Positive psychology keynote


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  • Strength-spotting in the classroom and across the school PDHPE, English, Drama
  • Positive psychology keynote

    1. 2. Positive Psychology School Psychologists Association of WA Annual Conference September 2011 Dr Suzy Green Clinical & Coaching Psychologist POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY INSTITUTE CPU, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY [email_address]
    2. 3. Welcome back… A year ago: An introduction to Positive Psychology… This morning: Revising and renewing interest! This afternoon: Reflecting on PP for yourself & your school Committing to action!
    3. 4. Where I’m coming from… As a Clinical Psychologist Treatment and prevention of clinical disorders As a Coaching Psychologist Promotion of mental health, mental fitness and psychological well-being As a Scientist-Practitioner Science, Research and practice
    4. 5. Introducing PPI…
    5. 6. About PPI… Our vision: To significantly improve well-being within the global community Our mission: To research, practice and promote the science of optimal human functioning to enhance the well-being of individuals, communities, educational institutions , organisations and governments. Our structure: Individual, Educational, Organisational
    6. 7. Positive Introductions! <ul><li>Turn to the person next to you… </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story about a time in your role as a School Psychologist that showed YOU at your very BEST! </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t allow modesty to stifle the truth! </li></ul><ul><li>As a listener, listen appreciatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond in a way that builds on what has been said. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Review of Positive Psychology?
    8. 9. Review of Positive Psychology <ul><li>What is Positive Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology is a strengths-based psychology that works to promote optimal functioning across the full range of human functioning, from disorder and distress to health & fulfilment (Linley & Joseph, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the science of optimal functioning (Gable & Haidt, 2005) </li></ul>
    9. 10. Applied Positive Psychology? <ul><li>Application of positive psychology research for the facilitation of optimal functioning; </li></ul><ul><li>Includes evidence-based coaching! </li></ul><ul><li>Individual, Group, Organisation, Community & Society Levels! </li></ul>
    10. 11. Review of Positive Psychology <ul><li>4 Main Imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Rise to life’s challenges, making the most of setbacks & adversities; </li></ul><ul><li>Engage and relate to others; </li></ul><ul><li>Find fulfilment in creativity & productivity; </li></ul><ul><li>Look beyond oneself and help others to find lasting meaning, satisfaction and wisdom in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Keyes & Haidt, 2004 </li></ul>
    11. 12. Review of Positive Psychology? <ul><li>Founded on the belief that individuals want to lead meaningful & fulfilling lives , to cultivate what is best within ourselves & to enhance our experiences of love and work. </li></ul>
    12. 13. History of Positive Psychology <ul><li>Rogers (1951) The fully functioning person </li></ul><ul><li>Jahoda (1958) Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Allport (1961) Mature Individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson (1963) Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow (1954-1971) Self Actualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Vaillant (1977) Positive Defenses & Exceptional Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Deci & Ryan (1985) Self Determination Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi (1990) Flow – Optimal Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ryff & Singer (1996) Psychological Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman (1991-2006) Learned Helplessness, Optimism, Authentic Happiness </li></ul>
    13. 14. Fundamental Values & Assumptions <ul><li>Implicit within Positive Psychology is the idea that human beings have the potential for ‘good’ and that we are motivated to pursue a ‘good life’ … </li></ul><ul><li>(Linley & Joseph, 2006) </li></ul>
    14. 15. Fundamental Values & Assumptions <ul><li>Involves a shift in mindset: </li></ul><ul><li>Growth-mindset, rather than fixed mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Solution-focused, rather than problem-focused </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths-based, rather than weakness-based </li></ul>
    15. 16. The scientific study of Well-Being? <ul><li>What is Well-Being? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Well-being refers to positive and sustainable characteristics which enable individuals and organisations to thrive and flourish” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Well-Being, Cambridge University </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. 2 approaches <ul><li>Subjective Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Well-Being </li></ul>
    17. 18. Key Constructs <ul><li>Character Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness, Meaning & Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions & Psychological Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>& many others….. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Proactivity, not Reactivity!
    19. 20. Self-Actualisation!
    20. 21. Feeling Good & Doing Good!
    21. 22. PP Theories <ul><li>Authentic Happiness/PERMA </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Determination Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Hope Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden & Build Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Any others? </li></ul>
    22. 23. Authentic Happiness Theory Seligman (2003) <ul><li>3 Roads to the Good Life…. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pleasurable Life </li></ul><ul><li>The Engaged Life </li></ul><ul><li>The Meaningful Life </li></ul>
    23. 24. How well are you travelling?
    24. 25. Approaches to Happiness www.authentichappiness.org
    25. 26. PERMA <ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishment </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Self Determination Theory is a developmental theory of motivation and personality; </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most widely researched theories in psychology; </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies reasons why people pursue their goals! </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies three psychological needs: autonomy , competence & relatedness …… </li></ul>SDT
    27. 28. SDT Example: 4 Reasons Why You May Pursue your Goals … Autonomous (internally motivated reasons) Intrinsic Identified “ I really enjoy it” “I value it, meaning” ________________________________________________ Controlled (externally motivated reasons) Introjected Extrinsic “ I should do it” “I’ll be penalised, guilt! or receive recognition”
    28. 29. Self-Determination Theory <ul><li>Self-Concordant or Authentic Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that those pursuing self-concordant or authentic goals have greater goal attainment and well-being </li></ul>
    29. 30. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991) <ul><li>Hope reflects an individual’s perceptions of their capacity to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly conceptualise goals; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the specific strategies to reach those goals ( pathways ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate & sustain the motivation for using those strategies ( agency ). </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991) <ul><li>Can be trait or state, general or specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Variability between individuals in levels of hope ie HIGH vs LOW HOPERS! </li></ul><ul><li>High Hopers do better at school, athletics, have better health, problem-solving ability and are better adjusted psychologically. ) </li></ul>
    31. 32. Broaden & Build Theory of Emotion (Frederickson, 1998, 2000) <ul><li>Asserts that positive emotions evolved as psychological adaptations that increased our human ancestor’s odds of survival and reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative emotions narrow people’s behavioural urges towards specific actions </li></ul><ul><li>However positive emotions widen the array of thoughts and actions </li></ul>
    32. 33. Broaden & Build Theory <ul><li>The benefits of broadened mindsets build a variety of personal resources, like social connections, coping strategies, environmental knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves that we can later draw on to manage threats (mental health prevention). </li></ul>
    33. 34. Positive Emotions Professor Barbara Fredrickson <ul><li>Joy </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Serenity </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul><ul><li>Amusement </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Awe </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul>
    34. 35. Triangle or Squares?
    35. 36. What is Positive Education? <ul><li>Applied Positive Psychology in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Education utilises the research base from the field of Positive Psychology to enhance the optimal functioning of students, teachers, staff and the whole school </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the application of PP research on topics such as wisdom, mental fitness, virtues & strengths, mindfulness, flow, positive emotions, purpose and meaning + much more…. </li></ul>
    36. 37. What is Positive Education? <ul><li>Seligman defines it as….” education for both traditional skills and for happiness” </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology Institute incorporates evidence-based coaching as a methodology that “enhances the transfer of education and training in Positive Psychology into everyday practice” </li></ul><ul><li>Over 20 years of research shows that personally meaningful goal-striving is highly correlated with well-being! </li></ul><ul><li>Upcoming Harvard Research: PPI vs EB Coaching? </li></ul>
    37. 38. Positive Education Clarification Point <ul><li>The terms “happiness” and “well-being” are still being used interchangeably </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman states happiness is “too worn and weary a term to be of much scientific use” </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrickson says it is “semantically messy” </li></ul><ul><li>We need to clarify for those in education interested in PP that it is for “optimal functioning” </li></ul>
    38. 39. Positive Education <ul><li>PP provides: </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific underpinning of “well-being” </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths-Based Assessment & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Research on a wide range of Positive Psychology constructs! </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying Values, Assumptions & Theories </li></ul>
    39. 40. Positive Education Why do we need it? <ul><li>For reduction of mental illness; poor mental health can impede academic & social success </li></ul><ul><li>For increasing well-being and optimal functioning; better learning & more creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>For creating virtuous citizens and a virtuous society! </li></ul>
    40. 41. Positive Education Why do we need it? <ul><li>Schools have immense influence on the development of youth </li></ul><ul><li>The primary focus is on the acquisition of fundamental academic skills </li></ul><ul><li>PP can directly influence academic outcomes through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths (of students & staff!) </li></ul><ul><li>Many programs are focused on preventing pathology rather than building health eg The School Psychologist’s role is primarily reactive not proactive </li></ul>
    41. 42. Positive Education: A Snapshot <ul><li>Growing interest globally! </li></ul><ul><li>Australia forging ahead! </li></ul><ul><li>Geelong Grammar, Knox Grammar – Strategic Positive Education Programs - training in PP for staff, students & parents,, PP embedded into curriculum, co-curricular activities, policies and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Sydney research has focused on “evidence-based coaching as an applied positive psychology” for enhancement of individual goal attainment & well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Growing number of Australian schools adopting! </li></ul>
    42. 43. Positive Education: A Review <ul><li>Positive Psychology in Education Symposium </li></ul><ul><li>Hosted by the Coaching Psychology Unit, University of Sydney, April, 2009 & 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>www.positivepsychologyaustralia.org </li></ul>
    43. 44. Australian schools adopting….
    44. 45. Example PP Initiatives <ul><li>Celebrating Strengths – WWW - (Jenny Fox-Eades) </li></ul><ul><li>Figures of Eminence Night (St Caths) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths Art on corridor walls (St Caths) </li></ul><ul><li>Mood Boosting music for bell (St Caths) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths-Coaching (Wendy Ewen) </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude (Diary, Café) </li></ul><ul><li>Kindness (RAOK, Friendship Tree) </li></ul><ul><li>Hope (Goal Setting/Coaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Mood-Boosts (music/videos; visual triggers) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Relationships: Grandparents Day/Harmony Policy </li></ul>
    45. 46. Positive Education PPIs for Adolescents (Norrish PhD) <ul><li>Adolescents categorised as flourishing reported higher academic achievement & performance (Howell, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents demonstrate a preference for the pleasure orientation to happiness (which has been demonstrated to have the weakest relationship with well-being). </li></ul><ul><li>Very few adolescents referred to meaning in their qualitative responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Norrish & Vella-Brodrick: Multi-component PPIs aimed at enhancing adolescent well-being </li></ul>
    46. 47. Positive Education PP & CP: Complementary Approaches <ul><li>Optimal Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Psychological Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Strengths & Solutions </li></ul>
    47. 48. Positive Psychology & Coaching Psychology? <ul><li>Positive Psychology: scientific research to better understand human flourishing </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching Psychology: a framework for change to apply PP research to everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary Partners in the creation of flourishing individuals, groups, organisations, communities! </li></ul>
    48. 49. Positive Education We need Training & Coaching!
    49. 50. PPI’s Educational Projects
    50. 51. PPI’s Educational Projects
    51. 52. PPI’s Educational Projects <ul><li>OTHERS… </li></ul><ul><li>Public Schools – Grants? </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Development Days </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Leadership Development – Training & Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Student Workshops: Year 11 & Year 12 – Increasing Hope & Hardiness </li></ul><ul><li>Pos Ed Experts Panel & Team </li></ul><ul><li>Work with teachers, school psychologists, students & staff! </li></ul>
    52. 53. Positive Education Seligman’s Suggestion <ul><li>Teaching Positive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding Positive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Living Positive Psychology </li></ul>
    53. 54. Positive Education Teaching Positive Psychology <ul><li>There is a place for stand-alone PP courses </li></ul><ul><li>Not “happiness classes” if we want to be taken seriously! </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about “mental fitness” or “optimal functioning” or “well-being” </li></ul><ul><li>Training for teachers first, then students </li></ul><ul><li>Include Parents!! </li></ul>
    54. 55. Positive Education Embedding Positive Psychology <ul><li>In the classroom; in curriculum; in music </li></ul><ul><li>On the sports field </li></ul><ul><li>In the staffroom </li></ul><ul><li>In assemblies and festivals </li></ul>
    55. 56. Positive Education Living Positive Psychology <ul><li>WWW: What went well! </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness in all schools! For students and for teachers! </li></ul><ul><li>A shared language of strengths - VIA known to all - seeing the best in others! </li></ul><ul><li>A coaching culture - bringing out the best in others! </li></ul>
    56. 57. Positive Education It’s for the students! <ul><li>Yes but more so for the teachers! </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of stress and burnout! </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are role-models </li></ul><ul><li>If they’re not flourishing, what is the impact on the students? </li></ul>
    57. 58. A Strategy? To create sustained change <ul><li>Training & Education for Teachers & Students - YES but we need more! </li></ul><ul><li>A Positive Education Working Party committed to creating sustained change </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of a Strategic Plan over 3-5 years which is an individualised, multi-initiative strategy across all levels of the school </li></ul>
    58. 59. Pre-program Setting the Framework Appreciative Leadership Summit (share Appreciative Interview data) Appreciative Interviews: Identifying the School’s Positive Core (School Leadership Team) Appreciative Interview Data Analysis Leadership Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Small Group Coaching Programs to support Coaching Workshops (transfer of training & coaching supervision) Teacher as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Student as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Parent as Coach (series of short evening workshops) Professional Development Workshops for all Staff (optional ) Draft Strategic Plan Positive Education Program Positive Education Summit (One-Day - Sydney) Outcome : Improved relationships & school climate Outcome : E nhanced academic & sporting performance Outcome : Optional functioning of staff & students Student Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Positive Education Working Party Creation of a Positive Education Strategy M1 M2 M3 M4 M6 M5 M7 M8 M9 M12
    59. 60. Explicit <ul><li>Explicit Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Specific timetabled courses on PP – where could this happen in public education? </li></ul><ul><li>PP embedded into the curriculum eg PDHPE and other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Staff training in evidence-based coaching ie holding coaching conversations </li></ul><ul><li>“ The quality of the conversation determines the quality of the relationship…..and the quality of the relationship determines the quality of the organisation”, Cavanagh, 2008 </li></ul>
    60. 61. Implicit <ul><li>Implicit Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours towards each other (mindfulness) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of language (solution focused & strengths-based) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on values & beliefs (made explicit and linked to behaviours) </li></ul><ul><li>Our attitudes (positive and caring; focus on strengths of character) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of feedback (committed and caring) </li></ul>
    61. 62. Wish List… <ul><li>All teachers trained in Evidence-Based Coaching ie Teacher As Coach: peer & student </li></ul><ul><li>All school staff trained in PP: with ongoing PD </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Students trained in EB Coaching ie Student as Coach, Peer Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Student Coaching (goal-setting & striving) </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a coaching culture (strengths-based & solution focused) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths Assessment of all students & staff </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Parenting Workshops/Parent as Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Coaching – individual & team </li></ul>
    62. 63. Wish List… <ul><li>AI Summit – 4D Model of Change </li></ul><ul><li>PE Working Party & Champions </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health screening of students & staff </li></ul><ul><li>All students trained in PP – explicit & embedded into curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>More School Psychologists – counselling & coaching role! </li></ul><ul><li>Greater organisational psychology influence </li></ul><ul><li>Culture/Climate Measures – Staff/Student/Parent surveys </li></ul><ul><li>More research on applied interventions </li></ul>
    63. 64. Positive Education Key Questions for the SP? <ul><li>Should well-being be taught in schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose responsibility is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of the school psychologist in not only reducing mental illness but in increasing well-being? </li></ul><ul><li>How can a School Psychologist be best utilised in a school setting in the implementation of a strategic Positive Education Program? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the strengths of a School Psychologist that need to be marshalled and maximised to be their best selves? </li></ul>
    64. 65. The Role of the SP?
    65. 66. The Role of the SP? <ul><li>Where do you sit? </li></ul><ul><li>What would need to happen for you to be spending more time in the promotion space? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you work more strategically with the Leadership Team? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be happening if you felt truly valued in your school? </li></ul><ul><li>If you were at your best, what would I notice if I came to your school? </li></ul>
    66. 67. First steps Introducing PE at your school… <ul><li>Immerse yourself in the PP literature </li></ul><ul><li>Attend conferences & workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to other schools </li></ul><ul><li>Engage experts and work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Training in PP and CP </li></ul><ul><li>Create a PP Working Party (champions) </li></ul><ul><li>Make a start! = </li></ul>
    67. 68. Thank You e: [email_address]