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  • Louise
  • Emphasise what school teams are already doing that is valuable and worthwhile – take it the next step and see how their current processes fit into the Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support model. Don’t throw out existing practices if they are working – there is enough space and ‘give’ within the SWPBS framework for most effective practices.
  • Louise

SWPBS  Louise O'Kelly SWPBS Louise O'Kelly Presentation Transcript

  • SWPBS Louise O’Kelly Department of Education Tasmania
  • Today...
    • A rationale for implementing SWPBS
    • Consider the logic, systems and practices of the process?
    • Review/consider each of the universal systems of SWPBS in relation to our own schools.
  • Tasmania
    • “ approaches to (student) behaviour often rest on authority, coercion, exclusion and regulation, all of which are imposed on students”
    • “ ...Such deficit models of behaviour management do not appear to be working…they tend to promulgate an authority based model of interaction…” (p.19).
    • Atelier, (2004)
    • “ Across the nation there is a growing sense of pressure arising from children and young people whose needs do not seem to be well met with traditional approaches to service provision.”
    • Atelier (2004)
  • Australia
    • Behaviour problems in schools are;
    • ‘ ongoing, growing and of national concern ’ (p.3)
    • MCEETYA Student Behaviour Management Project (2002 )
  • Queensland
    • Behaviour and behaviour management issues in schools and the development, approval, application and review of school-based policies on behaviour management, including school disciplinary absences, remain contentious and the subject of ongoing public and political debate. The historical connotation of ‘behaviour management’ is that of negative behaviour and its amelioration” (p.2).
    • Queensland Government MACER Report (2005)
  • Australian Policy Context
    • “ implement policies, programmes and processes to nurture a safe and supportive school”
    • “ proactive and oriented towards prevention and intervention”
    • “ regularly monitor and evaluate their policies and programmes so that evidence based practice supports decisions and improvement”
    • “ recognise the critical importance of pre service and ongoing professional development in creating a safe and supportive school environment” (p.8-9)
    • National Safe Schools Framework (2003)
  •  
  • Schoolwide Approach
    • “ ...although long proposed, until recent years schools have struggled to agree on a common and shared approach to problem behaviour, and even more difficult has been to integrate strategies to improve behaviour with teaching and learning in the context of a schoolwide, positive plan”
    • Cook & Radler (2006)
    • ...a typical school can use up to fourteen different responses to problem behaviour at any one time, and that strategies and responses are most often implemented inconsistently or imprecisely.
    • Gottfredson (2000)
  • Issues for teachers Beginning Teachers
    • 1.5% of respondents said they had ongoing support from their university once they began teaching
    • 1.8% indicated that they received support from their employer
    • 94% reported that they received most of their professional development from school colleagues
    • 45% teachers indicated that they won’t be teaching in 10 years time
    Australian Education Union, 2006
    • 65% beginning teachers DON”T feel that their pre-service education prepared them for dealing with the needs of:
      • Students with disabilities
      • Students with low socio-economic status
      • Students from non English speaking backgrounds
    • The top four concerns for new teachers are:
      • Workload (64%)
      • Behaviour management (60%)
      • Pay (56%)
      • Class sizes (55%)
    September 30, 2011 Australian Education Union, 2006
  • In service issues
    • Supporting students with additional needs
    • IT
    • Behaviour and discipline
    • OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey; 2009
    • ‘ Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments’
  • Community perceptions, media reporting & government responses
    • ‘ A battle is brewing to contain a 26 per cent spike in students being suspended from Queensland schools over the past three years. The alarming wave of aggressive and disrespectful behaviour from southeast and north Queensland students comes as the Government pours another $28.6 million into “positive behaviour strategies” this financial year.’ (p.1)
    • Brisbane Courier Mail 2008
  • ACSSO Report October 2008 (Australian Council of State School Organisations)
    • Discipline in schools was too lax, but few supported the return of the dreaded strap or cane.
    • Brat students should be turfed from classrooms until special attention improved their behaviour.
    • The importance of values such as compassion, honesty and tolerance should not be restricted to religious schools.
    • Teachers who build strong relationships with families should more quickly climb the career ladder.
    • “… seriously damage education systems, demoralizing staff and students and making the teaching profession an unattractive option for a future workforce.’ (p.46).
    • Beaman & Kemp (2007)
    • Stable suspension, retention and school safety data.
    • Enduring community appeal of traditional punitive approaches.
    • Underprepared and poorly supported teachers.
    • Conflict between policy context and actual practice.
    • Lack of alignment of behaviour and learning.
  • Behavioural Habits
  • 2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behaviour
    • Get Tough (practices)
    • Train-&-Hope (systems)
  • Get Tough
    • Clamp down
    • Review rules (again and again)
    • Increase continuum and consistency of consequences
    Sugai, 2002
  • Get Tougher
    • Zero tolerance policies
    • Increased suspension & exclusion
    • Off site educational placements
    Sugai, 2002
  • “ Get Tough” Problems
    • Foster environments of control
    • Triggers & reinforces non-acceptable behaviour
    • Compromises the student-teacher relationship
    • Weakens relationship between academic & social behaviour learning
    • Sugai, 2002
  • Focus on Behaviour Errors
    • Challenging behaviour gets worse
    • Classes get disrupted
    • Children who challenge start hanging out together
    • Adults feel powerless
  • Tasmanian Study
    • 44 SWPBS Leadership Teams (260 individual respondents)
    • 19 teachers and 6 principals from 6 case study schools.
    • 3 years 
  • Initiatives and Reviews:Where we were...
    • A consistency of response in relation to the ineffectiveness of current practice
    • in improving student outcomes
    • A lack of confidence or ‘efficacy’ on the part of principals and teachers to effectively
    • teach students with difficult behaviour, manifested in repeated requests for
    • professional learning and support
    • An overuse of sanctions and consequence based approaches reflecting a tendency
    • to attribute cause for misbehaviour primarily to student factors
    • A concern about the lack of any systematic and systemic approach to student
    • behaviour that aligned with Departmental values and with teaching and learning
    • practices.
  • Workshop responses 44 SWPBS Teams 260 respondents
    • ‘ Despair!’
    • ‘ staff isolation’
    • ‘ Needed whole school approach’
    • ‘ current procedures not consistent or shared by all staff’
    • ‘ We failed the staff health survey’
    • ‘ Wanted a proactive, positive approach’
  •  
    • Getting Tough Is Enough
    • Belief that disruptive behaviour should not be tolerated because it inhibits the education of other students and that raising the intensity of punishment is the most effective way to curtail behaviour.
    • Reprimands, detention, suspension, expulsion and loss of privileges are most common responses to disruptive behaviour.
    • These are among the least effective strategies for reducing unwanted behaviour .
    • A strong, consistent policy of punishment and exclusion for problem behaviours – without a balanced system of teaching and rewarding expected behaviours is associated with increases in
      • aggression,
      • vandalism,
      • truancy and,
      • dropouts
    • Focusing On The Difficult Few
    • Assuming that if the behaviour of the ‘difficult few’ could be contained (or relocated!) the school climate would be acceptable.
    • One of the three levels of effective disciplinary structure is a system for addressing a small number of students with chronic and intense disruptive behaviour.
    • It is not an error to focus on these students, but it is a mistake to focus on these students without first implementing preventions and at risk practices .
    • Schoolwide discipline is not achieved one student at a time.
    • Procedures must be in place to build schoolwide social competence.
    • Too often efforts to remove or contain the small number of the most disruptive students simply results in identification of an ever-increasing number of these students .
    • Looking For The Quick Fix
    • Building effective schoolwide discipline takes time.
    • A reasonable period to design and establish the three major disciplinary systems is 3 to 5 years .
    • A dangerous trap is to embark on a schoolwide disciplinary effort with the assumption that a program can be identified, adopted and implemented within a few months.
    • Schools with effective disciplinary systems typically build them over time .
    • Finding One Powerful Trick
    • Schoolwide discipline is not achieved through a single strategy.
    • Deceptive to think that a single strategy or procedure exists to meet all the needs of a school.
    • Effective schoolwide discipline involves the development of at least three distinct systems.
    • Effective responses to schoolwide discipline problems will involve the design of an action plan that builds and integrates multiple components of a schoolwide disciplinary structure .
    • Believing Someone Else Has The Solution
    • School teams will need to develop and adapt disciplinary systems that meet the unique features of each school.
    • There is no one unified system of discipline that has or is likely to emerge as the miracle solution for schools.
    • School principals committed to building effective disciplinary systems need to lead the integration and ownership of those elements that establish the social culture of a school .
    • Believing That More Is Better
    • A common trap is to add more and more reform initiatives to an already overburdened staff.
    • It is less difficult to identify a new idea that needs implementation than to identify the existing activities that will be terminated to recover resources needed for the new initiative.
    • As the intensity and diversity of disciplinary problems in schools increase, educators become vulnerable to the lure of the newest fad.
    • Innovation is added with no consideration beyond surface level appeal (packaging, ease of use, cost).
  • Activity
    • To what extent do these beliefs influence decision making in your schools?
  • Science of behaviour has taught us that students….
    • Are NOT born with “bad behaviours”
    • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences
    • …… .. Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback…. consider function
  • Common assumptions about academic errors Common assumptions about behaviour mistakes Students are trying to make the correct response. Students are trying to be disruptive, that is to make an incorrect response. Errors are accidental. Errors are deliberate. Errors are inevitable. Students are refusing to cooperate. Learning requires exploration. Students should not explore limits; they should obey them. Students who are having difficulties need additional or modified teaching. Students who are having difficulties should be punished. Students who achieve good work deserve some recognition Students should behave appropriately without needing recognition.
  • Why SWPBS?
    • School friendly
    • Practical
    • Systematic
    • Research informed
    • Ongoing development
    • Values alignment
    • Incorporated community
    • Inclusive
  • Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Academic Systems Behavioral Systems
    • Intensive, Individual Interventions
    • Individual Students
    • Assessment-based
    • High Intensity
    • Intensive, Individual Interventions
    • Individual Students
    • Assessment-based
    • Intense, durable procedures
    • Targeted Group Interventions
    • Some students (at-risk)
    • High efficiency
    • Rapid response
    • Targeted Group Interventions
    • Some students (at-risk)
    • High efficiency
    • Rapid response
    • Universal Interventions
    • All students
    • Preventive, proactive
    • Universal Interventions
    • All settings, all students
    • Preventive, proactive
  •  
  • School Leadership Teams SWPBS District Coaches Central/regional coordination and training
  • SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behaviour Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behaviour Positive Behaviour Support OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement
    • Supports that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of SWPBS
    • Interventions and strategies that are research validated
    • Information that is used to identify status, need for change, and effects of interventions
    Academic and behaviour outcomes that are endorsed and emphasised by students, families and educators
  • Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support Systems
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  • What do SWPBS Schools Look Like?
    • >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioural example
    • Taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged.
    • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative
    • Evidence based practices are being used
    • Function based behaviour support is foundation for addressing problem behaviour.
  • What does SW-PBS look like?
    • At School-wide Level:
      • You can identify the behavioural expectations within 5 min of entering the school.
      • Students state the behavioural expectations
        • Ask 10 randomly selected students
      • Students are recognized for appropriate behaviour
        • Ask 10 randomly selected students if they have been acknowledge for appropriate behaviour in past week.
      • All staff know the expectations
      • Data are collected and used for decision-making
      • Team-based process
      • Families actively included
  • BHS 2006
  • BHS 2007
  • BHS 2008
  • BHS 2009
  • Term 1 Relocations 2006/2007
  • Relocation from Class
  • Suspensions
  • Regional Data Schoolwide Evaluation Tool (SET Data)
  • At Risk Children – December 2008
    • 57% Primary Prevention
    • 29% Secondary Prevention
    • 14% Tertiary Prevention
    • Data collected from Red Cards, Bum bags, Withdrawal Room Book, Teacher data (RAMP)
    •  
    •  
  • At Risk Children – June 2011
    • 91% Primary Prevention
    • 6% Secondary Prevention
    • 3% Tertiary Prevention
    • Data collected from Red Cards, Bum bags, Withdrawal Room Book, SWIS data
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  •  
  • Nemarluk
  • Wanguri
    • As we build our identity we will incorporate the social story of:
    •  
    • Be safe
    • Be kind
    • Be your best
  • Shepherdson SWPBS Team = 6 (was 4) + whole school
    • Keep your child safe = Dharray amatha nhokala aw yothuw
    •  
    • SAFE     =  Marrpara
    • SMART   =  Gadama
    • STRONG =   { ^
  •  
  • Your school...
    • Do you have 3-5 expectations?
    • Do you have a matrix?
    • Has this been developed in consultation with ALL stakeholders?
    • Is the matrix used to reteach replacement behaviours to problem behaviours identified in your data?
    • Is every teacher aware of and using the matrix?
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  • Teaching Guidelines
    • Behaviour problems are learning problems
    • The process for teaching social and academic skills is fundamentally the same
    • The emphasis is on teaching what we want to see rather than continually correcting what we don’t want to see.
  • Wangaratta High School
  • Your school...
    • Are the expectations being taught by every teacher?
    • How do you know?
    • Are there lesson plans available?
    • What is your broader social learning curriculum?
    • Have you visited or revisited non classroom settings?
    • How is reteaching using the matrix happening?
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  • “ Positive Office Referral”
    • Balancing positive/negative adult/student contacts
    • Procedures
      • Develop equivalent positive referral
      • Process like negative referral
  • “ Piece of Paper”
    • In one month, staff recorded 15 office discipline referrals for rule violations, & 37 for contributing to safe environment
  •  
  • Your school…
    • Is there a system for checking everyone’s use of the school wide acknowledgement system?
    • How is it being used to support the 6-1 work?
    • Are students receiving sufficient reinforcement for using replacement behaviours?
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  • Staff Managed Office Managed
    • Late to class/school
    • Unprepared - no homework/materials
    • Violation of classroom expectation
    • Inappropriate language
    • Classroom Disruption
    • Minor Safety Violation
    • Cheating
    • Consequences are determined by teachers
    • Repeated minor behaviours
    • High level disrespect
    • Abusive/Inappropriate language
    • Harassment/Intimidation
    • Fighting/Physical aggression
    • Safety violations that are potentially harmful to self, others and/or property.
    • Vandalism/Property destruction
    • Theft
    • Truanting
    • Consequences determined by senior/office staff
  • Observe problem behaviour Problem solve Determine consequence Follow procedure documented File necessary documentation Send referral to office File necessary documentation Determine consequence Follow through with consequences Problem solve Follow documented procedure Write referral & Escort student to office Follow up with student within a week Is behaviour major? Does student have 3? NO YES NO YES Find a place to talk with student(s) Ensure safety
  • Correcting problem behaviour
    • Has the list been revisited?
    • What is happening in practice?
    • How do you know?
    • 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
    • 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviours
    • 3. Procedures for teaching expected behaviour
    • 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviour
    • 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviour
    • 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
    Schoolwide Systems
  • ODRs and The BIG 5!
    • Examine Office Discipline Referral Rates and Patterns
      • Major Problem events
      • Minor Problem events
      • Ask the BIG 5 questions
        • How often are problem behaviour events occurring?
        • Where are they happening?
        • What types of problem behaviours?
        • When are the problems occurring?
        • Who is contributing?
  • Using data...
  • Your school...
    • Do you have a system for recruiting, graphing and sharing data?
    • Is everyone using it?
    • How do you know?
    • What other data could you consider?
  • GB High School
    • Undertook SWPBS training in 2006
    • Representative team
    • Developed Universals
    • Experienced student outcome improvement
    • Principal left
    • Systemic support suspended
    • Implementation stalled
  •  
  •  
  • Staff review 6-1 Greeting Initiative Plus Minus Interesting The kids are starting to greet us first I’m learning more kids names. The place feels more positive On the first day the kids were spooked More people are smiling
  • Staff review Getting to class before the students Plus Minus Interesting Classes are starting quickly We forgot to plan for who would round up the smokers Kids more settled We’re getting more done
  •  
  • ‘ Pay it Forward’
  • Impact on student data
    • 68% reduction in suspensions
    • 65% reduction in exits from class
  • Efficacy and Attribution
    • Are you more confident?
    • Yes (25)
    • (absolutely, definitely, immensely)
    • (All but one principal reported perceiving improved confidence in their staff)
    • Have your views about why problem behaviours occur changed?
    • Yes (25)
    • (dramatic, immense used to describe in many)
    • Understanding the function of behaviour assisted teachers and principals to respond to incidents more calmly and positively (18 responses), and
    • Incidents are managed more confidently due to there being a whole school approach and ownership of students and a planned response to behavioural mistakes (21 responses).
  • Tasmanian Research: What helped??
    • Consistency of teaching and responding to students achieved through the implementation of a schoolwide approach that pays attention to the systems required to support implementation by all staff (44)
    • Explicit teaching of schoolwide expectations specifically, and social skills generally (42)
    • The focus on understanding the function of behaviour and having consistent but positive/educative responses to behavioural errors (36)
    • The consistent use of data to assist in understanding and responding to behaviour with some precision, and as a critical, ongoing evaluative tool. (42)
    • I don’t believe it (SWPBS) can be left though. It’s all about confidence and people lose confidence quickly, because if what they’ve done works eight times, and then two times it doesn’t work, they start to question - they believe they’re a failure because of the two times, they forget about the other eight. So you’ve got to be constantly reminded of the positives, the achievements have to be revisited all the time. The data has been outstanding because it’s just shown them that when things seem to be going haywire, you can show them the data, that it’s not. You’ve got three years of data you can say ‘look at this, our expectations of the kids has risen and that’s why things happening today look big. Three years ago you wouldn’t have even noticed those things. (Primary School Principal)
    • … probably for me this is the best opportunity that I’ve ever seen for a whole school design that does have that capacity to sustain beyond the Principal or a small group of people within the school. The growing capacity of the team and putting all of the structures in place so that it doesn’t matter who’s in the team or who’s leading the team. (High School Principal)
    • … probably for me this is the best opportunity that I’ve ever seen for a whole school design that does have that capacity to sustain beyond the Principal or a small group of people within the school. The growing capacity of the team and putting all of the structures in place so that it doesn’t matter who’s in the team or who’s leading the team. (High School Principal)
  • So...
    • Teachers and principals report that implementing SWPBS greatly improves their confidence and capacity in relation to student behaviour.
    • They also report having a better and broader understanding about behaviour function.
    • Support to implement good practice relies on strong school based systems.
    • Sustained implementation is much more likely with strong, reliable systemic support and structures.
  • Challenges
    • Maintaining/sustaining effort against community pressure / media reporting and government responses to that pressure.
    • The lack of alignment with teaching and learning policy and practice.
    • The shifting priority of student behaviour as a focus for schools.