and implementation of a formal, consistent, and continuoussystem of SWPBS in nonclassroom settings is important because behavior success (orfailure) in those settings can carry-over into the classroom, and vice versa. Considerthe following examples: Non-Classroom Behavior Examples Strategy? 1. An elementary school principal found that over 45% of their behavior incident reports were coming from the playground. 2. High school assistant principal reports that over 2/3 of behavior incident reports come from “four corners.” 3. A middle school secretary reported that she was getting at least one neighborhood complaint daily about student behavior on and off school grounds. 4. A high school nurse lamented that “too many students were asking to use her restroom” during class transitions. 5. At least 2 times/month, police are called to settle arguments by parents and their children in parking lot. 6. Dean of Students has made a request to the district school board to cancel all after school dances and pep rallies because student behavior is unruly, disrespectful, and unmanageable. 7. Cafeteria staff have filed a complaint to the school administration because transitions into and out of the lunchroom are “plagued” by student misbehavior and staff shouting and complaining.
  • 80. SWPBS Workbook 80 Definitions and Intervention Considerations Nonclassroom settings are characterized as particular times or places wheresupervision is emphasized, and where instruction is not available as a behaviormanagement tool. – Cafeteria, hallways, playgrounds, bathrooms – Buses & bus loading zones, parking lots – Study halls, library, “free time” – Assemblies, sporting events, dances Compare and Contrast Classroom v. Nonclassroom Settings Nonclassoom settings Classrooms are… V. are… Teacher directed V. Student focused Instructionally focused V. Socially focused Small # of predictable Large # of V. students unpredictable students Basic Management Considerations Basic Management Practices Physical/environmental Teach directly expected arrangements behaviors and routines in Routines and expectations context Staff behavior and practices Actively supervise (scan, move, interact) Student behavior Precorrect and remind Positively reinforce expected behavior
  • 81. SWPBS Workbook 81 When establishing a plan for implementing practices and systems in non-classroom settings, consider the following guidelines: GuidelinesYes No ? 1. Implementation is school-wide by all staffYes No ? 2. School-wide behavior expectations taught in contextYes No ? 3. Administrator active memberYes No ? 4. Context-specific expectations and routines taught directly and early in school year/termYes No ? 5. Regular opportunities for review, practice, & positive reinforcementYes No ? 6. Team –based review, action planning, and implementation coordinationYes No ? 7. Data-based progress monitoring and action planningYes No ? 8. Regular review of accuracy of intervention implementation Self-Assessment of Non-Classroom Setting Practices The following self-assessment has been developed for teams and for multiplepurposes: (a) exposure to best practice, (b) determination of current practice, (c)teaching of best practice, and (d) evaluation of changes in practice.
  • 82. SWPBS Workbook 82 Supervision Self-Assessment12Name______________________________ Date_____________Setting □ Hallway □ Entrance □ Cafeteria Time Start_________□ Playground □ Other_________________ Time End _________Tally each Positive Student Contacts Total # Ratio13 of Positives to Negatives: _____: 1Tally each Negative Student Contacts Total # 1. Did I have at least 4 positive for 1 negative student contacts? Yes No 2. Did I move throughout the area I was supervising? Yes No 3. Did I frequently scan the area I was supervising? Yes No 4. Did I positively interact with most of the students in the area? Yes No 5. Did I handle most minor violations of behavior expectations Yes No quickly and quietly? 6. Did I follow school procedures for handling major violations of Yes No behavior expectations? 7. Do I know our school-wide behavior expectations (positively Yes No stated rules)? 8. Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for Yes No displaying our school-wide behavior expectationsOverall active supervision score: 7-8 “yes” = “Super Supervision” # Yes______ 5-6 “yes” = “So-So Supervision” <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed” Action Planning12 Draft 3-10-04 Sugai13 To calculate, divide # positives by # of negatives.
  • 83. SWPBS Workbook 83 The purposes of this assessment are to (a) determine the extent to which effectivenon-classroom management practices are in place and (b) develop an action plan forenhancement/maintenance based on this information. This assessment and action plan canbe completed as a “self-assessment” or by an observer. 1. Pick a typical non-classroom setting14 that has a specific learning outcome/objective. 2. During the activity, count number of positive and negative student contacts that occur during the activity. 3. After the activity, a. Sum the number of positive and negative contacts and calculate the ratio of positive to negative contacts. b. Assess whether each nonclassroom management practice was evident. c. Sum the number of “yes” to determine overall classroom management score. d. Based on your score, develop an action plan for enhancement/maintenance. Action Plan # Current Level of Enhancement/Maintenance Strategies15 Performance Actions Needed for14 Setting or activity in which academic instruction or teacher/staff-directed activities are notavailable to engage students (e.g., cafeteria, playground, common areas, bus, hallways,parking lots, assemblies, sporting events).15 What? When? How? By When?
  • 84. SWPBS Workbook 84 Establishing and Implementing Non-Classroom Practices and Systems Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 85. SWPBS Workbook 85 Selected Supporting Non-Classroom ReferencesColvin, G., Kame’enui, E.J., & Sugai. G. (1993). School-wide and classroom management: Reconceptualizing the integration and management of students with behavior problems in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361-381.Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R., & Lee, Y. (1997). Effect of active supervision and precorrection on transition behaviors of elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 344-363.Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, B. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional approach for managing predictable problem behaviors. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, 143-150.DePry, R. I., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and precorrection on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255-267.Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3, 150-161.Haydon, T., & Scott, T. M. (2008). Using common sense in common settings: Active supervision and precorrection in the morning gym. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 283-290.Heck, A., Collins, J., & Peterson, L. (2001). Decreasing children’s risk taking on the playground. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 349-352.Kartub, D., Taylor-Greene, S., March, R.E., & Horner, R.H. (2000). Reducing hallway noise: A systems approach. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 179-182.Leedy, A., Bates, P., & Safran, S. P. (2004). Bridging the research-to-practice gap: Improving hallway behavior using positive behavior supports. Behavioral Disorders, 19, 130-139.Lewis, T. J., Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (2000). The effects of pre-correction and active supervision on the recess behavior of elementary school students. Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 109-121.Lewis, T. J., & Garrison-Harrell, L. (1999). Effective behavior support: Designing setting specific interventions. Effective School Practices, 17, 38-46.Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school- wide positive behavior and supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 181-190.Lewis, T. J., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1998). Reducing problem behavior through a school-wide system of effective behavioral support: Investigation of a school- wide scoal skills training program and contextual interventions. School Psychology Review, 27, 446-459.
  • 86. SWPBS Workbook 86Nelson, J. R., Colvin, G., & Smith, D. J. (1996). The effects of setting clear standards on students’ social behavior in common areas of the school. The Journal of At- Risk Issues, Summer/Fall, 10-17.Putnam, R. F., Handler, M. W., Ramirez-Platt, C. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2003). Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 583-589.Todd, A., Haugen, L., Anderson, K., & Spriggs, M. (2002). Teaching recess: Low-cost efforts producing effective results. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(1), 46-52.
  • 87. SWPBS Workbook 87 CHAPTER 4Classroom Management Practices and Systems
  • 88. SWPBS Workbook 88 Effective Classroom Management Practices Maximizing academic achievement is directly linked to academic engagement.In turn, academic engagement is linked to (a) effective curriculum, (b) effectivedelivery of curriculum (instruction), and (c) effective classroom management. More importantly, accurate and sustained use of effective managementpractices is related to having comprehensive and effective support systems, includingSWPBS.
  • 89. SWPBS Workbook 89 Although a review of the literature on effective classroom managementpractices does not reveal a definitive list of evidence based practices, a “short-list” ofrecommended best practices emerges from over 50 years of descriptive andevaluation research: Classroom Description Management Practice 1. Minimize Design environment to elicit appropriate behavior: crowding and o Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. distraction o Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. o Designate staff & student areas. o Seating arrangements (classrooms, cafeteria, etc.) 2. Maximize Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, structure & movement, planning, grading, etc. predictability Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting materials, homework, etc. 3. State, teach, Establish behavioral expectations/rules. review & Teach rules in context of routines. reinforce positively stated Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering expectations natural context. Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up. 4. Provide more Maintain at least 4 to 1 acknowledgement Interact positively once every 5 minutes s for appropriate than Follow correction for violation of behavior inappropriate expectations with positive reinforcement for rule behavior following 5. Maximize varied Vary individual v. group responding opportunities to Vary response type respond o Oral, written, gestural
  • 90. SWPBS Workbook 90 Increase participatory instruction o Questioning, materials6. Maximize Active Vary format Engagement o Written, choral, gestures Specify observable engagements Link engagement with outcome objectives7. Actively & Move Continuously Scan Supervise Interact Remind/precorrect Positively acknowledge8. Respond to Respond efficiently Inappropriate Attend to students who are displaying appropriate Behavior Quickly, behavior Positively, & Directly Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence9. Establish Multiple Social, tangible, activity, etc. Strategies for Frequent v. infrequent Acknowledging Appropriate Predictably v. unpredictably Behavior Immediate v. delayed10. Generally Provide Provide contingently Specific Feedback Always indicate correct behaviors for Errors & Corrects Link to context
  • 91. SWPBS Workbook 91 When establishing a plan for implementing practices and systems inclassroom settings, consider the following guidelines: Guidelines 1. Academic achievement is linked to social success, activeYes No ? engagement, and effective teachingYes No ? 2. Good teaching is used as a behavior management strategy 3. Behavior management is used as an instructional managementYes No ? strategy 4. The three-tiered prevention logic is applied to the classroomYes No ? contextYes No ? 5. Classroom management is linked to school-wide behavior support 6. Typical classroom routines have been taught, practiced, andYes No ? reinforced regularly 7. School-wide support systems are used to sustain effectiveYes No ? classroom management strategiesYes No ? 8. Data-based progress monitoring and action planningYes No ? 9. Regular review of accuracy of intervention implementation
  • 92. SWPBS Workbook 92 Classroom Management Self-AssessmentTeacher__________________________ Rater_______________________ Date___________Instructional Activity Time Start_______ Time End _______ Tally each Positive Student Contacts Total # Tally each Negative Student Contacts Total # 16Ratio of Positives to Negatives: _____ to 1 Classroom Management Practice Rating 1. I have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distraction Yes No 2. I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom Yes No routines, specific directions, etc.). 3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations (or Yes No rules). 4. I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than Yes No inappropriate behaviors (See top of page). 5. I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during Yes No instruction. 6. My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing) Yes No 7. I actively supervised my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction. Yes No 8. I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to Yes No inappropriate behavior. 9. I have multiplestrategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior (e.g., Yes No class point systems, praise, etc.). 10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic Yes No behavior errors and correct responses.Overall classroom management score: 10-8 “yes” = “Super” # Yes____ 7-5 “yes” = “So-So” <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed”16 To calculate, divide # positives by # of negatives.
  • 93. SWPBS Workbook 93 Action Planning The purposes of this assessment are to (a) determine the extent to whicheffective general classroom management practices are in place and (b) develop anaction plan for enhancement/maintenance based on this information. Thisassessment and action plan can be completed as a “self-assessment” or by anobserver. 1. Pick a teacher-led/directed activity that has a specific learning outcome/objective. 2. During the activity, count number of positive and negative student contacts that occur during the activity. 3. After the activity, a. Sum the number of positive and negative contacts and calculate the ratio of positive to negative contacts. b. Assess whether each classroom management practice was evident. c. Sum the number of “yes” to determine overall classroom management score. d. Based on your score, develop an action plan for enhancement/maintenance. Action Plan # Current Level of Enhancement/Maintenance Strategies17 Performance17 What? When? How? By When?
  • 94. SWPBS Workbook 94 Classroom Routine Lesson Plan ROUTINE #1 #2 #3What does routinelook/sound like?Where/when shouldroutine be used?When will routine betaught and for howlong?How and when willroutine be practiced?How will learning beconfirmed?How, where, and howoften will displays ofroutine beacknowledged?
  • 95. SWPBS Workbook 95 Actions Needed forEstablishing and Implementing Classroom Management Practices and Systems Action Person(s) Date1.
  • 96. SWPBS Workbook 96 Selected Supporting Classroom ReferencesColvin, G., & Lazar, M. (1997). The effective elementary classroom: Managing for success. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, W. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional strategy for managing predictable behavior problems. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, 143-150.Darch, C. B., & Kameenui, E. J. (2003). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein C. S. (2006). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S. (2001). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Kameenui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Latham, G. I. (1997). Behind the schoolhouse door: Eight skills every teacher should have. Utah State University.Latham, G. (1992). Interacting with at-risk children: The positive position. Principal, 72(1), 26-30.Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing disruptive behaviors in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and individualized social learning approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Paine, S. C., Radicchi, J., Rosellini, L. C., Deutchman, L., & Darch, C. B. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence- based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 351-380.Wehby, J. H., & Lane, K. L. (2009). Proactive instructional strategies for classroom management. In A. Akin-Little, S. G. Little, M. A. Bray, & T. J. Kehle (Eds). Behavioral interventions in schools: Evidence-based positive strategies (pp. 141-156). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.