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School Wide Positive Behaviour Support & Managing Severe Behaviour Stuart McKenzie & Sven Jamvold School Psychology Service
Key Objectives Brief overview of School Wide Positive Behaviour Support To understand the “Phases of Escalating Behaviour” model and be able to apply this model to profile students with severe challenging behaviour To enhance the development and implementation of effective intervention strategies for students with severe challenging behaviour
How were you disciplined when you were at school?
Why this tendency to gettougher? Assume student is inherently bad and/or stubborn behaviour requires much more intensive consequences Assume student must ‘learn’ to take responsibility for their own behaviour and prove they deserve to be in class Assume aversive consequences teach students to behave We get temporary relief
What is unhelpful withgetting tough? Fosters environments of control Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced Shared accountability is shifted away from school and to the student/family/community Child-adult relationship are devalued and put at risk Link between academic programming and social behavior is weakened Research does not support effectiveness
Academic Errors Behavioural ErrorsStudents who achieve good work Students should behavedeserve some recognition appropriately without needing recognitionStudents are trying to make the correct Students are trying to be disruptive -response that is, to make an incorrect responseErrors are accidental Errors are deliberateErrors are inevitable Students are refusing to cooperateLearning requires exploration Students should not explore limits; they should obey themStudents who are having difficulties Students who are having difficultiesneed additional or modified teaching should be punished
School Wide Positive Behaviour SupportUniversal Prevention:School/Classroom-Wide Systemsfor all Students, Staff, & Settings• 3-5 Positively stated rules•Behaviour Matrix – schoolwidebehaviour expectations.•Lesson plans to teach behaviourexpectations•Procedures for encouragingexpected behaviour•Procedures for discouraging ruleviolations•Data collection, evaluation andmonitoring.Other SW ProgramsTribesFriendly Schools & FamiliesRestorative JusticeValuesetc
DEVELOP CLEARLY DEFINEDSCHOOL WIDE EXPECTATIONS 1. Be Respectful • Be Responsible • Be a Learner 10
OUTCOMES S EM DA TA ST SY EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICES River Valley Primary School Classroom ERRC Token Tally Excellence Be Responsibility Respect Care Your BestFredTimJackJoe
Develop a TeachingMatrix Create a “matrix” of expectations by setting Classroom Pathways Bus Lines and StairsBe Safe Get adult Keep to the On signal, help for left line up, one accidents Walk arm-length and spills Face forward apart 18
SETTING Teaching Matrix Library/ All Settings Hallways Playgrounds ns Cafeteria Computer Lab 2. Assembly Bus ta tio NA CO T Be on task. p ec Eat all your NT UR Ex Respect Give your food. Study, read, Watch for your EX AL Walk. Have a plan. Sit in one spot. Ourselves best effort. Select healthy compute. stop. Be prepared. foods. SW TExpectations 1 . Be kind. Use a quiet Hands/feet to Use normal Play safe. Whisper. Listen/watch. Respect Practice good voice. self. voice volume. Include others. Return Use appropriate Others table manners Stay in your Help/share Walk to right. Share equipment. books. applause. seat. with others. IO R AV S EH LE Pick up litter. Use equipment Replace trays Push in . B MP Recycle. Pick up. Wipe your feet. Respect Maintain properly. & utensils. chairs. Clean up Treat chairs Sit Property 3 physical Put litter in Clean up Treat books XA after self. appropriately. appropriately. space. garbage can. eating area. carefully. E
STATE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING MATRIX Expectation ROUTINE/SETTING Tuck-shop / Oval I am … All Settings Classroom Bus Walkways Playground Canteen HPE Show self control Report any Wait in problems Use equipment designated Wait patiently Use equipment Gain Use for intended area Walk Walk for intended permission to equipment purpose. Keep all of Keep left Place rubbish purpose. Safe leave and to carefully your body Keep bodies in bins Participate in Participate in be in any Keep bodies school inside the bus. calm Keep bodies school approved setting calm approvedUniversal Expectations Keep bodies calm games only. Keep body to games only. calm self. Follow directions. Be tolerant of others Accept Older students Listen to / for individual Walk quietly so Respect to look out for instructions Play fair – show differences others can Eat only your Respectful Care for self, others right little ones continue food. Play fair – good to learn. Show driver show good sportsmanship others and the learning respect. sportsmanship environment Use polite language Challenge Be on task. yourself. Be on time for Do your best. Listen Eat healthily. Learn new Learn new next class a Learner Manage your actively Return to class Manage your games and games and time. Follow money. activities. activities. promptly Be prepared. instructions Do your best
PROCEDURES FOR ENCOURAGING BEHAVIOUR SCHOOL WIDE CONSEQUENCES 25
Wristband Rewards for Playground Positive Behaviour
SWPBS Evidence International Over 14,000 schools implementing SWPBS http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx Implementation of SWPBS related to: Reduction in office discipline referrals Reduction in suspensions, and Improved academic performance
EDPS summary by Behaviour Comparison of 2010 and 2011 data until 6 July 2011200180160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Bullying Leaving class Jan-July 2010 Major disruption Physical assault Refusal Throwing Jan-July 2011 Verbal assault Out of area Jan-July 2011 Jan-July 2010
TOTAL NUMBER OF SUSPENSIONS:2009 – 1232010 – 402011 – 4 to July
School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) “Reality Check” versus “Perceptions”Principal InterviewStaff Interview. 10 (random)Student Interview. 15 (random)Asks key questions relating to school expectations/ rulesfrom BMIS policy.Use the language of the school. 32
Percent Implemented Ex 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% pe c tat ion sD efi ne d 0.0% Ex pe c tat ion sT au gh t 20.0% Re wa rd Sy ste m Vio 50.0% lat ion sS yst em 12.5% De cis io nM ak ing 25.0% Ma na ge me nt 18.8% Dis tr ict Su pp ort Im p le 100.0% me nta tio nA ve ra g e Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores August 2009 32.3%33 SET RESULTS
Narrogin SHS SET Features and Im plem entation Scores100%75% 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year50% 4t h Year 5t h Year25% 0%
School Wide Positive Behaviour SupportUniversal Prevention: Individual Prevention:School/Classroom-Wide Systems Students with High Risk Behaviourfor all Students, Staff, & Settings •Individualised intervention• 3-5 Positively stated rules •Functional behaviour assessment•Behaviour Matrix – schoolwide •Escalation Profilesbehaviour expectations. •Intensive support services•Lesson plans to teach behaviourexpectations•Procedures for encouraging Targetted Prevention:expected behaviour Targeted Interventions Systems for•Procedures for discouraging rule Students with at-Risk Behaviourviolations •Behaviour Education Programs•Data collection, evaluation and •Admin– Office Check/Connect/Expectmonitoring. HUG –Hello/Update/Goodbye Mentor ProgramOther SW ProgramsTribesFriendly Schools & FamiliesRestorative JusticeValuesetc
ROLE PLAY Just whilst your deciding whether to volunteer for the role play we are going to do a quick stress test
A Quick Stress Test Two Dolphins Im not sure exactly how this works, but it is amazingly accurate. Read the full description before looking at the picture. The picture below has 2 identical dolphins in it. It was used in a case study as a measure of stress levels at Loma Linda Medical Centre.
Look at both dolphins jumping out of thewater. The dolphins are identical. A closely monitored scientific study of a group revealed that in spite of the fact that thedolphins are identical, a person under stresswould find differences in the two dolphins. If there are many differences found between both dolphins, it means the person is experiencing a great amount of stress.Look at the photograph and if you find morethan one or two differences you may want to take a vacation.
Teacher Jason Jason, please turn in What assignment? your assignment. The assignment you I finished it. didn’t finish during class. Great, please turn it in I don’t have it with me now. now. You have a choice: turn it You never believe me. in or do it again.I guess you’ve made the Make me.choice to do it again.That’s disrespect…go to F_____ you!the office. Moves closer…& puts Pulls away, glares, & hand on J. shoulder. raises fist as if to strike.
Anatomy of Escalating Behaviour Cycles student and teacher behaviour escalate in intensity student behaviours are followed by a consequence that becomes the antecedent for the next student behaviour as consequences become more severe, student behaviours become more intense “Stress arouses feelings, feelings trigger behaviour. Behaviour incites others. Others increase stress. And around it goes” Wood and Long 1991
DefinitionsDisruptive behaviour can be defined as thosebehaviours that hinder or stop a teacher from teaching, orhinder or stop students from learning.Challenging behaviour can be defined as those behaviours that threaten the safety of staff (including self-harming behaviours) or those disruptive behaviours that are ongoing in nature, and are not modified using whole class/ generic behaviour management strategies.
PeakOverall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
Peak Indicators Example Physical abuse or aggression Hits other children Physical abuse Destroys work towards self Screams, kicks, Physical abuse scratches, bites towards objects Head butts floor and walls Severe tantrums, hyperventilation
•Jerry has ADHD and that’s why he’s so incorrigible•Ed has displayed aggressive behaviours the whole time hehas been here•Steven is like that because he is emotionally disturbed•Donna is so unpredictable I think she is psychotic or schizoor something•Stephen pushes and hits other students when he loses a game•When given one question at a time, Sarah completes all her maths•When asked to repeat or correct a task, Jessica talks back to the teacherand throws her work on the floor.•Geoff engages in appropriate conversations with staff when in one-to-one situations.
Defining Behaviour Explanatory Fictions Testable Explanations Are Are observable not observable Blame the student Can be manipulated Neglect the environment Are environmentally focussed Are subjective Are objective Don’t lead to interventions Lead to interventionsObserving actual behaviour is different from inferring or making judgements about the student on the basis of behaviour Labels stigmatise and are not helpful in managing behaviour.
Which is described inobservable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
Which is described inobservable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
Calm Indicators Example Able to follow Compliant directions Will sit for up to 10 minutes Likes playing with the paints, Able to stay on task trolley etc Able to receive Follows instructions correction Completes activities (modified) Able to set goals and She still requires 1:1 to develop plans achieve outcomes Mingles with Peers
Trigger Indicators Example Morning transition “separating Conflicts with other from grandparents” persons When she has completed an activity Continued Transition time provocations Re-engaging with a new task Pressure Peers involving themselves in her activity without asking Facing After recess consequences When tired Continued errors The word “No”
Agitation Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed.Low Level High Level
Agitation Indicators Example Gets restless Increased hand and Says “No” eye movements Pushes her work away Speech is intended to Knocks things off table cut conversations short Gets “that’ look, she shows her teeth Decrease in on-task Tenses right up behaviour Says “don’t look at me” Easily distracted from Doesn’t want you to come near work her
Competition Count the number of times the white team throws the basket ball, not the times that the ball is bounced, the number of times the ball is passed from one member of the white team to the another Video
Acceleration Indicators Examples Knocks things off tables Questioning, arguing Lies on the floor kicking her legs provoking around Verbal abuse Will attempt to destroy things, rips work Intimidation Pulls posters off wall, rips up Defiance, escape She will bang her head on the floor/walls Her behaviour is such that it necessitates physical intervention Whips herself up into a peak state ‘frenzy’
De-escalation Indicators Examples Confusion (starting, stopping, moving) Stops thrashing about Attempts to reconcile Begins to settles down Withdrawal Gets very hot, red in the Denial face. Says ‘I feel crook’ Blame projection Says “Don’t look at me” Responsive to Pushes you away concrete directions
Recovery Indicators Examples Willingness to resume work Comes back to herself (w/o interaction) Stands up, moves forward to Subdued behaviour in watch class group work or with teacher Re –engages with Denial and defensive conversation that she initiates regarding the out of control Wants to re-engage with behaviour group. Reluctance to enter into Recovers very quickly but discussions about the out takes a long time to return to a of control behaviour state of Calm.
Most of the populace thinks it very improper to spank children, so Ihave tried other methods to control our kids when they have one of "thosemoments".One that I found very effective is for me to just take the child for aCar ride and talk. They usually calm down and stop misbehaving after ourlittle car ride together.Ive included the photo below of one of my sessions, with our son, inCar so you can see if you might like to use the technique.Its very effective
Intervention Procedures Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation. Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated. Identification of replacement behaviours that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
"If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer youll treat everything as a nail." (Abraham Maslow)
Activity: Rotating Groups The 7 Phases are on posters. Each group to write their ideas about the various strategies staff could use at each phase of escalation. Groups will have 2 minutes to write at each phase. Groups will then rotate. Whole Group feedback
Calm Indicators Procedures Able to follow Arrange for high rates directions of academic and social Able to stay on task success Able to receive Use positive correction reinforcement Able to set goals and Teach critical skills develop plans Communicate high expectations Teach problem solving
Up to 57% of children with language problems have been found to have behavioural problems and up to 86% of children who are behaviourally disturbed have language problems, particularly in the area of pragmatics (Benner, G. J., Nelson, J. R., & Epstein, M. H., 2002).
Trigger Indicators Procedures Conflicts with other Significantly modify or eliminate persons problems routines Make structural or Continued environmental modifications provocations Identify and pre-correct for Pressure known triggers, reinforce success Facing consequences Prompt what has been taught Continued errors
Agitation Indicators Procedures Increased hand and Move in and assist or eye movements give space/ t/up time Speech is intended to Modify task and/or cut conversations short expectations Decrease in on-task Involve in successful behaviour activities Easily distracted from Positive Removal work
Acceleration Indicators Procedures Questioning, arguing Remove all distracting / competing environmental provoking factors Verbal abuse Follow crisis management procedures Intimidation Establish and follow through Defiance, escape with bottom line Detach from student Escalation and self-control are negatively related Escalation is likely to run its course
Peak Indicators Procedures Physical abuse or Focus on safety / aggression minimize the peak Physical abuse Continue Acceleration towards self phase procedures Physical abuse Room clear towards objects Restraint Severe tantrums, hyperventilation
De-escalation Indicators Procedures Confusion (starting, Focus on removing stopping, moving) excess confrontation Attempts to reconcile Don’t consequence Withdrawal Avoid confrontation Denial Don’t force return Blame projection Emphasize starting Responsive to over concrete directions
Recovery Indicators Procedures Willingness to resume work Follow through with (w/o interaction) consequences for problem Subdued behaviour in behaviour (or wait till calm) group work or with teacher Reinforce displays of Denial and defensive appropriate behaviour regarding the out of control Debrief behaviour Facilitate transition Reluctance to enter into Debrief after consequence discussions about the out Goal to increase more of control behaviour appropriate behaviour
“It is always important to remember that if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.” Geoff Colvin (2004)
Big Ideas Teach appropriate behaviour during the Calm; escalation time is not teaching time Watch for Agitation and intervene Minimize the Peak and focus on safety Avoid confrontation in De-escalation Debrief and follow-through during Recovery Proforma