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Positive psychology keynote

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  • Strength-spotting in the classroom and across the school PDHPE, English, Drama
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Positive Psychology School Psychologists Association of WA Annual Conference September 2011 Dr Suzy Green Clinical & Coaching Psychologist POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY INSTITUTE CPU, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY [email_address]
    • 3. Welcome back… A year ago: An introduction to Positive Psychology… This morning: Revising and renewing interest! This afternoon: Reflecting on PP for yourself & your school Committing to action!
    • 4. Where I’m coming from… As a Clinical Psychologist Treatment and prevention of clinical disorders As a Coaching Psychologist Promotion of mental health, mental fitness and psychological well-being As a Scientist-Practitioner Science, Research and practice
    • 5. Introducing PPI…
    • 6. About PPI… Our vision: To significantly improve well-being within the global community Our mission: To research, practice and promote the science of optimal human functioning to enhance the well-being of individuals, communities, educational institutions , organisations and governments. Our structure: Individual, Educational, Organisational
    • 7. Positive Introductions!
      • Turn to the person next to you…
      • Tell a story about a time in your role as a School Psychologist that showed YOU at your very BEST!
      • Take turns.
      • Don’t allow modesty to stifle the truth!
      • As a listener, listen appreciatively.
      • Respond in a way that builds on what has been said.
    • 8. Review of Positive Psychology?
    • 9. Review of Positive Psychology
      • What is Positive Psychology?
      • Positive Psychology is a strengths-based psychology that works to promote optimal functioning across the full range of human functioning, from disorder and distress to health & fulfilment (Linley & Joseph, 2004)
      • It is the science of optimal functioning (Gable & Haidt, 2005)
    • 10. Applied Positive Psychology?
      • Application of positive psychology research for the facilitation of optimal functioning;
      • Includes evidence-based coaching!
      • Individual, Group, Organisation, Community & Society Levels!
    • 11. Review of Positive Psychology
      • 4 Main Imperatives:
      • Rise to life’s challenges, making the most of setbacks & adversities;
      • Engage and relate to others;
      • Find fulfilment in creativity & productivity;
      • Look beyond oneself and help others to find lasting meaning, satisfaction and wisdom in life.
      • Keyes & Haidt, 2004
    • 12. Review of Positive Psychology?
      • Founded on the belief that individuals want to lead meaningful & fulfilling lives , to cultivate what is best within ourselves & to enhance our experiences of love and work.
    • 13. History of Positive Psychology
      • Rogers (1951) The fully functioning person
      • Jahoda (1958) Mental Health
      • Allport (1961) Mature Individuality
      • Erikson (1963) Stages of Development
      • Maslow (1954-1971) Self Actualisation
      • Vaillant (1977) Positive Defenses & Exceptional Performance
      • Deci & Ryan (1985) Self Determination Theory
      • Csikszentmihalyi (1990) Flow – Optimal Experience
      • Ryff & Singer (1996) Psychological Well-Being
      • Seligman (1991-2006) Learned Helplessness, Optimism, Authentic Happiness
    • 14. Fundamental Values & Assumptions
      • Implicit within Positive Psychology is the idea that human beings have the potential for ‘good’ and that we are motivated to pursue a ‘good life’ …
      • (Linley & Joseph, 2006)
    • 15. Fundamental Values & Assumptions
      • Involves a shift in mindset:
      • Growth-mindset, rather than fixed mindset
      • Solution-focused, rather than problem-focused
      • Strengths-based, rather than weakness-based
    • 16. The scientific study of Well-Being?
      • What is Well-Being?
      • “ Well-being refers to positive and sustainable characteristics which enable individuals and organisations to thrive and flourish”
              • Institute of Well-Being, Cambridge University
    • 17. 2 approaches
      • Subjective Well-Being
      • Psychological Well-Being
    • 18. Key Constructs
      • Character Strengths
      • Happiness, Meaning & Purpose
      • Positive Emotions & Psychological Well-Being
      • Positive Leadership
      • Citizenship
      • Forgiveness
      • Gratitude
      • Creativity
      • Wisdom
      • Hope
      • & many others…..
    • 19. Proactivity, not Reactivity!
    • 20. Self-Actualisation!
    • 21. Feeling Good & Doing Good!
    • 22. PP Theories
      • Authentic Happiness/PERMA
      • Self-Determination Theory
      • Hope Theory
      • Broaden & Build Theory
      • Any others?
    • 23. Authentic Happiness Theory Seligman (2003)
      • 3 Roads to the Good Life….
      • The Pleasurable Life
      • The Engaged Life
      • The Meaningful Life
    • 24. How well are you travelling?
    • 25. Approaches to Happiness www.authentichappiness.org
    • 26. PERMA
      • Positive Emotions
      • Engagement
      • Relationships
      • Meaning
      • Accomplishment
    • 27.
      • Self Determination Theory is a developmental theory of motivation and personality;
      • One of the most widely researched theories in psychology;
      • Identifies reasons why people pursue their goals!
      • Identifies three psychological needs: autonomy , competence & relatedness ……
      SDT
    • 28. SDT Example: 4 Reasons Why You May Pursue your Goals … Autonomous (internally motivated reasons) Intrinsic Identified “ I really enjoy it” “I value it, meaning” ________________________________________________ Controlled (externally motivated reasons) Introjected Extrinsic “ I should do it” “I’ll be penalised, guilt! or receive recognition”
    • 29. Self-Determination Theory
      • Self-Concordant or Authentic Goals
      • Research shows that those pursuing self-concordant or authentic goals have greater goal attainment and well-being
    • 30. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991)
      • Hope reflects an individual’s perceptions of their capacity to:
        • Clearly conceptualise goals;
        • Develop the specific strategies to reach those goals ( pathways )
        • Initiate & sustain the motivation for using those strategies ( agency ).
    • 31. Hope Theory (Snyder, 1991)
      • Can be trait or state, general or specific.
      • Variability between individuals in levels of hope ie HIGH vs LOW HOPERS!
      • High Hopers do better at school, athletics, have better health, problem-solving ability and are better adjusted psychologically. )
    • 32. Broaden & Build Theory of Emotion (Frederickson, 1998, 2000)
      • Asserts that positive emotions evolved as psychological adaptations that increased our human ancestor’s odds of survival and reproduction.
      • Negative emotions narrow people’s behavioural urges towards specific actions
      • However positive emotions widen the array of thoughts and actions
    • 33. Broaden & Build Theory
      • The benefits of broadened mindsets build a variety of personal resources, like social connections, coping strategies, environmental knowledge.
      • Reserves that we can later draw on to manage threats (mental health prevention).
    • 34. Positive Emotions Professor Barbara Fredrickson
      • Joy
      • Gratitude
      • Serenity
      • Interest
      • Hope
      • Pride
      • Amusement
      • Inspiration
      • Awe
      • Love
    • 35. Triangle or Squares?
    • 36. What is Positive Education?
      • Applied Positive Psychology in Education
      • Positive Education utilises the research base from the field of Positive Psychology to enhance the optimal functioning of students, teachers, staff and the whole school
      • Involves the application of PP research on topics such as wisdom, mental fitness, virtues & strengths, mindfulness, flow, positive emotions, purpose and meaning + much more….
    • 37. What is Positive Education?
      • Seligman defines it as….” education for both traditional skills and for happiness”
      • Positive Psychology Institute incorporates evidence-based coaching as a methodology that “enhances the transfer of education and training in Positive Psychology into everyday practice”
      • Over 20 years of research shows that personally meaningful goal-striving is highly correlated with well-being!
      • Upcoming Harvard Research: PPI vs EB Coaching?
    • 38. Positive Education Clarification Point
      • The terms “happiness” and “well-being” are still being used interchangeably
      • Seligman states happiness is “too worn and weary a term to be of much scientific use”
      • Fredrickson says it is “semantically messy”
      • We need to clarify for those in education interested in PP that it is for “optimal functioning”
    • 39. Positive Education
      • PP provides:
      • Scientific underpinning of “well-being”
      • Strengths-Based Assessment & Development
      • Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs)
      • Research on a wide range of Positive Psychology constructs!
      • Underlying Values, Assumptions & Theories
    • 40. Positive Education Why do we need it?
      • For reduction of mental illness; poor mental health can impede academic & social success
      • For increasing well-being and optimal functioning; better learning & more creative thinking
      • For creating virtuous citizens and a virtuous society!
    • 41. Positive Education Why do we need it?
      • Schools have immense influence on the development of youth
      • The primary focus is on the acquisition of fundamental academic skills
      • PP can directly influence academic outcomes through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths (of students & staff!)
      • Many programs are focused on preventing pathology rather than building health eg The School Psychologist’s role is primarily reactive not proactive
    • 42. Positive Education: A Snapshot
      • Growing interest globally!
      • Australia forging ahead!
      • Geelong Grammar, Knox Grammar – Strategic Positive Education Programs - training in PP for staff, students & parents,, PP embedded into curriculum, co-curricular activities, policies and procedures.
      • University of Sydney research has focused on “evidence-based coaching as an applied positive psychology” for enhancement of individual goal attainment & well-being
      • Growing number of Australian schools adopting!
    • 43. Positive Education: A Review
      • Positive Psychology in Education Symposium
      • Hosted by the Coaching Psychology Unit, University of Sydney, April, 2009 & 2011
      • www.positivepsychologyaustralia.org
    • 44. Australian schools adopting….
    • 45. Example PP Initiatives
      • Celebrating Strengths – WWW - (Jenny Fox-Eades)
      • Figures of Eminence Night (St Caths)
      • Strengths Art on corridor walls (St Caths)
      • Mood Boosting music for bell (St Caths)
      • Strengths-Coaching (Wendy Ewen)
      • Gratitude (Diary, Café)
      • Kindness (RAOK, Friendship Tree)
      • Hope (Goal Setting/Coaching)
      • Mood-Boosts (music/videos; visual triggers)
      • Positive Relationships: Grandparents Day/Harmony Policy
    • 46. Positive Education PPIs for Adolescents (Norrish PhD)
      • Adolescents categorised as flourishing reported higher academic achievement & performance (Howell, 2009)
      • Adolescents demonstrate a preference for the pleasure orientation to happiness (which has been demonstrated to have the weakest relationship with well-being).
      • Very few adolescents referred to meaning in their qualitative responses.
      • Norrish & Vella-Brodrick: Multi-component PPIs aimed at enhancing adolescent well-being
    • 47. Positive Education PP & CP: Complementary Approaches
      • Optimal Functioning
      • Enhanced Performance
      • Enhanced Psychological Well-Being
      • Focus on Strengths & Solutions
    • 48. Positive Psychology & Coaching Psychology?
      • Positive Psychology: scientific research to better understand human flourishing
      • Coaching Psychology: a framework for change to apply PP research to everyday life
      • Complementary Partners in the creation of flourishing individuals, groups, organisations, communities!
    • 49. Positive Education We need Training & Coaching!
    • 50. PPI’s Educational Projects
    • 51. PPI’s Educational Projects
    • 52. PPI’s Educational Projects
      • OTHERS…
      • Public Schools – Grants?
      • Professional Development Days
      • Senior Leadership Development – Training & Coaching
      • Student Workshops: Year 11 & Year 12 – Increasing Hope & Hardiness
      • Pos Ed Experts Panel & Team
      • Work with teachers, school psychologists, students & staff!
    • 53. Positive Education Seligman’s Suggestion
      • Teaching Positive Psychology
      • Embedding Positive Psychology
      • Living Positive Psychology
    • 54. Positive Education Teaching Positive Psychology
      • There is a place for stand-alone PP courses
      • Not “happiness classes” if we want to be taken seriously!
      • It’s about “mental fitness” or “optimal functioning” or “well-being”
      • Training for teachers first, then students
      • Include Parents!!
    • 55. Positive Education Embedding Positive Psychology
      • In the classroom; in curriculum; in music
      • On the sports field
      • In the staffroom
      • In assemblies and festivals
    • 56. Positive Education Living Positive Psychology
      • WWW: What went well!
      • Mindfulness in all schools! For students and for teachers!
      • A shared language of strengths - VIA known to all - seeing the best in others!
      • A coaching culture - bringing out the best in others!
    • 57. Positive Education It’s for the students!
      • Yes but more so for the teachers!
      • High rates of stress and burnout!
      • Teachers are role-models
      • If they’re not flourishing, what is the impact on the students?
    • 58. A Strategy? To create sustained change
      • Training & Education for Teachers & Students - YES but we need more!
      • A Positive Education Working Party committed to creating sustained change
      • The creation of a Strategic Plan over 3-5 years which is an individualised, multi-initiative strategy across all levels of the school
    • 59. Pre-program Setting the Framework Appreciative Leadership Summit (share Appreciative Interview data) Appreciative Interviews: Identifying the School’s Positive Core (School Leadership Team) Appreciative Interview Data Analysis Leadership Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Small Group Coaching Programs to support Coaching Workshops (transfer of training & coaching supervision) Teacher as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Student as Coach (Workshop - 2.5 days) Parent as Coach (series of short evening workshops) Professional Development Workshops for all Staff (optional ) Draft Strategic Plan Positive Education Program Positive Education Summit (One-Day - Sydney) Outcome : Improved relationships & school climate Outcome : E nhanced academic & sporting performance Outcome : Optional functioning of staff & students Student Coaching (external 1-to-1 coaching) Positive Education Working Party Creation of a Positive Education Strategy M1 M2 M3 M4 M6 M5 M7 M8 M9 M12
    • 60. Explicit
      • Explicit Instruction:
      • Specific timetabled courses on PP – where could this happen in public education?
      • PP embedded into the curriculum eg PDHPE and other subjects
      • Staff training in evidence-based coaching ie holding coaching conversations
      • “ The quality of the conversation determines the quality of the relationship…..and the quality of the relationship determines the quality of the organisation”, Cavanagh, 2008
    • 61. Implicit
      • Implicit Instruction:
      • Behaviours towards each other (mindfulness)
      • Use of language (solution focused & strengths-based)
      • Focus on values & beliefs (made explicit and linked to behaviours)
      • Our attitudes (positive and caring; focus on strengths of character)
      • Quality of feedback (committed and caring)
    • 62. Wish List…
      • All teachers trained in Evidence-Based Coaching ie Teacher As Coach: peer & student
      • All school staff trained in PP: with ongoing PD
      • Senior Students trained in EB Coaching ie Student as Coach, Peer Coaching
      • Student Coaching (goal-setting & striving)
      • Creation of a coaching culture (strengths-based & solution focused)
      • Strengths Assessment of all students & staff
      • Positive Parenting Workshops/Parent as Coach
      • Leadership Coaching – individual & team
    • 63. Wish List…
      • AI Summit – 4D Model of Change
      • PE Working Party & Champions
      • Mental health screening of students & staff
      • All students trained in PP – explicit & embedded into curriculum
      • More School Psychologists – counselling & coaching role!
      • Greater organisational psychology influence
      • Culture/Climate Measures – Staff/Student/Parent surveys
      • More research on applied interventions
    • 64. Positive Education Key Questions for the SP?
      • Should well-being be taught in schools?
      • Whose responsibility is it?
      • What is the role of the school psychologist in not only reducing mental illness but in increasing well-being?
      • How can a School Psychologist be best utilised in a school setting in the implementation of a strategic Positive Education Program?
      • What are the strengths of a School Psychologist that need to be marshalled and maximised to be their best selves?
    • 65. The Role of the SP?
    • 66. The Role of the SP?
      • Where do you sit?
      • What would need to happen for you to be spending more time in the promotion space?
      • How could you work more strategically with the Leadership Team?
      • What would be happening if you felt truly valued in your school?
      • If you were at your best, what would I notice if I came to your school?
    • 67. First steps Introducing PE at your school…
      • Immerse yourself in the PP literature
      • Attend conferences & workshops
      • Talk to other schools
      • Engage experts and work collaboratively
      • Training in PP and CP
      • Create a PP Working Party (champions)
      • Make a start! =
    • 68. Thank You e: [email_address]