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Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011

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  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 PREPARATION FOR SESSION Enlarged “ Moodline ” on brown butchers paper for first activity. Coloured dots for each participant. TWO colours required for each participant. Whiteboard and pens. Handouts for participants of PowerPoint slides Handout of the theoretical model that presenter wants to use to “ set the scene ” . This is part of optional activity. Giant post-it notes for rotating groups activity. Introduction and welcome Welcome group Introduce yourself and outline your experience relevant to challenging behaviour Inform participants that presentation an interactive session requiring participants to identify a student to focus on. At the end of session they will have a working plan to more effectively identify and manage difficult situations as they arise. BACKGROUND INFOMRATION FOR PRESENTERS Set the scene for escalating and challenging behaviour. Escalating behaviour is a priority concern for classroom teachers. This escalating behaviour has many labels such as aggression, severe acting out, fighting, non-compliance and self-injury. Behaviours associated with these labels are often explosive and pose serious safety concerns to teachers and other students. Typically students who display these kinds of behaviours have many problems in the classroom and teachers become frustrated because their normal forms of behaviour management do not change these behaviours. Serious acting out behaviour is rarely a single event. Generally a number of events precede these behaviours and are typically successive interactions between the student and other persons (students, teachers, etc). This presentation is designed to enable the management teams within schools to identify potential triggers and develop best practice when dealing with escalating behaviour in an individual student. It should inform the development of an overall management plan Notes for presentation from Escalating Behaviour. Colvin and Sugai. PowerPoint presentation was developed from various sources including National Center on Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports , www.pbis.org.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Optional Activity. Expectations Board Think-pair-share In pairs consider the question “ What do you hope to gain from participating in this workshop? ” Give pairs 3 – 4 minutes to share and discuss their ideas Whole group call out ask participants to share ideas from think-pair-share. Presenter to write on whiteboard. Link into key objectives of workshop. Presenters Notes Briefly outline the key objective of workshop from slide. Inform that workshop in two parts. First session (today) about understanding the model and developing a profile for a targeted student. Reiterate that workshop is interactive and will require participants to think about a student to focus on
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Allow 10 – 15 mins for discussion
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Kicking them out is a false sense of “ winning ” - all that happens is the child comes back after school and spray paints the school and keys the principal ’ s car.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Research by the World Health Organization has indicated that health and well being promotion strategies are more likely to be effective in schools when they incorporate curriculum, school organisation and partnership components. Effective management of severe challenging behaviours cannot be an isolated activity for one or two individuals in a school setting, such as the classroom teacher and an education assistant. Behaviour management cannot be divorced from curriculum. Partnerships and collaboration are essential and a whole of system/school approach is required. The challenge with severe behaviour disordered students is to develop durable systems that nurture and sustain effective practice. The model for effective practice in schools presented in Figure 1, illustrates the various levels of promotion/prevention and intervention strategies within a school. The levels are the universal or whole school, selected classes or groups, indicated individual, and the treatment level for severe individual cases. These levels are described below. At the promotion and universal level , whole populations are targeted. For example, in addressing behaviour issues, a school may develop strategies which include reviewing the school code of conduct and behaviour management policies and procedures, the school may implement whole of school pastoral care or values programs such as ‘ You Can Do It ’ , Tribes, Stop – Think – Do, the school may provide relevant professional development to teachers, and implement various incentive schemes such as faction points, playground tokens, honour certificates etc. At this level the strategies are designed to benefit every student and to minimise the likelihood and impact of incidents. At the selective prevention leve l, strategies are developed to enhance the outcomes for classes or identified groups of students. For example, for a difficult class a teacher may set up a whole class positive reinforcement program, or a group of identified students may receive targeted social skills training sessions. At the indicated prevention level , strategies are developed to improve the behavioural outcomes of individual students. For example, a behaviour management plan with positive and negative consequences is developed. Teaching and learning adjustments for a student with behavioural difficulties might include changed seating arrangements, changed task difficulty and length, choice activities may be introduced, the student might be linked with a ‘ buddy ’ for break times, and the students interests could be incorporated into their curriculum. Finally, the treatment level represents the point where the school moves beyond prevention and promotion into developing specific intervention strategies for students significantly at risk. Schools will explore a range of strategies including case-conferences, individual behaviour management planning, crisis prevention and management plans, referral and consultation with school psychologists, other external agencies and the engagement of specialist expertise.
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 This is the DRAFT poster for Forrestfield PS. Have the “Treat Everyone Decently” approach at the school. Has Teddy mascot. Finalising the school logo being incorporated.
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 Westfield Park PS.
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 Once have teaching matrix, that is the expectations as they relate to the different settings across the school need to move to the TEACHING ASPECT
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 Example of classroom rules. Forrestfield PS.
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 10 mins to here (whiz through previous slides). 2 hrs total so far (therefore 11:05)
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010 SET Need to look at BMIS and focus on some key aspects What terminology do they use for the school wide expectations/ rules? What are they? Be clear about the school wide rules versus specific expectations for specific settings. For example Do not ride bike across the oval, No running on the veranda etc Identify the terminology they use for the positive rewards system (Goldies, faction points, teacher awards etc) to use at interview.
  • Specialist Behaviour Psychology Team May 2010
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Research by the World Health Organization has indicated that health and well being promotion strategies are more likely to be effective in schools when they incorporate curriculum, school organisation and partnership components. Effective management of severe challenging behaviours cannot be an isolated activity for one or two individuals in a school setting, such as the classroom teacher and an education assistant. Behaviour management cannot be divorced from curriculum. Partnerships and collaboration are essential and a whole of system/school approach is required. The challenge with severe behaviour disordered students is to develop durable systems that nurture and sustain effective practice. The model for effective practice in schools presented in Figure 1, illustrates the various levels of promotion/prevention and intervention strategies within a school. The levels are the universal or whole school, selected classes or groups, indicated individual, and the treatment level for severe individual cases. These levels are described below. At the promotion and universal level , whole populations are targeted. For example, in addressing behaviour issues, a school may develop strategies which include reviewing the school code of conduct and behaviour management policies and procedures, the school may implement whole of school pastoral care or values programs such as ‘ You Can Do It ’ , Tribes, Stop – Think – Do, the school may provide relevant professional development to teachers, and implement various incentive schemes such as faction points, playground tokens, honour certificates etc. At this level the strategies are designed to benefit every student and to minimise the likelihood and impact of incidents. At the selective prevention leve l, strategies are developed to enhance the outcomes for classes or identified groups of students. For example, for a difficult class a teacher may set up a whole class positive reinforcement program, or a group of identified students may receive targeted social skills training sessions. At the indicated prevention level , strategies are developed to improve the behavioural outcomes of individual students. For example, a behaviour management plan with positive and negative consequences is developed. Teaching and learning adjustments for a student with behavioural difficulties might include changed seating arrangements, changed task difficulty and length, choice activities may be introduced, the student might be linked with a ‘ buddy ’ for break times, and the students interests could be incorporated into their curriculum. Finally, the treatment level represents the point where the school moves beyond prevention and promotion into developing specific intervention strategies for students significantly at risk. Schools will explore a range of strategies including case-conferences, individual behaviour management planning, crisis prevention and management plans, referral and consultation with school psychologists, other external agencies and the engagement of specialist expertise.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Look at both dolphins jumping out of the water.  The dolphins are identical.  A closely monitored scientific study of a group revealed that in spite of the fact that the dolphins are identical, a person under stress would find differences in the two dolphins.  If there are many differences found between both dolphins, it means the person is experiencing a great amount of stress. Look at the photograph and if you find more than one or two differences you may want to take a vacation.    
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 From the previous example, a number of observations can be made: The students behaviour increased in intensity (beginning with questioning and escalating to swinging at the teacher). The teachers behaviour increased with intensity (beginning with a direction and escalating to grabbing the student by the arm). Each student behaviour was followed by a consequence that became the antecedent for the next student behaviour. As the consequences became more severe and negative the students behaviour became more intense. Make reference to opening activity where groups had to put the “cartoon conflict sequence” card into order. This is about the cycle having to be broken somewhere.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Presenters Notes There are seven observable phases of student behaviour in an escalating chain. Calm. This phase represents the lowest level of escalation for the student. When a student has escalating behaviour patters, teachers often describe this person a s ”two different persons”. For example, the student is cooperative in this phase and can be quite defiant in others. Overall the student is cooperative. Trigger . In this stage something upsets the student. The trigger could be a single event or could be a series of events. One of the characterizes of students with behaviour problems is the skill deficits in the areas of conflict management and problem solving. When these students meet a conflict situation and d o not reach adequate resolution, they move onto another setting or set of conditions and may have another conflict. It is not long before the student becomes agitated and more serious behaviours occur. The antecedents also mau come from the situations where the students routines are interupted. Overall the student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts . Agitation. This phase is characterized by ab increase in behaviour compared to phase one. Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed. Acceleration. In this phase the student exhibits behaviours that have high probability of obtaining predictable responses from other persons. For example, when the student begins to complain that the work is too hard, the teacher offers to help. The student may also provoke another student with name calling. Compared to the behaviour in the agitation phase the student displays more focus . Overall the student exhibits engagement behaviours i.e. behaviours that elicit predictable responses from other persons. Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour. De-escalation. In this phase the student begins to slow down physically. Breathing returns to normal. In this situation the student is not sure what to do next. The student may begin something and then start something else. Overall the student displays confusion. Recovery. At this point the student is back to normal and is ready to resume the regular routine. This is often an eagerness to begin tasks that do not require interactions, such as independent work. If this student has a history of severe behaviours in the past, denial and defensive behaviours may occur. Overall the student displays an eagerness to become engaged in non-interactive activities and a reluctance to address the peak behaviour.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Presenters Notes Show video
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Presenters Notes Explain the difference between challenging behaviour and disruptive behaviour with reference to previous video and use of slide key points. Key points We can view the difference in the two in terms of: Severity: how bad is the behaviour when is occurs Frequency: how often the behaviour occurs Duration: the length of time the behaviour occurs Durability: how durable is the behaviour across time Ref: Managing Challenging Behaviour – Module 3 – Training Manual. Sue Clay. School Psychologist.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Presenters Notes Explain PEAK phase using slide. ACTIVITY Get participants to place information onto peak section of the “ Escalation Profile ” .
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Group call out the common characteristics of blue/green descriptors. Use whiteboard to classify group responses. U se PowerPoint to go over concepts ‘ Explanatory Fictions ’ and ‘ Testable Explanations ’ .
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 HIDDEN SLIDE Presenters notes If you have the time, this activity assists develop an understanding of how to explicitly DESCRIBE behaviour in observable terms. This is very important when profiling a student. Handout with “ descriptors ” given to participants. Descriptors at top of sheet are linked. Descriptors at the bottom of the sheet are linked. Group call out the common characteristics of descriptors. Use whiteboard to classify group responses. U se PowerPoint to go over concepts ‘ Explanatory Fictions ’ and ‘ Testable Explanations ’ .
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Calm. This phase represents the lowest level of escalation for the student. When a student has escalating behaviour patters, teachers often describe this person a s ” two different persons ” . For example, the student is cooperative in this phase and can be quite defiant in others. Overall the student is cooperative. The student is most responsive to teaching.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Trigger . In this stage something upsets the student. The trigger could be a single event or could be a series of events. One of the characterizes of students with behaviour problems is the skill deficits in the areas of conflict management and problem solving. When these students meet a conflict situation and d o not reach adequate resolution, they move onto another setting or set of conditions and may have another conflict. It is not long before the student becomes agitated and more serious behaviours occur. The antecedents also may come from the situations where the students routines are interrupted. Overall the student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts .
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Presenters Notes Explain phase as per slide. This is probably the KEY phase for identifying problems and intervening early. Need to get better at “ reading the agitation ” so you can intervene early in the cycle. ACTIVITY Get participants to identify the behaviours that indicate that the student is agitated. That is, something has triggered them to become unsettled and they are unable to resolve the situation. In turn, they become agitated and unsettled. How can participants tell that the student is agitated. Make mention that this can occur on a continuum. That is there are low level to high level agitation signs.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Agitation. This phase is characterized by by increase in behaviour compared to phase one. Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Acceleration. In this phase the student exhibits behaviours that have high probability of obtaining predictable responses from other persons. For example, when the student begins to complain that the work is too hard, the teacher offers to help. The student may also provoke another student with name calling. Compared to the behaviour in the agitation phase the student displays more focus . Overall the student exhibits engagement behaviours i.e. behaviours that elicit predictable responses from other persons.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Peak. At this point, students exhibit their most serious behaviour, such as a severe tantrum, physical aggression, attacks on objects around them (furniture, desks, chairs, books etc) or running from the building with an agitated exit (slamming doors, pushing desks over). The student is clearly out of control. Safety factors are the prime importance in this most dangerous stage. Overall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 De-escalation. In this phase the student begins to slow down physically. Breathing returns to normal. In this situation the student is not sure what to do next. The student may begin something and then start something else. Overall the student displays confusion.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Recovery. At this point the student is back to normal and is ready to resume the regular routine. This is often an eagerness to begin tasks that do not require interactions, such as independent work. If this student has a history of severe behaviours in the past, denial and defensive behaviours may occur. Overall the student displays an eagerness to become engaged in non-interactive activities and a reluctance to address the peak behaviour.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Activity: Round Robin Place butchers paper around the room with two markers for groups to scribe ideas on paper. Divide whole group into 7 smaller groups. Number off. Inform participants that going to do a round robin activity where groups need to come up with some strategies they could use in each phase to intervene with student. Allocate 3 minutes per section. Roughly lasts 30 minutes in total
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 In this phase where the student is most responsive to teaching. Every effort should be made to reinforce cooperation and motivation and assist the student to focus on normal or expected behaviours.
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Assist student to identify the triggers and sources of conflict and how to develop approaches for managing these triggers. Some strategies are: Problem solving. Actively involve the student to develop a plan to problem solve difficult situations. Teach a number of steps to problem solve Social skills training. Cooperative plans. Debriefing
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004 Agitation is a reliable predictor for more serious behaviours in the escalation chain. This phase needs to be managed carefully. The following techniques can be used to try and redirect the student at this time. Be aware that they may also reinforce the serious behaviour. Structural modifications Providing quiet and time alone Make easier work available Alter the students schedule Provide options on what work is to be done Provide some options Involving the student in developing a plan to reduce agitation and engage in on task behaviour. Establish agreements on what the student can do to reduce the agitation. For example, the student may ask for quiet time. Note that you will need to establish a criteria for how long the student can be in the quiet area or what they have to do when utilizing quiet time. Debriefing
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004
  • 16/03/12 Stuart McKenzie (2008) Adapted from work Stuart McKenzie & Alamaine Seale 2004

Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011 Phases of escalating behaviours melbourne 24 june 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • School Wide Positive Behaviour Support & Managing Severe Behaviour Stuart McKenzie & Sven Jamvold School Psychology Service
  • Key Objectives„ Brief overview of School Wide Positive Behaviour Support„ To understand the “Phases of Escalating Behaviour” model and be able to apply this model to profile students with severe challenging behaviour„ To enhance the development and implementation of effective intervention strategies for students with severe challenging behaviour
  • …only in France
  • How were you disciplined when you were at school?
  • Why this tendency to gettougher?„ Assume student is inherently bad and/or stubborn behaviour requires much more intensive consequences„ Assume student must ‘learn’ to take responsibility for their own behaviour and prove they deserve to be in class„ Assume aversive consequences teach students to behave„ We get temporary relief
  • What is unhelpful withgetting tough?„ Fosters environments of control„ Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced„ Shared accountability is shifted away from school and to the student/family/community„ Child-adult relationship are devalued and put at risk„ Link between academic programming and social behavior is weakened„ Research does not support effectiveness
  • VIDEO
  • Academic Errors Behavioural ErrorsStudents who achieve good work Students should behavedeserve some recognition appropriately without needing recognitionStudents are trying to make the correct Students are trying to be disruptive -response that is, to make an incorrect responseErrors are accidental Errors are deliberateErrors are inevitable Students are refusing to cooperateLearning requires exploration Students should not explore limits; they should obey themStudents who are having difficulties Students who are having difficultiesneed additional or modified teaching should be punished
  • School Wide Positive Behaviour SupportUniversal Prevention:School/Classroom-Wide Systemsfor all Students, Staff, & Settings• 3-5 Positively stated rules•Behaviour Matrix – schoolwidebehaviour expectations.•Lesson plans to teach behaviourexpectations•Procedures for encouragingexpected behaviour•Procedures for discouraging ruleviolations•Data collection, evaluation andmonitoring.Other SW ProgramsTribesFriendly Schools & FamiliesRestorative JusticeValuesetc
  • DEVELOP CLEARLY DEFINEDSCHOOL WIDE EXPECTATIONS 1. Be Respectful • Be Responsible • Be a Learner 10
  • OUTCOMES S EM DA TA ST SY EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICES River Valley Primary School Classroom ERRC Token Tally Excellence Be Responsibility Respect Care Your BestFredTimJackJoe
  • 13
  • 14
  • Proserpine State School
  • Mudgeeraba State School 17
  • Develop a TeachingMatrix Create a “matrix” of expectations by setting Classroom Pathways Bus Lines and StairsBe Safe Get adult Keep to the On signal, help for left line up, one accidents Walk arm-length and spills Face forward apart 18
  • SETTING Teaching Matrix Library/ All Settings Hallways Playgrounds ns Cafeteria Computer Lab 2. Assembly Bus ta tio NA CO T Be on task. p ec Eat all your NT UR Ex Respect Give your food. Study, read, Watch for your EX AL Walk. Have a plan. Sit in one spot. Ourselves best effort. Select healthy compute. stop. Be prepared. foods. SW TExpectations 1 . Be kind. Use a quiet Hands/feet to Use normal Play safe. Whisper. Listen/watch. Respect Practice good voice. self. voice volume. Include others. Return Use appropriate Others table manners Stay in your Help/share Walk to right. Share equipment. books. applause. seat. with others. IO R AV S EH LE Pick up litter. Use equipment Replace trays Push in . B MP Recycle. Pick up. Wipe your feet. Respect Maintain properly. & utensils. chairs. Clean up Treat chairs Sit Property 3 physical Put litter in Clean up Treat books XA after self. appropriately. appropriately. space. garbage can. eating area. carefully. E
  • STATE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING MATRIX Expectation ROUTINE/SETTING Tuck-shop / Oval I am … All Settings Classroom Bus Walkways Playground Canteen HPE Show self control Report any Wait in problems Use equipment designated Wait patiently Use equipment Gain Use for intended area Walk Walk for intended permission to equipment purpose. Keep all of Keep left Place rubbish purpose. Safe leave and to carefully your body Keep bodies in bins Participate in Participate in be in any Keep bodies school inside the bus. calm Keep bodies school approved setting calm approvedUniversal Expectations Keep bodies calm games only. Keep body to games only. calm self. Follow directions. Be tolerant of others Accept Older students Listen to / for individual Walk quietly so Respect to look out for instructions Play fair – show differences others can Eat only your Respectful Care for self, others right little ones continue food. Play fair – good to learn. Show driver show good sportsmanship others and the learning respect. sportsmanship environment Use polite language Challenge Be on task. yourself. Be on time for Do your best. Listen Eat healthily. Learn new Learn new next class a Learner Manage your actively Return to class Manage your games and games and time. Follow money. activities. activities. promptly Be prepared. instructions Do your best
  • CLASSROOM RULES
  • DISPLAY EXPECTATIONS 22
  • PROCEDURES FOR ENCOURAGING BEHAVIOUR SCHOOL WIDE CONSEQUENCES 25
  • Wristband Rewards for Playground Positive Behaviour
  • SWPBS Evidence„ International„ Over 14,000 schools implementing SWPBS„ http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx„ Implementation of SWPBS related to:„ Reduction in office discipline referrals„ Reduction in suspensions, and„ Improved academic performance
  • EDPS summary by Behaviour Comparison of 2010 and 2011 data until 6 July 2011200180160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Bullying Leaving class Jan-July 2010 Major disruption Physical assault Refusal Throwing Jan-July 2011 Verbal assault Out of area Jan-July 2011 Jan-July 2010
  • TOTAL NUMBER OF SUSPENSIONS:2009 – 1232010 – 402011 – 4 to July
  • School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) “Reality Check” versus “Perceptions”„Principal Interview„Staff Interview. 10 (random)„Student Interview. 15 (random)Asks key questions relating to school expectations/ rulesfrom BMIS policy.Use the language of the school. 32
  • Percent Implemented Ex 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% pe c tat ion sD efi ne d 0.0% Ex pe c tat ion sT au gh t 20.0% Re wa rd Sy ste m Vio 50.0% lat ion sS yst em 12.5% De cis io nM ak ing 25.0% Ma na ge me nt 18.8% Dis tr ict Su pp ort Im p le 100.0% me nta tio nA ve ra g e Narrogin SHS SET Features and Implementation Scores August 2009 32.3%33 SET RESULTS
  • Narrogin SHS SET Features and Im plem entation Scores100%75% 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year50% 4t h Year 5t h Year25% 0%
  • School Wide Positive Behaviour SupportUniversal Prevention: Individual Prevention:School/Classroom-Wide Systems Students with High Risk Behaviourfor all Students, Staff, & Settings •Individualised intervention• 3-5 Positively stated rules •Functional behaviour assessment•Behaviour Matrix – schoolwide •Escalation Profilesbehaviour expectations. •Intensive support services•Lesson plans to teach behaviourexpectations•Procedures for encouraging Targetted Prevention:expected behaviour Targeted Interventions Systems for•Procedures for discouraging rule Students with at-Risk Behaviourviolations •Behaviour Education Programs•Data collection, evaluation and •Admin– Office Check/Connect/Expectmonitoring. HUG –Hello/Update/Goodbye Mentor ProgramOther SW ProgramsTribesFriendly Schools & FamiliesRestorative JusticeValuesetc
  • ROLE PLAY„ Just whilst your deciding whether to volunteer for the role play we are going to do a quick stress test
  • A Quick Stress Test„ Two Dolphins Im not sure exactly how this works, but it is amazingly accurate. Read the full description before looking at the picture. The picture below has 2 identical dolphins in it. It was used in a case study as a measure of stress levels at Loma Linda Medical Centre.
  • Look at both dolphins jumping out of thewater. The dolphins are identical. A closely monitored scientific study of a group revealed that in spite of the fact that thedolphins are identical, a person under stresswould find differences in the two dolphins. If there are many differences found between both dolphins, it means the person is experiencing a great amount of stress.Look at the photograph and if you find morethan one or two differences you may want to take a vacation.
  • Teacher Jason Jason, please turn in What assignment? your assignment. The assignment you I finished it. didn’t finish during class. Great, please turn it in I don’t have it with me now. now. You have a choice: turn it You never believe me. in or do it again.I guess you’ve made the Make me.choice to do it again.That’s disrespect…go to F_____ you!the office. Moves closer…& puts Pulls away, glares, & hand on J. shoulder. raises fist as if to strike.
  • Anatomy of Escalating Behaviour Cycles„ student and teacher behaviour escalate in intensity„ student behaviours are followed by a consequence that becomes the antecedent for the next student behaviour„ as consequences become more severe, student behaviours become more intense “Stress arouses feelings, feelings trigger behaviour. Behaviour incites others. Others increase stress. And around it goes” Wood and Long 1991
  • Phases of Escalation 5. Peak 4. Acceleration 6. De-escalation 3. Agitation 2. Trigger 7. Recovery1. Calm
  • Defining Challenging Behaviour
  • DefinitionsDisruptive behaviour can be defined as thosebehaviours that hinder or stop a teacher from teaching, orhinder or stop students from learning.Challenging behaviour can be defined as those behaviours that threaten the safety of staff (including self-harming behaviours) or those disruptive behaviours that are ongoing in nature, and are not modified using whole class/ generic behaviour management strategies.
  • PeakOverall the student is out of control and exhibits his or her most severe behaviour.
  • Peak„ Indicators „ Example ƒ Physical abuse or aggression  Hits other children ƒ Physical abuse  Destroys work towards self  Screams, kicks, ƒ Physical abuse scratches, bites towards objects  Head butts floor and walls ƒ Severe tantrums, hyperventilation
  • •Jerry has ADHD and that’s why he’s so incorrigible•Ed has displayed aggressive behaviours the whole time hehas been here•Steven is like that because he is emotionally disturbed•Donna is so unpredictable I think she is psychotic or schizoor something•Stephen pushes and hits other students when he loses a game•When given one question at a time, Sarah completes all her maths•When asked to repeat or correct a task, Jessica talks back to the teacherand throws her work on the floor.•Geoff engages in appropriate conversations with staff when in one-to-one situations.
  • Defining Behaviour Explanatory Fictions Testable Explanations Are Are observable not observable Blame the student Can be manipulated Neglect the environment Are environmentally focussed Are subjective Are objective Don’t lead to interventions Lead to interventionsObserving actual behaviour is different from inferring or making judgements about the student on the basis of behaviour Labels stigmatise and are not helpful in managing behaviour.
  • Which is described inobservable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
  • Which is described inobservable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
  • Delinquent ORTakes money from peers
  • Delinquent ORTakes money from peers
  • Psychotic ORSays she hears voices
  • Psychotic ORSays she hears voices
  • Arrives 10 minutes late OR Irresponsible
  • Arrives 10 minutes late OR Irresponsible
  • Out of seat 55% of time OR Hyperactive
  • Out of seat 55% of time OR Hyperactive
  • …only in Spain
  • Calm„ Indicators „ Example ƒ Able to follow  Compliant directions  Will sit for up to 10 minutes  Likes playing with the paints, ƒ Able to stay on task trolley etc ƒ Able to receive  Follows instructions correction  Completes activities (modified) ƒ Able to set goals and  She still requires 1:1 to develop plans achieve outcomes  Mingles with Peers
  • Trigger„ Indicators „ Example  Morning transition “separating ƒ Conflicts with other from grandparents” persons  When she has completed an activity ƒ Continued  Transition time provocations  Re-engaging with a new task ƒ Pressure  Peers involving themselves in her activity without asking ƒ Facing  After recess consequences  When tired ƒ Continued errors  The word “No”
  • Agitation Overall the student exhibits an increase in behaviour that is unfocussed.Low Level High Level
  • Agitation„ Indicators „ Example  Gets restless ƒ Increased hand and  Says “No” eye movements  Pushes her work away ƒ Speech is intended to  Knocks things off table cut conversations short  Gets “that’ look, she shows her teeth ƒ Decrease in on-task  Tenses right up behaviour  Says “don’t look at me” ƒ Easily distracted from  Doesn’t want you to come near work her
  • Competition„ Count the number of times the white team throws the basket ball, not the times that the ball is bounced, the number of times the ball is passed from one member of the white team to the another„ Video
  • Acceleration„ Indicators „ Examples  Knocks things off tables ƒ Questioning, arguing  Lies on the floor kicking her legs provoking around ƒ Verbal abuse  Will attempt to destroy things, rips work ƒ Intimidation  Pulls posters off wall, rips up ƒ Defiance, escape  She will bang her head on the floor/walls  Her behaviour is such that it necessitates physical intervention  Whips herself up into a peak state ‘frenzy’
  • …only in America
  • Peak„ Indicators ƒ Physical abuse or aggression ƒ Physical abuse towards self ƒ Physical abuse towards objects ƒ Severe tantrums, hyperventilation
  • …only in Mexico
  • De-escalation„ Indicators „ Examples ƒ Confusion (starting, stopping, moving)  Stops thrashing about ƒ Attempts to reconcile  Begins to settles down ƒ Withdrawal  Gets very hot, red in the ƒ Denial face. Says ‘I feel crook’ ƒ Blame projection  Says “Don’t look at me” ƒ Responsive to  Pushes you away concrete directions
  • Recovery„ Indicators „ Examples ƒ Willingness to resume work  Comes back to herself (w/o interaction)  Stands up, moves forward to ƒ Subdued behaviour in watch class group work or with teacher  Re –engages with ƒ Denial and defensive conversation that she initiates regarding the out of control  Wants to re-engage with behaviour group. ƒ Reluctance to enter into  Recovers very quickly but discussions about the out takes a long time to return to a of control behaviour state of Calm.
  • …only in Africa
  • Most of the populace thinks it very improper to spank children, so Ihave tried other methods to control our kids when they have one of "thosemoments".One that I found very effective is for me to just take the child for aCar ride and talk. They usually calm down and stop misbehaving after ourlittle car ride together.Ive included the photo below of one of my sessions, with our son, inCar so you can see if you might like to use the technique.Its very effective
  • This is a JOKE
  • Intervention Procedures„ Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation.„ Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated.„ Identification of replacement behaviours that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).
  • "If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer youll treat everything as a nail." (Abraham Maslow)
  • Activity: Rotating Groups„ The 7 Phases are on posters.„ Each group to write their ideas about the various strategies staff could use at each phase of escalation.„ Groups will have 2 minutes to write at each phase.„ Groups will then rotate. Whole Group feedback
  • Calm„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Able to follow ƒ Arrange for high rates directions of academic and social ƒ Able to stay on task success ƒ Able to receive ƒ Use positive correction reinforcement ƒ Able to set goals and ƒ Teach critical skills develop plans ƒ Communicate high expectations ƒ Teach problem solving
  • „ Up to 57% of children with language problems have been found to have behavioural problems and up to 86% of children who are behaviourally disturbed have language problems, particularly in the area of pragmatics (Benner, G. J., Nelson, J. R., & Epstein, M. H., 2002).
  • Trigger„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Conflicts with other ƒ Significantly modify or eliminate persons problems routines ƒ Make structural or ƒ Continued environmental modifications provocations ƒ Identify and pre-correct for ƒ Pressure known triggers, reinforce success ƒ Facing consequences ƒ Prompt what has been taught ƒ Continued errors
  • Agitation„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Increased hand and ƒ Move in and assist or eye movements give space/ t/up time ƒ Speech is intended to ƒ Modify task and/or cut conversations short expectations ƒ Decrease in on-task ƒ Involve in successful behaviour activities ƒ Easily distracted from ƒ Positive Removal work
  • Acceleration„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Questioning, arguing ƒ Remove all distracting / competing environmental provoking factors ƒ Verbal abuse ƒ Follow crisis management procedures ƒ Intimidation ƒ Establish and follow through ƒ Defiance, escape with bottom line ƒ Detach from student ƒ Escalation and self-control are negatively related ƒ Escalation is likely to run its course
  • Peak„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Physical abuse or ƒ Focus on safety / aggression minimize the peak ƒ Physical abuse ƒ Continue Acceleration towards self phase procedures ƒ Physical abuse ƒ Room clear towards objects ƒ Restraint ƒ Severe tantrums, hyperventilation
  • PART - OVERVIEW1. PURPOSE2. PROFESSIONALISM3. PREPARATION4. IDENTIFICATION5. LEGAL MODEL6. RESPONSE – Crisis Communication7. RESPONSE - Evasion8. RESPONSE - Restraint9. RECORDING10 DEBRIEFING, EVALUATION, FEEDBACK
  • Is Restraint Worth it?
  • De-escalation„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Confusion (starting, ƒ Focus on removing stopping, moving) excess confrontation ƒ Attempts to reconcile ƒ Don’t consequence ƒ Withdrawal ƒ Avoid confrontation ƒ Denial ƒ Don’t force return ƒ Blame projection ƒ Emphasize starting ƒ Responsive to over concrete directions
  • Recovery„ Indicators „ Procedures ƒ Willingness to resume work ƒ Follow through with (w/o interaction) consequences for problem ƒ Subdued behaviour in behaviour (or wait till calm) group work or with teacher ƒ Reinforce displays of ƒ Denial and defensive appropriate behaviour regarding the out of control ƒ Debrief behaviour ‚ Facilitate transition ƒ Reluctance to enter into ‚ Debrief after consequence discussions about the out ‚ Goal to increase more of control behaviour appropriate behaviour
  • Let’s Look Again„ Calm„ Trigger„ Agitation„ Acceleration„ Peak„ De-escalation„ Recovery
  • “It is always important to remember that if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.” Geoff Colvin (2004)
  • Big Ideas„ Teach appropriate behaviour during the Calm; escalation time is not teaching time„ Watch for Agitation and intervene„ Minimize the Peak and focus on safety„ Avoid confrontation in De-escalation„ Debrief and follow-through during Recovery Proforma
  • …only in Australia