School Wide Positive Behaviour Support
& Managing Severe Behaviour
Stuart McKenzie & Sven Jamvold
School Psychology Service
Key Objectives
Brief overview of School Wide Positive Behaviour
Support
To understand the “Phases of Escalating
Behaviour”...
…only in France
How were you disciplined when you were
at school?
Why this tendency to get
tougher?
Assume student is inherently bad and/or
stubborn behaviour requires much more
intensive ...
What is unhelpful with
getting tough?
Fosters environments of control
Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced
Shar...
VIDEO
Academic Errors Behavioural Errors
Students who achieve good work
deserve some recognition
Students should behave
appropri...
School Wide Positive Behaviour
Support
Universal Prevention:
School/Classroom-Wide Systems
for all Students, Staff, & Sett...
10
DEVELOP CLEARLY DEFINED
SCHOOL WIDE EXPECTATIONS
1.Be Respectful
1.Be Responsible
2.Be a Learner
SYSTEMS
EVIDENCE BASED
PRACTICES
DATA
OUTCOMES
River Valley Primary School Classroom ERRC Token Tally
Excellence Be
Your B...
13
14
Proserpine State School
17
Mudgeeraba State School
18
Develop a Teaching
Matrix
Create a “matrix” of expectations by
setting
Classroom Pathways
and Stairs
Bus Lines
Be Safe ...
Teaching
Matrix
SETTING
All Settings Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria
Library/
Computer
Lab
Assembly Bus
Respect
Ourselves
B...
STATE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING MATRIX
Expectation ROUTINE/SETTING
I am … All Settings Classroom Bus Walkways
Tuck-shop /
Cante...
CLASSROOM
RULES
22
DISPLAY EXPECTATIONS
25
PROCEDURES FOR ENCOURAGING
BEHAVIOUR
SCHOOL WIDE CONSEQUENCES
Wristband Rewards for Playground Positive Behaviour
SWPBS Evidence
International
Over 14,000 schools implementing SWPBS
http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx
Implementati...
Jan-July 2011
Jan-July 2010
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Bullying
Leaving class
Major
disruption Physical
assault...
TOTAL NUMBER OF SUSPENSIONS:
2009 – 123
2010 – 40
2011 – 4 to July
32
School-wide Evaluation
Tool (SET)
“Reality Check” versus “Perceptions”
Principal Interview
Staff Interview. 10 (random)...
33
SET RESULTS
Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores August 2009
0.0%
20.0%
50.0%
12.5%
25.0%
18.8%
100.0%
3...
Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
1st Year
2nd Year
3rd Year
4th Year
5th Year
School Wide Positive Behaviour
Support
Individual Prevention:
Students with High Risk Behaviour
•Individualised interventi...
ROLE PLAY
Just whilst your deciding whether to
volunteer for the role play we are going to
do a quick stress test
A Quick Stress Test
Two Dolphins
I'm not sure exactly how this works,
but it is amazingly accurate. Read the
full descript...
Look at both dolphins jumping out of the
water. The dolphins are identical. A closely
monitored scientific study of a grou...
Teacher Jason
Jason, please turn in
your assignment.
What assignment?
I finished it.
I don’t have it with me
now.
You neve...
Anatomy of Escalating Behaviour Cycles
student and teacher behaviour escalate in intensity
student behaviours are followed...
Phases of Escalation
1. Calm
2. Trigger
3. Agitation
4. Acceleration
5. Peak
6. De-escalation
7. Recovery
Defining Challenging Behaviour
Definitions
Challenging behaviour can be defined as those
behaviours that threaten the safety of staff (including
self-har...
Peak
Overall the student is out of control and
exhibits his or her most severe
behaviour.
Indicators
Physical abuse or
aggression
Physical abuse
towards self
Physical abuse
towards objects
Severe tantrums,
hyperv...
•Jerry has ADHD and that’s why he’s so incorrigible
•Ed has displayed aggressive behaviours the whole time he
has been her...
Defining Behaviour
Explanatory Fictions Testable Explanations
Are not observable
Blame the student
Neglect the environm...
Which is described in
observable terms?
Hits with his fist
OR
Aggressive
Which is described in
observable terms?
Hits with his fist
OR
Aggressive
Delinquent
OR
Takes money from peers
Delinquent
OR
Takes money from peers
Psychotic
OR
Says she hears voices
Psychotic
OR
Says she hears voices
Arrives 10 minutes late
OR
Irresponsible
Arrives 10 minutes late
OR
Irresponsible
Out of seat 55% of time
OR
Hyperactive
Out of seat 55% of time
OR
Hyperactive
…only in Spain
Indicators
Able to follow
directions
Able to stay on task
Able to receive
correction
Able to set goals and
develop plans
C...
Indicators
Conflicts with other
persons
Continued
provocations
Pressure
Facing
consequences
Continued errors
Trigger
Examp...
Agitation
Overall the student exhibits an increase in
behaviour that is unfocussed.
Low Level High
Level
Indicators
Increased hand and
eye movements
Speech is intended to
cut conversations
short
Decrease in on-task
behaviour
Ea...
Competition
Count the number of times the white team
throws the basket ball, not the times that
the ball is bounced, the n...
Indicators
Questioning, arguing
provoking
Verbal abuse
Intimidation
Defiance, escape
Acceleration
Examples
 Knocks things...
…only in America
Indicators
Physical abuse or
aggression
Physical abuse
towards self
Physical abuse
towards objects
Severe tantrums,
hyperv...
…only in Mexico
Indicators
Confusion (starting,
stopping, moving)
Attempts to reconcile
Withdrawal
Denial
Blame projection
Responsive to
c...
Indicators
Willingness to resume work
(w/o interaction)
Subdued behaviour in
group work or with teacher
Denial and defensi...
…only in Africa
Most of the populace thinks it very improper to spank children, so I
have tried other methods to control our kids when the...
This is a JOKE
Identification of how to intervene early
in an escalation.
Identification of environmental factors
that can be manipulated...
"If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer
you'll treat everything as a nail." (Abraham
Maslow)
Activity: Rotating Groups
The 7 Phases are on posters.
Each group to write their ideas about the various
strategies staff ...
Indicators
Able to follow
directions
Able to stay on task
Able to receive
correction
Able to set goals and
develop plans
C...
Up to 57% of children with language
problems have been found to have
behavioural problems and up to 86% of
children who ar...
Indicators
Conflicts with other
persons
Continued
provocations
Pressure
Facing consequences
Continued errors
Trigger
Proce...
Indicators
Increased hand and
eye movements
Speech is intended to
cut conversations
short
Decrease in on-task
behaviour
Ea...
Indicators
Questioning, arguing
provoking
Verbal abuse
Intimidation
Defiance, escape
Acceleration
Procedures
Remove all di...
Indicators
Physical abuse or
aggression
Physical abuse
towards self
Physical abuse
towards objects
Severe tantrums,
hyperv...
PART - OVERVIEW
1. PURPOSE
2. PROFESSIONALISM
3. PREPARATION
4. IDENTIFICATION
5. LEGAL MODEL
6. RESPONSE – Crisis Communi...
Is Restraint Worth it?
Indicators
Confusion (starting,
stopping, moving)
Attempts to reconcile
Withdrawal
Denial
Blame projection
Responsive to
c...
Indicators
Willingness to resume work
(w/o interaction)
Subdued behaviour in
group work or with teacher
Denial and defensi...
Let’s Look Again
Calm
Trigger
Agitation
Acceleration
Peak
De-escalation
Recovery
 
“It is always important to remember that if
you inadvertently assist the student to
escalate, do not be concerned; you w...
Big Ideas
Teach appropriate behaviour during the
Calm; escalation time is not teaching time
Watch for Agitation and interv...
…only in Australia
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011
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  • PREPARATION FOR SESSION
    Enlarged “Moodline” on brown butchers paper for first activity.
    Coloured dots for each participant. TWO colours required for each participant.
    Whiteboard and pens.
    Handouts for participants of PowerPoint slides
    Handout of the theoretical model that presenter wants to use to “set the scene”. This is part of optional activity.
    Giant post-it notes for rotating groups activity.
    Introduction and welcome
    Welcome group
    Introduce yourself and outline your experience relevant to challenging behaviour
    Inform participants that presentation an interactive session requiring participants to identify a student to focus on.
    At the end of session they will have a working plan to more effectively identify and manage difficult situations as they arise.
    BACKGROUND INFOMRATION FOR PRESENTERS
    Set the scene for escalating and challenging behaviour.
    Escalating behaviour is a priority concern for classroom teachers. This escalating behaviour has many labels such as aggression, severe acting out, fighting, non-compliance and self-injury. Behaviours associated with these labels are often explosive and pose serious safety concerns to teachers and other students. Typically students who display these kinds of behaviours have many problems in the classroom and teachers become frustrated because their normal forms of behaviour management do not change these behaviours.
    Serious acting out behaviour is rarely a single event. Generally a number of events precede these behaviours and are typically successive interactions between the student and other persons (students, teachers, etc). This presentation is designed to enable the management teams within schools to identify potential triggers and develop best practice when dealing with escalating behaviour in an individual student. It should inform the development of an overall management plan
    Notes for presentation from Escalating Behaviour. Colvin and Sugai.
    PowerPoint presentation was developed from various sources including National Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports, www.pbis.org.
  • Optional Activity. Expectations Board
    Think-pair-share
    In pairs consider the question “What do you hope to gain from participating in this workshop?”
    Give pairs 3 – 4 minutes to share and discuss their ideas
    Whole group call out
    ask participants to share ideas from think-pair-share.
    Presenter to write on whiteboard.
    Link into key objectives of workshop.
    Presenters Notes
    Briefly outline the key objective of workshop from slide.
    Inform that workshop in two parts. First session (today) about understanding the model and developing a profile for a targeted student.
    Reiterate that workshop is interactive and will require participants to think about a student to focus on
  • Allow 10 – 15 mins for discussion
  • Kicking them out is a false sense of “winning”- all that happens is the child comes back after school and spray paints the school and keys the principal’s car.
  • Research by the World Health Organization has indicated that health and well being promotion strategies are more likely to be effective in schools when they incorporate curriculum, school organisation and partnership components.
    Effective management of severe challenging behaviours cannot be an isolated activity for one or two individuals in a school setting, such as the classroom teacher and an education assistant. Behaviour management cannot be divorced from curriculum. Partnerships and collaboration are essential and a whole of system/school approach is required. The challenge with severe behaviour disordered students is to develop durable systems that nurture and sustain effective practice.
    The model for effective practice in schools presented in Figure 1, illustrates the various levels of promotion/prevention and intervention strategies within a school. The levels are the universal or whole school, selected classes or groups, indicated individual, and the treatment level for severe individual cases. These levels are described below.
    At the promotion and universal level, whole populations are targeted. For example, in addressing behaviour issues, a school may develop strategies which include reviewing the school code of conduct and behaviour management policies and procedures, the school may implement whole of school pastoral care or values programs such as ‘You Can Do It’, Tribes, Stop – Think – Do, the school may provide relevant professional development to teachers, and implement various incentive schemes such as faction points, playground tokens, honour certificates etc. At this level the strategies are designed to benefit every student and to minimise the likelihood and impact of incidents.
    At the selective prevention level, strategies are developed to enhance the outcomes for classes or identified groups of students. For example, for a difficult class a teacher may set up a whole class positive reinforcement program, or a group of identified students may receive targeted social skills training sessions.
    At the indicated prevention level, strategies are developed to improve the behavioural outcomes of individual students. For example, a behaviour management plan with positive and negative consequences is developed. Teaching and learning adjustments for a student with behavioural difficulties might include changed seating arrangements, changed task difficulty and length, choice activities may be introduced, the student might be linked with a ‘buddy’ for break times, and the students interests could be incorporated into their curriculum.
    Finally, the treatment level represents the point where the school moves beyond prevention and promotion into developing specific intervention strategies for students significantly at risk. Schools will explore a range of strategies including case-conferences, individual behaviour management planning, crisis prevention and management plans, referral and consultation with school psychologists, other external agencies and the engagement of specialist expertise.
  • This is the DRAFT poster for Forrestfield PS. Have the “Treat Everyone Decently” approach at the school. Has Teddy mascot. Finalising the school logo being incorporated.
  • Westfield Park PS.
  • Once have teaching matrix, that is the expectations as they relate to the different settings across the school need to move to the TEACHING ASPECT
  • Example of classroom rules. Forrestfield PS.
  • 10 mins to here (whiz through previous slides). 2 hrs total so far (therefore 11:05)
  • SET
    Need to look at BMIS and focus on some key aspects
    What terminology do they use for the school wide expectations/ rules? What are they?
    Be clear about the school wide rules versus specific expectations for specific settings. For example Do not ride bike across the oval, No running on the veranda etc
    Identify the terminology they use for the positive rewards system (Goldies, faction points, teacher awards etc) to use at interview.
  • Research by the World Health Organization has indicated that health and well being promotion strategies are more likely to be effective in schools when they incorporate curriculum, school organisation and partnership components.
    Effective management of severe challenging behaviours cannot be an isolated activity for one or two individuals in a school setting, such as the classroom teacher and an education assistant. Behaviour management cannot be divorced from curriculum. Partnerships and collaboration are essential and a whole of system/school approach is required. The challenge with severe behaviour disordered students is to develop durable systems that nurture and sustain effective practice.
    The model for effective practice in schools presented in Figure 1, illustrates the various levels of promotion/prevention and intervention strategies within a school. The levels are the universal or whole school, selected classes or groups, indicated individual, and the treatment level for severe individual cases. These levels are described below.
    At the promotion and universal level, whole populations are targeted. For example, in addressing behaviour issues, a school may develop strategies which include reviewing the school code of conduct and behaviour management policies and procedures, the school may implement whole of school pastoral care or values programs such as ‘You Can Do It’, Tribes, Stop – Think – Do, the school may provide relevant professional development to teachers, and implement various incentive schemes such as faction points, playground tokens, honour certificates etc. At this level the strategies are designed to benefit every student and to minimise the likelihood and impact of incidents.
    At the selective prevention level, strategies are developed to enhance the outcomes for classes or identified groups of students. For example, for a difficult class a teacher may set up a whole class positive reinforcement program, or a group of identified students may receive targeted social skills training sessions.
    At the indicated prevention level, strategies are developed to improve the behavioural outcomes of individual students. For example, a behaviour management plan with positive and negative consequences is developed. Teaching and learning adjustments for a student with behavioural difficulties might include changed seating arrangements, changed task difficulty and length, choice activities may be introduced, the student might be linked with a ‘buddy’ for break times, and the students interests could be incorporated into their curriculum.
    Finally, the treatment level represents the point where the school moves beyond prevention and promotion into developing specific intervention strategies for students significantly at risk. Schools will explore a range of strategies including case-conferences, individual behaviour management planning, crisis prevention and management plans, referral and consultation with school psychologists, other external agencies and the engagement of specialist expertise.
  • Look at both dolphins jumping out of the water.  The dolphins are identical.  A closely monitored scientific study of a group revealed that in spite of the fact that the dolphins are identical, a person under stress would find differences in the two dolphins.  If there are many differences found between both dolphins, it means the person is experiencing a great amount of stress.Look at the photograph and if you find more than one or two differences you may want to take a vacation.  
     
  • From the previous example, a number of observations can be made:
    The students behaviour increased in intensity (beginning with questioning and escalating to swinging at the teacher).
    The teachers behaviour increased with intensity (beginning with a direction and escalating to grabbing the student by the arm).
    Each student behaviour was followed by a consequence that became the antecedent for the next student behaviour.
    As the consequences became more severe and negative the students behaviour became more intense.
    Make reference to opening activity where groups had to put the “cartoon conflict sequence” card into order. This is about the cycle having to be broken somewhere.
  • Presenters Notes
    There are seven observable phases of student behaviour in an escalating chain.
    Calm. This phase represents the lowest level of escalation for the student. When a student has escalating behaviour patters, teachers often describe this person a s”two different persons”. For example, the student is cooperative in this phase and can be quite defiant in others. Overall the student is cooperative.
    Trigger. In this stage something upsets the student. The trigger could be a single event or could be a series of events. One of the characterizes of students with behaviour problems is the skill deficits in the areas of conflict management and problem solving. When these students meet a conflict situation and d o not reach adequate resolution, they move onto another setting or set of conditions and may have another conflict. It is not long before the student becomes agitated and more serious behaviours occur. The antecedents also mau come from the situations where the students routines are interupted. Overall the student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts.
    Agitation. This phase is characterized by ab increase in behaviour compared to phase one. Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed.
    Acceleration. In this phase the student exhibits behaviours that have high probability of obtaining predictable responses from other persons. For example, when the student begins to complain that the work is too hard, the teacher offers to help. The student may also provoke another student with name calling. Compared to the behaviour in the agitation phase the student displays more focus. Overall the student exhibits engagement behaviours i.e. behaviours that elicit predictable responses from other persons.
    Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
    De-escalation. In this phase the student begins to slow down physically. Breathing returns to normal. In this situation the student is not sure what to do next. The student may begin something and then start something else. Overall the student displays confusion.
    Recovery. At this point the student is back to normal and is ready to resume the regular routine. This is often an eagerness to begin tasks that do not require interactions, such as independent work. If this student has a history of severe behaviours in the past, denial and defensive behaviours may occur. Overall the student displays an eagerness to become engaged in non-interactive activities and a reluctance to address the peak behaviour.
  • Presenters Notes
    Show video
  • Presenters Notes
    Explain the difference between challenging behaviour and disruptive behaviour with reference to previous video and use of slide key points.
    Key points
    We can view the difference in the two in terms of:
    Severity: how bad is the behaviour when is occurs
    Frequency: how often the behaviour occurs
    Duration: the length of time the behaviour occurs
    Durability: how durable is the behaviour across time
    Ref: Managing Challenging Behaviour – Module 3 – Training Manual. Sue Clay. School Psychologist.
  • Presenters Notes
    Explain PEAK phase using slide.
    ACTIVITY
    Get participants to place information onto peak section of the “Escalation Profile”.
  • Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
  • Group call out the common characteristics of blue/green descriptors.
    Use whiteboard to classify group responses.
    Use PowerPoint to go over concepts ‘Explanatory Fictions’ and ‘Testable Explanations’.
  • HIDDEN SLIDE
    Presenters notes
    If you have the time, this activity assists develop an understanding of how to explicitly DESCRIBE behaviour in observable terms. This is very important when profiling a student.
    Handout with “descriptors” given to participants. Descriptors at top of sheet are linked. Descriptors at the bottom of the sheet are linked.
    Group call out the common characteristics of descriptors.
    Use whiteboard to classify group responses.
    Use PowerPoint to go over concepts ‘Explanatory Fictions’ and ‘Testable Explanations’.
  • Calm. This phase represents the lowest level of escalation for the student. When a student has escalating behaviour patters, teachers often describe this person a s”two different persons”. For example, the student is cooperative in this phase and can be quite defiant in others. Overall the student is cooperative.
    The student is most responsive to teaching.
  • Trigger. In this stage something upsets the student. The trigger could be a single event or could be a series of events. One of the characterizes of students with behaviour problems is the skill deficits in the areas of conflict management and problem solving. When these students meet a conflict situation and d o not reach adequate resolution, they move onto another setting or set of conditions and may have another conflict. It is not long before the student becomes agitated and more serious behaviours occur. The antecedents also may come from the situations where the students routines are interrupted. Overall the student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts.
  • Presenters Notes
    Explain phase as per slide.
    This is probably the KEY phase for identifying problems and intervening early.
    Need to get better at “reading the agitation” so you can intervene early in the cycle.
    ACTIVITY
    Get participants to identify the behaviours that indicate that the student is agitated. That is, something has triggered them to become unsettled and they are unable to resolve the situation. In turn, they become agitated and unsettled. How can participants tell that the student is agitated.
    Make mention that this can occur on a continuum. That is there are low level to high level agitation signs.
  • Agitation. This phase is characterized by by increase in behaviour compared to phase one. Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed.
  • Acceleration. In this phase the student exhibits behaviours that have high probability of obtaining predictable responses from other persons. For example, when the student begins to complain that the work is too hard, the teacher offers to help. The student may also provoke another student with name calling. Compared to the behaviour in the agitation phase the student displays more focus. Overall the student exhibits engagement behaviours i.e. behaviours that elicit predictable responses from other persons.
  • Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
  • De-escalation. In this phase the student begins to slow down physically. Breathing returns to normal. In this situation the student is not sure what to do next. The student may begin something and then start something else. Overall the student displays confusion.
  • Recovery. At this point the student is back to normal and is ready to resume the regular routine. This is often an eagerness to begin tasks that do not require interactions, such as independent work. If this student has a history of severe behaviours in the past, denial and defensive behaviours may occur. Overall the student displays an eagerness to become engaged in non-interactive activities and a reluctance to address the peak behaviour.
  • Activity: Round Robin
    Place butchers paper around the room with two markers for groups to scribe ideas on paper.
    Divide whole group into 7 smaller groups. Number off.
    Inform participants that going to do a round robin activity where groups need to come up with some strategies they could use in each phase to intervene with student.
    Allocate 3 minutes per section. Roughly lasts 30 minutes in total
  • In this phase where the student is most responsive to teaching. Every effort should be made to reinforce cooperation and motivation and assist the student to focus on normal or expected behaviours.
  • Assist student to identify the triggers and sources of conflict and how to develop approaches for managing these triggers. Some strategies are:
    Problem solving. Actively involve the student to develop a plan to problem solve difficult situations. Teach a number of steps to problem solve
    Social skills training.
    Cooperative plans.
    Debriefing
  • Agitation is a reliable predictor for more serious behaviours in the escalation chain. This phase needs to be managed carefully.
    The following techniques can be used to try and redirect the student at this time. Be aware that they may also reinforce the serious behaviour.
    Structural modifications
    Providing quiet and time alone
    Make easier work available
    Alter the students schedule
    Provide options on what work is to be done
    Provide some options
    Involving the student in developing a plan to reduce agitation and engage in on task behaviour. Establish agreements on what the student can do to reduce the agitation. For example, the student may ask for quiet time. Note that you will need to establish a criteria for how long the student can be in the quiet area or what they have to do when utilizing quiet time.
    Debriefing
  • Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011

    1. 1. School Wide Positive Behaviour Support & Managing Severe Behaviour Stuart McKenzie & Sven Jamvold School Psychology Service
    2. 2. Key Objectives Brief overview of School Wide Positive Behaviour Support To understand the “Phases of Escalating Behaviour” model and be able to apply this model to profile students with severe challenging behaviour To enhance the development and implementation of effective intervention strategies for students with severe challenging behaviour
    3. 3. …only in France
    4. 4. How were you disciplined when you were at school?
    5. 5. Why this tendency to get tougher? Assume student is inherently bad and/or stubborn behaviour requires much more intensive consequences Assume student must ‘learn’ to take responsibility for their own behaviour and prove they deserve to be in class Assume aversive consequences teach students to behave We get temporary relief
    6. 6. What is unhelpful with getting tough? Fosters environments of control Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced Shared accountability is shifted away from school and to the student/family/community Child-adult relationship are devalued and put at risk Link between academic programming and social behavior is weakened Research does not support effectiveness
    7. 7. VIDEO
    8. 8. Academic Errors Behavioural Errors Students who achieve good work deserve some recognition Students should behave appropriately without needing recognition Students are trying to make the correct response Students are trying to be disruptive - that is, to make an incorrect response Errors are accidental Errors are deliberate Errors are inevitable Students are refusing to cooperate Learning requires exploration Students should not explore limits; they should obey them Students who are having difficulties need additional or modified teaching Students who are having difficulties should be punished
    9. 9. School Wide Positive Behaviour Support Universal Prevention: School/Classroom-Wide Systems for all Students, Staff, & Settings • 3-5 Positively stated rules •Behaviour Matrix – schoolwide behaviour expectations. •Lesson plans to teach behaviour expectations •Procedures for encouraging expected behaviour •Procedures for discouraging rule violations •Data collection, evaluation and monitoring. Other SW Programs Tribes Friendly Schools & Families Restorative Justice Values etc
    10. 10. 10 DEVELOP CLEARLY DEFINED SCHOOL WIDE EXPECTATIONS 1.Be Respectful 1.Be Responsible 2.Be a Learner
    11. 11. SYSTEMS EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICES DATA OUTCOMES River Valley Primary School Classroom ERRC Token Tally Excellence Be Your Best Responsibility Respect Care Fred Tim Jack Joe
    12. 12. 13
    13. 13. 14
    14. 14. Proserpine State School
    15. 15. 17 Mudgeeraba State School
    16. 16. 18 Develop a Teaching Matrix Create a “matrix” of expectations by setting Classroom Pathways and Stairs Bus Lines Be Safe Get adult help for accidents and spills Keep to the left Walk Face forward On signal, line up, one arm-length apart
    17. 17. Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria Library/ Computer Lab Assembly Bus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk. Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SW Expectations 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
    18. 18. STATE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING MATRIX Expectation ROUTINE/SETTING I am … All Settings Classroom Bus Walkways Tuck-shop / Canteen Oval HPE Playground UniversalExpectations Safe Show self control Report any problems Gain permission to leave and to be in any setting Keep body to self. Follow directions. Use equipment carefully Keep bodies calm Wait in designated area Keep all of your body inside the bus. Keep bodies calm Walk Keep left Keep bodies calm Wait patiently Walk Place rubbish in bins Keep bodies calm Use equipment for intended purpose. Participate in school approved games only. Use equipment for intended purpose. Participate in school approved games only. Respectful Be tolerant of others Accept individual differences Care for self, others and the environment Use polite language Respect others right to learn. Older students to look out for little ones Show driver respect. Walk quietly so others can continue learning Eat only your food. Listen to / for instructions Play fair – show good sportsmanship Play fair – show good sportsmanship a Learner Be on task. Do your best. Manage your time. Be prepared. Challenge yourself. Listen actively Follow instructions Do your best Be on time for next class Return to class promptly Eat healthily. Manage your money. Learn new games and activities. Learn new games and activities.
    19. 19. CLASSROOM RULES
    20. 20. 22 DISPLAY EXPECTATIONS
    21. 21. 25 PROCEDURES FOR ENCOURAGING BEHAVIOUR SCHOOL WIDE CONSEQUENCES
    22. 22. Wristband Rewards for Playground Positive Behaviour
    23. 23. SWPBS Evidence International Over 14,000 schools implementing SWPBS http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx Implementation of SWPBS related to: Reduction in office discipline referrals Reduction in suspensions, and Improved academic performance
    24. 24. Jan-July 2011 Jan-July 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Bullying Leaving class Major disruption Physical assault Refusal Throwing Verbal assault Outof area EDPSsummaryby Behaviour Comparisonof 2010 and 2011 datauntil 6 July2011 Jan-July 2011 Jan-July 2010
    25. 25. TOTAL NUMBER OF SUSPENSIONS: 2009 – 123 2010 – 40 2011 – 4 to July
    26. 26. 32 School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) “Reality Check” versus “Perceptions” Principal Interview Staff Interview. 10 (random) Student Interview. 15 (random) Asks key questions relating to school expectations/ rules from BMIS policy. Use the language of the school.
    27. 27. 33 SET RESULTS Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores August 2009 0.0% 20.0% 50.0% 12.5% 25.0% 18.8% 100.0% 32.3% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% ExpectationsDefined ExpectationsTaught RewardSystem ViolationsSystem DecisionMaking Management DistrictSupport ImplementationAverage PercentImplemented
    28. 28. Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
    29. 29. School Wide Positive Behaviour Support Individual Prevention: Students with High Risk Behaviour •Individualised intervention •Functional behaviour assessment •Escalation Profiles •Intensive support services Universal Prevention: School/Classroom-Wide Systems for all Students, Staff, & Settings • 3-5 Positively stated rules •Behaviour Matrix – schoolwide behaviour expectations. •Lesson plans to teach behaviour expectations •Procedures for encouraging expected behaviour •Procedures for discouraging rule violations •Data collection, evaluation and monitoring. Other SW Programs Tribes Friendly Schools & Families Restorative Justice Values etc Targetted Prevention: Targeted Interventions Systems for Students with at-Risk Behaviour •Behaviour Education Programs •Admin– Office Check/Connect/Expect HUG –Hello/Update/Goodbye Mentor Program
    30. 30. ROLE PLAY Just whilst your deciding whether to volunteer for the role play we are going to do a quick stress test
    31. 31. A Quick Stress Test Two Dolphins I'm not sure exactly how this works, but it is amazingly accurate. Read the full description before looking at the picture. The picture below has 2 identical dolphins in it. It was used in a case study as a measure of stress levels at Loma Linda Medical Centre.
    32. 32. Look at both dolphins jumping out of the water. The dolphins are identical. A closely monitored scientific study of a group revealed that in spite of the fact that the dolphins are identical, a person under stress would find differences in the two dolphins. If there are many differences found between both dolphins, it means the person is experiencing a great amount of stress. Look at the photograph and if you find more than one or two differences you may want to take a vacation.
    33. 33. Teacher Jason Jason, please turn in your assignment. What assignment? I finished it. I don’t have it with me now. You never believe me. F_____ you! Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike. The assignment you didn’t finish during class. Great, please turn it in now. You have a choice: turn it in or do it again. I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again. That’s disrespect…go to the office. Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder. Make me.
    34. 34. Anatomy of Escalating Behaviour Cycles student and teacher behaviour escalate in intensity student behaviours are followed by a consequence that becomes the antecedent for the next student behaviour as consequences become more severe, student behaviours become more intense “Stress arouses feelings, feelings trigger behaviour. Behaviour incites others. Others increase stress. And around it goes” Wood and Long 1991
    35. 35. Phases of Escalation 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery
    36. 36. Defining Challenging Behaviour
    37. 37. Definitions Challenging behaviour can be defined as those behaviours that threaten the safety of staff (including self-harming behaviours) or those disruptive behaviours that are ongoing in nature, and are not modified using whole class/ generic behaviour management strategies. Disruptive behaviour can be defined as those behaviours that hinder or stop a teacher from teaching, or hinder or stop students from learning.
    38. 38. Peak Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
    39. 39. Indicators Physical abuse or aggression Physical abuse towards self Physical abuse towards objects Severe tantrums, hyperventilation Peak Example  Hits other children  Destroys work  Screams, kicks, scratches, bites  Head butts floor and walls
    40. 40. •Jerry has ADHD and that’s why he’s so incorrigible •Ed has displayed aggressive behaviours the whole time he has been here •Steven is like that because he is emotionally disturbed •Donna is so unpredictable I think she is psychotic or schizo or something •Stephen pushes and hits other students when he loses a game •When given one question at a time, Sarah completes all her maths •When asked to repeat or correct a task, Jessica talks back to the teacher and throws her work on the floor. •Geoff engages in appropriate conversations with staff when in one-to- one situations.
    41. 41. Defining Behaviour Explanatory Fictions Testable Explanations Are not observable Blame the student Neglect the environment Are subjective Don’t lead to interventions Are observable Can be manipulated Are environmentally focussed Are objective Lead to interventions Observing actual behaviour is different from inferring or making judgements about the student on the basis of behaviour Labels stigmatise and are not helpful in managing behaviour.
    42. 42. Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
    43. 43. Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
    44. 44. Delinquent OR Takes money from peers
    45. 45. Delinquent OR Takes money from peers
    46. 46. Psychotic OR Says she hears voices
    47. 47. Psychotic OR Says she hears voices
    48. 48. Arrives 10 minutes late OR Irresponsible
    49. 49. Arrives 10 minutes late OR Irresponsible
    50. 50. Out of seat 55% of time OR Hyperactive
    51. 51. Out of seat 55% of time OR Hyperactive
    52. 52. …only in Spain
    53. 53. Indicators Able to follow directions Able to stay on task Able to receive correction Able to set goals and develop plans Calm Example  Compliant  Will sit for up to 10 minutes  Likes playing with the paints, trolley etc  Follows instructions  Completes activities (modified)  She still requires 1:1 to achieve outcomes  Mingles with Peers
    54. 54. Indicators Conflicts with other persons Continued provocations Pressure Facing consequences Continued errors Trigger Example  Morning transition “separating from grandparents”  When she has completed an activity  Transition time  Re-engaging with a new task  Peers involving themselves in her activity without asking  After recess  When tired  The word “No”
    55. 55. Agitation Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed. Low Level High Level
    56. 56. Indicators Increased hand and eye movements Speech is intended to cut conversations short Decrease in on-task behaviour Easily distracted from work Agitation Example  Gets restless  Says “No”  Pushes her work away  Knocks things off table  Gets “that’ look, she shows her teeth  Tenses right up  Says “don’t look at me”  Doesn’t want you to come near her
    57. 57. Competition Count the number of times the white team throws the basket ball, not the times that the ball is bounced, the number of times the ball is passed from one member of the white team to the another Video
    58. 58. Indicators Questioning, arguing provoking Verbal abuse Intimidation Defiance, escape Acceleration Examples  Knocks things off tables  Lies on the floor kicking her legs around  Will attempt to destroy things, rips work  Pulls posters off wall, rips up  She will bang her head on the floor/walls  Her behaviour is such that it necessitates physical intervention  Whips herself up into a peak state ‘frenzy’
    59. 59. …only in America
    60. 60. Indicators Physical abuse or aggression Physical abuse towards self Physical abuse towards objects Severe tantrums, hyperventilation Peak
    61. 61. …only in Mexico
    62. 62. Indicators Confusion (starting, stopping, moving) Attempts to reconcile Withdrawal Denial Blame projection Responsive to concrete directions De-escalation Examples  Stops thrashing about  Begins to settles down  Gets very hot, red in the face. Says ‘I feel crook’  Says “Don’t look at me”  Pushes you away
    63. 63. Indicators Willingness to resume work (w/o interaction) Subdued behaviour in group work or with teacher Denial and defensive regarding the out of control behaviour Reluctance to enter into discussions about the out of control behaviour Recovery Examples  Comes back to herself  Stands up, moves forward to watch class  Re –engages with conversation that she initiates  Wants to re-engage with group.  Recovers very quickly but takes a long time to return to a state of Calm.
    64. 64. …only in Africa
    65. 65. Most of the populace thinks it very improper to spank children, so I have tried other methods to control our kids when they have one of "those moments". One that I found very effective is for me to just take the child for a Car ride and talk. They usually calm down and stop misbehaving after our little car ride together. I've included the photo below of one of my sessions, with our son, in Car so you can see if you might like to use the technique. Its very effective
    66. 66. This is a JOKE
    67. 67. Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation. Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated. Identification of replacement behaviours that can be taught (& serve same function as problem). Intervention Procedures
    68. 68. "If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer you'll treat everything as a nail." (Abraham Maslow)
    69. 69. Activity: Rotating Groups The 7 Phases are on posters. Each group to write their ideas about the various strategies staff could use at each phase of escalation. Groups will have 2 minutes to write at each phase. Groups will then rotate. Whole Group feedback
    70. 70. Indicators Able to follow directions Able to stay on task Able to receive correction Able to set goals and develop plans Calm Procedures Arrange for high rates of academic and social success Use positive reinforcement Teach critical skills Communicate high expectations Teach problem solving
    71. 71. Up to 57% of children with language problems have been found to have behavioural problems and up to 86% of children who are behaviourally disturbed have language problems, particularly in the area of pragmatics (Benner, G. J., Nelson, J. R., & Epstein, M. H., 2002).
    72. 72. Indicators Conflicts with other persons Continued provocations Pressure Facing consequences Continued errors Trigger Procedures Significantly modify or eliminate problems routines Make structural or environmental modifications Identify and pre-correct for known triggers, reinforce success Prompt what has been taught
    73. 73. Indicators Increased hand and eye movements Speech is intended to cut conversations short Decrease in on-task behaviour Easily distracted from work Agitation Procedures Move in and assist or give space/ t/up time Modify task and/or expectations Involve in successful activities Positive Removal
    74. 74. Indicators Questioning, arguing provoking Verbal abuse Intimidation Defiance, escape Acceleration Procedures Remove all distracting / competing environmental factors Follow crisis management procedures Establish and follow through with bottom line Detach from student Escalation and self-control are negatively related Escalation is likely to run its course
    75. 75. Indicators Physical abuse or aggression Physical abuse towards self Physical abuse towards objects Severe tantrums, hyperventilation Peak Procedures Focus on safety / minimize the peak Continue Acceleration phase procedures Room clear Restraint
    76. 76. PART - OVERVIEW 1. PURPOSE 2. PROFESSIONALISM 3. PREPARATION 4. IDENTIFICATION 5. LEGAL MODEL 6. RESPONSE – Crisis Communication 7. RESPONSE - Evasion 8. RESPONSE - Restraint 9. RECORDING 10 DEBRIEFING, EVALUATION, FEEDBACK
    77. 77. Is Restraint Worth it?
    78. 78. Indicators Confusion (starting, stopping, moving) Attempts to reconcile Withdrawal Denial Blame projection Responsive to concrete directions De-escalation Procedures Focus on removing excess confrontation Don’t consequence Avoid confrontation Don’t force return Emphasize starting over
    79. 79. Indicators Willingness to resume work (w/o interaction) Subdued behaviour in group work or with teacher Denial and defensive regarding the out of control behaviour Reluctance to enter into discussions about the out of control behaviour Recovery Procedures Follow through with consequences for problem behaviour (or wait till calm) Reinforce displays of appropriate behaviour Debrief Facilitate transition Debrief after consequence Goal to increase more appropriate behaviour
    80. 80. Let’s Look Again Calm Trigger Agitation Acceleration Peak De-escalation Recovery
    81. 81.   “It is always important to remember that if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.” Geoff Colvin (2004)
    82. 82. Big Ideas Teach appropriate behaviour during the Calm; escalation time is not teaching time Watch for Agitation and intervene Minimize the Peak and focus on safety Avoid confrontation in De-escalation Debrief and follow-through during Recovery Proforma
    83. 83. …only in Australia
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