SWPBS: Past, Present, & Future<br />George Sugai<br />OSEP Center on PBIS<br />Center for Behavioral Education & Research<...
PURPOSE<br />Examination of current SWPBS practices, systems, & outcomes in context of early influences & future direction...
Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
Brief History
Foundations
Implementation
Example</li></li></ul><li>“Notes to Self”<br />
Problem Statement<br />	“We give schools strategies & systems for improving practice & outcomes, but implementation is not...
Brief PBIS History<br />
Special Education & BD<br />
“Abbreviated” SWPBS History<br />
SWPBS Foundations<br />
“Big Ideas” from Early Years<br />
“Early Triangle”(p. 201)Walker, Knitzer, Reid, et al., CDC<br />
Guskey, 1986, p. 59<br />
SWPBS Logic!<br />	Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school  climates that ...
“BIG PICTURE”<br />
12 Basics<br />
Basics<br />
1. Invest in prevention<br />
Redesign of teaching environments…not students<br />
2. Teach, supervise, reinforce<br />
2.  NATURAL CONTEXT<br />1.  SOCIAL SKILL<br />Expectations<br />3.  BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES<br />
3. Emphasize implementation framework, not curriculum<br />
SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is<br />Framework<br />
Team<br />GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”<br />Agreements<br />Data-based <br />Action Plan<br />Impleme...
4. Integrate outcome, data, practices, & systems<br />
Integrated<br />Elements<br />Supporting Social Competence &<br />Academic Achievement<br />OUTCOMES<br />15<br />Supporti...
5. Invest in multi-tiered prevention logic<br />
Tertiary Prevention:<br />Specialized <br />Individualized<br />Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior<br />CONTINUU...
23<br />Continuum of Support for ALL<br />Few<br />Some<br />All<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“Theora”<br />Math<br />Science<br />Spanish<br />Reading<br />Soc skills<br />Soc Studi...
Continuum of Support for ALL:<br />“Molcom”<br />Anger man.<br />Prob Sol.<br />Ind. play<br />Adult rel.<br />Self-assess...
Implementation Framework<br />
6. Adopt doable implementation “blueprint” or approach<br />
Implementation Levels<br />State<br />District<br />School<br />Classroom<br />Student<br />
www.scalingup.org<br />Dean Fixsen<br />Karen Blase<br />UNC<br />
SWPBS Implementation Blueprint<br />www.pbis.org<br />
7. Embed “Response-to-Intervention” logic & principles<br />
RtI<br />
Intensive, Individual Interventions<br /><ul><li>Individual Students
Assessment-based
High Intensity</li></ul>Intensive, Individual Interventions<br /><ul><li>Individual Students
Assessment-based
Intense, durable procedures</li></ul>Targeted Group Interventions<br /><ul><li>Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response</li></ul>Targeted Group Interventions<br /><ul><li>Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response</li></ul>Universal Interventions<br /><ul><li>All students
Preventive,  proactive</li></ul>Universal Interventions<br /><ul><li>All settings, all students
Preventive,  proactive</li></ul>Responsiveness to Intervention<br />Academic Systems<br />Behavioral Systems<br />1-5%<br ...
Responsiveness to Intervention<br />
Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“IFB School”<br />Literacy<br />School Climate<br />Technology<br />Numeracy<br />Social...
Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“District: Literacy”<br />Trek E.S.<br />Bianchi M.S.<br />Jamis E.S.<br />Masi H.S.<br ...
Teacher Practice <br />Student Behavior<br />CONTEXT<br />or<br />SETTING<br />Continua of Responsiveness & Support<br />D...
8. Integrateliteracy & behaviorimplementation & supports<br />
Elementary School Suspension Rate<br />PBIS in Virginia<br />
Elementary School<br />Improvements in behavior can be associated with improvements in academic outcomes<br />PBIS in Virg...
Bob Algozzine<br />NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative<br />Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes<br />Proporti...
Academic-Behavior Connection<br />Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between ...
“Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are un...
23<br />Behavior Continuum<br />Academic Continuum<br />RTI<br />Integrated Continuum<br />Mar 10 2010<br />
9. Align professional development & support with implementation phase<br />
Where are you in implementation process?Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005<br />
10. Implement evidence-based practice with fidelity<br />
Start<br />w/<br />What Works<br />Focus on Fidelity<br />Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch....
Maximum Student Benefits<br />Fixsen & Blase, 2009<br />
RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies<br />Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school clim...
<ul><li>Reduced major disciplinary infractions
Improvements in academic achievement
Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety
Improved school climate
Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior</li></li></ul><li>11. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very w...
Sample Teaming Matrix<br />Are outcomes measurable?<br />
17<br />SWPBS<br />Practices<br />School-wide<br />Classroom<br />Family<br />Non-classroom<br /><ul><li>  Smallest #
  Evidence-based
  Biggest, durable effect</li></ul>Student<br />
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS<br />TERTIARY PREVENTION<br /><ul><li>Function-based support
Wraparound
Person-centered planning</li></ul>TERTIARY PREVENTION<br />~5% <br />~15% <br />SECONDARY PREVENTION<br /><ul><li>  Check ...
  Targeted social skills instruction
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  • “Drowning Frogs”“Green to Yellow to Red” Cards“Full to partial to limited” privileges
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  • NOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Baker, 2005 JPBI
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  • Swpbs past present future

    1. 1. SWPBS: Past, Present, & Future<br />George Sugai<br />OSEP Center on PBIS<br />Center for Behavioral Education & Research<br />University of Connecticut<br />June 25 2011<br />www.pbis.org www.scalingup.org www.cber.org<br />
    2. 2. PURPOSE<br />Examination of current SWPBS practices, systems, & outcomes in context of early influences & future directions<br /><ul><li>Keynote overview: All
    3. 3. Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
    4. 4. Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
    5. 5. Brief History
    6. 6. Foundations
    7. 7. Implementation
    8. 8. Example</li></li></ul><li>“Notes to Self”<br />
    9. 9. Problem Statement<br /> “We give schools strategies & systems for improving practice & outcomes, but implementation is not accurate, consistent, or durable, & desired outcomes aren’t realized. School personnel & teams need more than exposure, practice, & enthusiasm.”<br />
    10. 10. Brief PBIS History<br />
    11. 11. Special Education & BD<br />
    12. 12. “Abbreviated” SWPBS History<br />
    13. 13. SWPBS Foundations<br />
    14. 14. “Big Ideas” from Early Years<br />
    15. 15. “Early Triangle”(p. 201)Walker, Knitzer, Reid, et al., CDC<br />
    16. 16. Guskey, 1986, p. 59<br />
    17. 17. SWPBS Logic!<br /> Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for all students<br /> (Zins & Ponti, 1990)<br />
    18. 18. “BIG PICTURE”<br />
    19. 19. 12 Basics<br />
    20. 20. Basics<br />
    21. 21. 1. Invest in prevention<br />
    22. 22. Redesign of teaching environments…not students<br />
    23. 23. 2. Teach, supervise, reinforce<br />
    24. 24. 2. NATURAL CONTEXT<br />1. SOCIAL SKILL<br />Expectations<br />3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES<br />
    25. 25. 3. Emphasize implementation framework, not curriculum<br />
    26. 26. SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is<br />Framework<br />
    27. 27. Team<br />GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”<br />Agreements<br />Data-based <br />Action Plan<br />Implementation<br />Evaluation<br />
    28. 28. 4. Integrate outcome, data, practices, & systems<br />
    29. 29. Integrated<br />Elements<br />Supporting Social Competence &<br />Academic Achievement<br />OUTCOMES<br />15<br />Supporting<br />Decision<br />Making<br />Supporting<br />Staff Behavior<br />DATA<br />SYSTEMS<br />PRACTICES<br />Supporting<br />Student Behavior<br />
    30. 30. 5. Invest in multi-tiered prevention logic<br />
    31. 31. Tertiary Prevention:<br />Specialized <br />Individualized<br />Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior<br />CONTINUUM OF<br />SCHOOL-WIDE <br />INSTRUCTIONAL & <br />POSITIVE BEHAVIOR<br />SUPPORT<br />FEW<br />~5% <br />Secondary Prevention:<br />Specialized Group<br />Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior<br />~15% <br />SOME<br />Primary Prevention:<br />School-/Classroom-<br />Wide Systems for<br />All Students,<br />Staff, & Settings<br />23<br />ALL<br />~80% of Students<br />
    32. 32. 23<br />Continuum of Support for ALL<br />Few<br />Some<br />All<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
    33. 33. Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“Theora”<br />Math<br />Science<br />Spanish<br />Reading<br />Soc skills<br />Soc Studies<br />Basketball<br />Label behavior…not people<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
    34. 34. Continuum of Support for ALL:<br />“Molcom”<br />Anger man.<br />Prob Sol.<br />Ind. play<br />Adult rel.<br />Self-assess<br />Attend.<br />Coop play<br />Peer interac<br />Label behavior…not people<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
    35. 35. Implementation Framework<br />
    36. 36. 6. Adopt doable implementation “blueprint” or approach<br />
    37. 37. Implementation Levels<br />State<br />District<br />School<br />Classroom<br />Student<br />
    38. 38. www.scalingup.org<br />Dean Fixsen<br />Karen Blase<br />UNC<br />
    39. 39. SWPBS Implementation Blueprint<br />www.pbis.org<br />
    40. 40. 7. Embed “Response-to-Intervention” logic & principles<br />
    41. 41. RtI<br />
    42. 42. Intensive, Individual Interventions<br /><ul><li>Individual Students
    43. 43. Assessment-based
    44. 44. High Intensity</li></ul>Intensive, Individual Interventions<br /><ul><li>Individual Students
    45. 45. Assessment-based
    46. 46. Intense, durable procedures</li></ul>Targeted Group Interventions<br /><ul><li>Some students (at-risk)
    47. 47. High efficiency
    48. 48. Rapid response</li></ul>Targeted Group Interventions<br /><ul><li>Some students (at-risk)
    49. 49. High efficiency
    50. 50. Rapid response</li></ul>Universal Interventions<br /><ul><li>All students
    51. 51. Preventive, proactive</li></ul>Universal Interventions<br /><ul><li>All settings, all students
    52. 52. Preventive, proactive</li></ul>Responsiveness to Intervention<br />Academic Systems<br />Behavioral Systems<br />1-5%<br />1-5%<br />5-10%<br />5-10%<br />80-90%<br />80-90%<br />Circa 1996<br />
    53. 53. Responsiveness to Intervention<br />
    54. 54. Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“IFB School”<br />Literacy<br />School Climate<br />Technology<br />Numeracy<br />Social Studies<br />Writing<br />Attendance<br />Specials<br />Science<br />Align supports<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
    55. 55. Continuum of Support for ALL<br />“District: Literacy”<br />Trek E.S.<br />Bianchi M.S.<br />Jamis E.S.<br />Masi H.S.<br />Serrota E.S.<br />Look M.S.<br />Look M.S.<br />Davidson M.S.<br />Specials<br />Science<br />Align supports<br />Dec 7, 2007<br />
    56. 56. Teacher Practice <br />Student Behavior<br />CONTEXT<br />or<br />SETTING<br />Continua of Responsiveness & Support<br />District Operations<br />School Reform<br />
    57. 57. 8. Integrateliteracy & behaviorimplementation & supports<br />
    58. 58. Elementary School Suspension Rate<br />PBIS in Virginia<br />
    59. 59. Elementary School<br />Improvements in behavior can be associated with improvements in academic outcomes<br />PBIS in Virginia<br />
    60. 60. Bob Algozzine<br />NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative<br />Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes<br />Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard<br />Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students<br />PBIS in North Carolina<br />
    61. 61. Academic-Behavior Connection<br />Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16.<br />Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25.<br />McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154.<br />McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147.<br />Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.<br />Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.<br />
    62. 62. “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.”<br />Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.<br />
    63. 63. 23<br />Behavior Continuum<br />Academic Continuum<br />RTI<br />Integrated Continuum<br />Mar 10 2010<br />
    64. 64. 9. Align professional development & support with implementation phase<br />
    65. 65. Where are you in implementation process?Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005<br />
    66. 66. 10. Implement evidence-based practice with fidelity<br />
    67. 67. Start<br />w/<br />What Works<br />Focus on Fidelity<br />Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.<br />
    68. 68. Maximum Student Benefits<br />Fixsen & Blase, 2009<br />
    69. 69. RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies<br />Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115<br />Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.<br />Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.<br />Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.<br />Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.<br />Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.<br />
    70. 70. <ul><li>Reduced major disciplinary infractions
    71. 71. Improvements in academic achievement
    72. 72. Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety
    73. 73. Improved school climate
    74. 74. Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior</li></li></ul><li>11. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very well<br />
    75. 75. Sample Teaming Matrix<br />Are outcomes measurable?<br />
    76. 76. 17<br />SWPBS<br />Practices<br />School-wide<br />Classroom<br />Family<br />Non-classroom<br /><ul><li> Smallest #
    77. 77. Evidence-based
    78. 78. Biggest, durable effect</li></ul>Student<br />
    79. 79.
    80. 80. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS<br />TERTIARY PREVENTION<br /><ul><li>Function-based support
    81. 81. Wraparound
    82. 82. Person-centered planning</li></ul>TERTIARY PREVENTION<br />~5% <br />~15% <br />SECONDARY PREVENTION<br /><ul><li> Check in/out
    83. 83. Targeted social skills instruction
    84. 84. Peer-based supports
    85. 85. Social skills club</li></ul>SECONDARY PREVENTION<br />PRIMARY PREVENTION<br /><ul><li>Teach SW expectations
    86. 86. Proactive SW discipline
    87. 87. Positive reinforcement
    88. 88. Effective instruction
    89. 89. Parent engagement</li></ul>PRIMARY PREVENTION<br />~80% of Students<br />
    90. 90. 12. Guide decisions with data<br />
    91. 91. Data Decision Making<br />
    92. 92. 13. Consider Context & Culture<br />
    93. 93.
    94. 94. 2011+ Basic Big Ideas<br />
    95. 95. Implementation Example: Bullying Prevention<br />
    96. 96. Bullying Program Component Review Purpose<br />
    97. 97. Preliminary Conclusions<br />
    98. 98.
    99. 99.
    100. 100. PREVENTION<br />De-emphasis on adding consequence for problem behavior<br />
    101. 101. Initiator<br />Target<br />Context<br />or<br />Setting<br />Continuum of Behavior Fluency<br />Staff<br />Bystander<br />
    102. 102. Four basic strategies….if you do nuthin’ else….<br />
    103. 103. Doesn’t Work<br />Works<br />Label student<br />Exclude student<br />Blame family<br />Punish student<br />Assign restitution<br />Ask for apology<br />Teach targeted social skills<br />Reward social skills<br />Teach all<br />Individualize for non-responsive behavior<br />Invest in positive school-wide culture<br />
    104. 104.
    105. 105. www.pbis.org<br />
    106. 106.
    107. 107.
    108. 108. Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment<br />
    109. 109.
    110. 110.
    111. 111.
    112. 112. 2011+ Basic Big Ideas<br />

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