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Positive psychology keynote

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  • Strength-spotting in the classroom and across the school PDHPE, English, Drama

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Positive Psychology School Psychologists Association of WA Annual Conference September 2011 Dr Suzy Green Clinical & Coaching Psychologist POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY INSTITUTE CPU, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY [email_address]
  • 3. Welcome back… A year ago: An introduction to Positive Psychology… This morning: Revising and renewing interest! This afternoon: Reflecting on PP for yourself & your school Committing to action!
  • 4. Where I’m coming from… As a Clinical Psychologist Treatment and prevention of clinical disorders As a Coaching Psychologist Promotion of mental health, mental fitness and psychological well-being As a Scientist-Practitioner Science, Research and practice
  • 5. Introducing PPI…
  • 6. About PPI… Our vision: To significantly improve well-being within the global community Our mission: To research, practice and promote the science of optimal human functioning to enhance the well-being of individuals, communities, educational institutions , organisations and governments. Our structure: Individual, Educational, Organisational
  • 7. Positive Introductions!
    • Turn to the person next to you…
    • Tell a story about a time in your role as a School Psychologist that showed YOU at your very BEST!
    • Take turns.
    • Don’t allow modesty to stifle the truth!
    • As a listener, listen appreciatively.
    • Respond in a way that builds on what has been said.
  • 8. Review of Positive Psychology?
  • 9. Review of Positive Psychology
    • What is Positive Psychology?
    • Positive Psychology is a strengths-based psychology that works to promote optimal functioning across the full range of human functioning, from disorder and distress to health & fulfilment (Linley & Joseph, 2004)
    • It is the science of optimal functioning (Gable & Haidt, 2005)
  • 10. Applied Positive Psychology?
    • Application of positive psychology research for the facilitation of optimal functioning;
    • Includes evidence-based coaching!
    • Individual, Group, Organisation, Community & Society Levels!
  • 11. Review of Positive Psychology
    • 4 Main Imperatives:
    • Rise to life’s challenges, making the most of setbacks & adversities;
    • Engage and relate to others;
    • Find fulfilment in creativity & productivity;
    • Look beyond oneself and help others to find lasting meaning, satisfaction and wisdom in life.
    • Keyes & Haidt, 2004
  • 12. Review of Positive Psychology?
    • Founded on the belief that individuals want to lead meaningful & fulfilling lives , to cultivate what is best within ourselves & to enhance our experiences of love and work.
  • 13. History of Positive Psychology
    • Rogers (1951) The fully functioning person
    • Jahoda (1958) Mental Health
    • Allport (1961) Mature Individuality
    • Erikson (1963) Stages of Development
    • Maslow (1954-1971) Self Actualisation
    • Vaillant (1977) Positive Defenses & Exceptional Performance
    • Deci & Ryan (1985) Self Determination Theory
    • Csikszentmihalyi (1990) Flow – Optimal Experience
    • Ryff & Singer (1996) Psychological Well-Being
    • Seligman (1991-2006) Learned Helplessness, Optimism, Authentic Happiness
  • 14. Fundamental Values & Assumptions
    • Implicit within Positive Psychology is the idea that human beings have the potential for ‘good’ and that we are motivated to pursue a ‘good life’ …
    • (Linley & Joseph, 2006)
  • 15. Fundamental Values & Assumptions
    • Involves a shift in mindset:
    • Growth-mindset, rather than fixed mindset
    • Solution-focused, rather than problem-focused
    • Strengths-based, rather than weakness-based
  • 16. The scientific study of Well-Being?
    • What is Well-Being?
    • “ Well-being refers to positive and sustainable characteristics which enable individuals and organisations to thrive and flourish”
            • Institute of Well-Being, Cambridge University
  • 17. 2 approaches
    • Subjective Well-Being
    • Psychological Well-Being
  • 18. Key Constructs
    • Character Strengths
    • Happiness, Meaning & Purpose
    • Positive Emotions & Psychological Well-Being
    • Positive Leadership
    • Citizenship
    • Forgiveness
    • Gratitude
    • Creativity
    • Wisdom
    • Hope
    • & many others…..
  • 19. Proactivity, not Reactivity!
  • 20. Self-Actualisation!
  • 21. Feeling Good & Doing Good!
  • 22. PP Theories
    • Authentic Happiness/PERMA
    • Self-Determination Theory
    • Hope Theory
    • Broaden & Build Theory
    • Any others?
  • 23. Authentic Happiness Theory Seligman (2003)
    • 3 Roads to the Good Life….
    • The Pleasurable Life
    • The Engaged Life
    • The Meaningful Life
  • 24. How well are you travelling?
  • 25. Approaches to Happiness www.authentichappiness.org
  • 26. PERMA
    • Positive Emotions
    • Engagement
    • Relationships
    • Meaning
    • Accomplishment
  • 27.
    • Self Determination Theory is a developmental theory of motivation and personality;
    • One of the most widely researched theories in psychology;
    • Identifies reasons why people pursue their goals!
    • Identifies three psychological needs: autonomy , competence & relatedness ……
    SDT
  • 28. SDT Example: 4 Reasons Why You May Pursue your Goals … Autonomous (internally motivated reasons) Intrinsic Identified “ I really enjoy it” “I value it, meaning” ________________________________________________ Controlled (externally motivated reasons) Introjected Extrinsic “ I should do it” “I’ll be penalised, guilt! or receive recognition”
  • 29. Self-Determination Theory
    • Self-Concordant or Authentic Goals
    • Research shows that those pursuing self-concordant or authentic goals have greater goal attainment and well-being
  • 30. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991)
    • Hope reflects an individual’s perceptions of their capacity to:
      • Clearly conceptualise goals;
      • Develop the specific strategies to reach those goals ( pathways )
      • Initiate & sustain the motivation for using those strategies ( agency ).
  • 31. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991)
    • Can be trait or state, general or specific.
    • Variability between individuals in levels of hope ie HIGH vs LOW HOPERS!
    • High Hopers do better at school, athletics, have better health, problem-solving ability and are better adjusted psychologically. )
  • 32. Broaden & Build Theory of Emotion (Frederickson, 1998, 2000)
    • Asserts that positive emotions evolved as psychological adaptations that increased our human ancestor’s odds of survival and reproduction.
    • Negative emotions narrow people’s behavioural urges towards specific actions
    • However positive emotions widen the array of thoughts and actions
  • 33. Broaden & Build Theory
    • The benefits of broadened mindsets build a variety of personal resources, like social connections, coping strategies, environmental knowledge.
    • Reserves that we can later draw on to manage threats (mental health prevention).
  • 34. Positive Emotions Professor Barbara Fredrickson
    • Joy
    • Gratitude
    • Serenity
    • Interest
    • Hope
    • Pride
    • Amusement
    • Inspiration
    • Awe
    • Love
  • 35. Triangle or Squares?
  • 36. What is Positive Education?
    • Applied Positive Psychology in Education
    • Positive Education utilises the research base from the field of Positive Psychology to enhance the optimal functioning of students, teachers, staff and the whole school
    • Involves the application of PP research on topics such as wisdom, mental fitness, virtues & strengths, mindfulness, flow, positive emotions, purpose and meaning + much more….
  • 37. What is Positive Education?
    • Seligman defines it as….” education for both traditional skills and for happiness”
    • Positive Psychology Institute incorporates evidence-based coaching as a methodology that “enhances the transfer of education and training in Positive Psychology into everyday practice”
    • Over 20 years of research shows that personally meaningful goal-striving is highly correlated with well-being!
    • Upcoming Harvard Research: PPI vs EB Coaching?
  • 38. Positive Education Clarification Point
    • The terms “happiness” and “well-being” are still being used interchangeably
    • Seligman states happiness is “too worn and weary a term to be of much scientific use”
    • Fredrickson says it is “semantically messy”
    • We need to clarify for those in education interested in PP that it is for “optimal functioning”
  • 39. Positive Education
    • PP provides:
    • Scientific underpinning of “well-being”
    • Strengths-Based Assessment & Development
    • Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs)
    • Research on a wide range of Positive Psychology constructs!
    • Underlying Values, Assumptions & Theories
  • 40. Positive Education Why do we need it?
    • For reduction of mental illness; poor mental health can impede academic & social success
    • For increasing well-being and optimal functioning; better learning & more creative thinking
    • For creating virtuous citizens and a virtuous society!
  • 41. Positive Education Why do we need it?
    • Schools have immense influence on the development of youth
    • The primary focus is on the acquisition of fundamental academic skills
    • PP can directly influence academic outcomes through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths (of students & staff!)
    • Many programs are focused on preventing pathology rather than building health eg The School Psychologist’s role is primarily reactive not proactive
  • 42. Positive Education: A Snapshot
    • Growing interest globally!
    • Australia forging ahead!
    • Geelong Grammar, Knox Grammar – Strategic Positive Education Programs - training in PP for staff, students & parents,, PP embedded into curriculum, co-curricular activities, policies and procedures.
    • University of Sydney research has focused on “evidence-based coaching as an applied positive psychology” for enhancement of individual goal attainment & well-being
    • Growing number of Australian schools adopting!
  • 43. Positive Education: A Review
    • Positive Psychology in Education Symposium
    • Hosted by the Coaching Psychology Unit, University of Sydney, April, 2009 & 2011
    • www.positivepsychologyaustralia.org
  • 44. Australian schools adopting….
  • 45. Example PP Initiatives
    • Celebrating Strengths – WWW - (Jenny Fox-Eades)
    • Figures of Eminence Night (St Caths)
    • Strengths Art on corridor walls (St Caths)
    • Mood Boosting music for bell (St Caths)
    • Strengths-Coaching (Wendy Ewen)
    • Gratitude (Diary, Café)
    • Kindness (RAOK, Friendship Tree)
    • Hope (Goal Setting/Coaching)
    • Mood-Boosts (music/videos; visual triggers)
    • Positive Relationships: Grandparents Day/Harmony Policy
  • 46. Positive Education PPIs for Adolescents (Norrish PhD)
    • Adolescents categorised as flourishing reported higher academic achievement & performance (Howell, 2009)
    • Adolescents demonstrate a preference for the pleasure orientation to happiness (which has been demonstrated to have the weakest relationship with well-being).
    • Very few adolescents referred to meaning in their qualitative responses.
    • Norrish & Vella-Brodrick: Multi-component PPIs aimed at enhancing adolescent well-being
  • 47. Positive Education PP & CP: Complementary Approaches
    • Optimal Functioning
    • Enhanced Performance
    • Enhanced Psychological Well-Being
    • Focus on Strengths & Solutions
  • 48. Positive Psychology & Coaching Psychology?
    • Positive Psychology: scientific research to better understand human flourishing
    • Coaching Psychology: a framework for change to apply PP research to everyday life
    • Complementary Partners in the creation of flourishing individuals, groups, organisations, communities!
  • 49. Positive Education We need Training & Coaching!
  • 50. PPI’s Educational Projects
  • 51. PPI’s Educational Projects
  • 52. PPI’s Educational Projects
    • OTHERS…
    • Public Schools – Grants?
    • Professional Development Days
    • Senior Leadership Development – Training & Coaching
    • Student Workshops: Year 11 & Year 12 – Increasing Hope & Hardiness
    • Pos Ed Experts Panel & Team
    • Work with teachers, school psychologists, students & staff!
  • 53. Positive Education Seligman’s Suggestion
    • Teaching Positive Psychology
    • Embedding Positive Psychology
    • Living Positive Psychology
  • 54. Positive Education Teaching Positive Psychology
    • There is a place for stand-alone PP courses
    • Not “happiness classes” if we want to be taken seriously!
    • It’s about “mental fitness” or “optimal functioning” or “well-being”
    • Training for teachers first, then students
    • Include Parents!!
  • 55. Positive Education Embedding Positive Psychology
    • In the classroom; in curriculum; in music
    • On the sports field
    • In the staffroom
    • In assemblies and festivals
  • 56. Positive Education Living Positive Psychology
    • WWW: What went well!
    • Mindfulness in all schools! For students and for teachers!
    • A shared language of strengths - VIA known to all - seeing the best in others!
    • A coaching culture - bringing out the best in others!
  • 57. Positive Education It’s for the students!
    • Yes but more so for the teachers!
    • High rates of stress and burnout!
    • Teachers are role-models
    • If they’re not flourishing, what is the impact on the students?
  • 58. A Strategy? To create sustained change
    • Training & Education for Teachers & Students - YES but we need more!
    • A Positive Education Working Party committed to creating sustained change
    • The creation of a Strategic Plan over 3-5 years which is an individualised, multi-initiative strategy across all levels of the school
  • 59. Pre-program Setting the Framework Appreciative Leadership Summit (share Appreciative Interview data) Appreciative Interviews: Identifying the School’s Positive Core (School Leadership Team) Appreciative Interview Data Analysis Leadership Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Small Group Coaching Programs to support Coaching Workshops (transfer of training & coaching supervision) Teacher as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Student as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Parent as Coach (series of short evening workshops) Professional Development Workshops for all Staff (optional ) Draft Strategic Plan Positive Education Program Positive Education Summit (One-Day - Sydney) Outcome : Improved relationships & school climate Outcome : E nhanced academic & sporting performance Outcome : Optional functioning of staff & students Student Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Positive Education Working Party Creation of a Positive Education Strategy M1 M2 M3 M4 M6 M5 M7 M8 M9 M12
  • 60. Explicit
    • Explicit Instruction:
    • Specific timetabled courses on PP – where could this happen in public education?
    • PP embedded into the curriculum eg PDHPE and other subjects
    • Staff training in evidence-based coaching ie holding coaching conversations
    • “ The quality of the conversation determines the quality of the relationship…..and the quality of the relationship determines the quality of the organisation”, Cavanagh, 2008
  • 61. Implicit
    • Implicit Instruction:
    • Behaviours towards each other (mindfulness)
    • Use of language (solution focused & strengths-based)
    • Focus on values & beliefs (made explicit and linked to behaviours)
    • Our attitudes (positive and caring; focus on strengths of character)
    • Quality of feedback (committed and caring)
  • 62. Wish List…
    • All teachers trained in Evidence-Based Coaching ie Teacher As Coach: peer & student
    • All school staff trained in PP: with ongoing PD
    • Senior Students trained in EB Coaching ie Student as Coach, Peer Coaching
    • Student Coaching (goal-setting & striving)
    • Creation of a coaching culture (strengths-based & solution focused)
    • Strengths Assessment of all students & staff
    • Positive Parenting Workshops/Parent as Coach
    • Leadership Coaching – individual & team
  • 63. Wish List…
    • AI Summit – 4D Model of Change
    • PE Working Party & Champions
    • Mental health screening of students & staff
    • All students trained in PP – explicit & embedded into curriculum
    • More School Psychologists – counselling & coaching role!
    • Greater organisational psychology influence
    • Culture/Climate Measures – Staff/Student/Parent surveys
    • More research on applied interventions
  • 64. Positive Education Key Questions for the SP?
    • Should well-being be taught in schools?
    • Whose responsibility is it?
    • What is the role of the school psychologist in not only reducing mental illness but in increasing well-being?
    • How can a School Psychologist be best utilised in a school setting in the implementation of a strategic Positive Education Program?
    • What are the strengths of a School Psychologist that need to be marshalled and maximised to be their best selves?
  • 65. The Role of the SP?
  • 66. The Role of the SP?
    • Where do you sit?
    • What would need to happen for you to be spending more time in the promotion space?
    • How could you work more strategically with the Leadership Team?
    • What would be happening if you felt truly valued in your school?
    • If you were at your best, what would I notice if I came to your school?
  • 67. First steps Introducing PE at your school…
    • Immerse yourself in the PP literature
    • Attend conferences & workshops
    • Talk to other schools
    • Engage experts and work collaboratively
    • Training in PP and CP
    • Create a PP Working Party (champions)
    • Make a start! =
  • 68. Thank You e: [email_address]