1. RESEARCH DIGEST 2008/1 1 The Research Digests This Research Digest is one of a series of periodic digests produced by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) for the NSW Institute of Teachers. Teachers Registration The Institute has kindly made the Digest available to the registration Board, Tasmania authorities in the other states/territories, under the auspices of the Australasian Forum of Teacher Registration and Accreditation Authorities (AFTRAA). Each Digest focuses on a single topical issue, and provides a reviewIN THIS EDITION of major messages from research on the issue. A key feature of the Digest is an emphasis on what the research means for teachers and teaching. Over the course of several editions, a wide range of issuesManaging classroom behaviour 2 will be covered, so that teachers from different areas of schooling will ﬁnd topics of particular relevance to their needs.Behaviour management andeffective teaching and learning 3 Research DigestStyles of behaviourmanagement 4What works and whatdoesn’t work 8Restorative justice practices 9 An approach This edition of the Research The ﬁrst section presentsBehaviour management: an Digest summarises some key some insights from researchissue that affects all teachers 12 to behaviour research studies that suggest about the importance ofComment 13 management that answers to questions such as: behaviour managementUseful websites 13 works most of How important is behaviour in effective teaching and management in effective learning. This is followedReferences 14 the time, for most teaching and learning? Does by a discussion of some teachers, will good behaviour management styles of effective behaviour lead to improved learning management. A further improve the learning outcomes for students? section is focused on some climate of any Throughout the digest studies of contextual factors school. there are descriptions in students’ behaviour, and of approaches that have is followed by an account of practical application in recent research about theThe Australian Council for classroom practice. impact of the set of practicesEducational Research was known as restorative justicecommissioned to prepare this This research digest is based practices. The ﬁnal sectionseries of electronic research on searches of a number of draws on the relationshipdigests. databases and bibliographic between behaviourThis issue has been prepared resources, including theby Jenny Wilkinson, Research management and teacher Australian Education Index,Fellow, Marion Meiers, Senior retention. Practical, research-Research Fellow and Pat Knight, ERIC, Education Research based classroom strategiesSenior Librarian, Cunningham Complete, British Education are highlighted. Some usefulLibrary, ACER. Index and Scopus. websites are listed, and a full reference list is provided.The Digest is available by email toTasmanian registered teachers in PDFformat and on the TRB website at:www.trb. tas. gov.au
2. Managing classroom2 behaviour Approaches to behaviour latter being more effective management in schools have, in improved social and to a large extent, reﬂected academic outcomes for general societal changes. An students. overview of the history of This edition of the Research behaviour management in Digest draws on recent classrooms traces a range of research evidence to answer approaches, often negative, questions such as: from corporal punishment How important is and dunce caps, to the behaviour management work of the behavioural in effective teaching and theorists of the twentieth learning? A clear distinction is drawn between ‘authoritarian’ and ‘authoritative’ classroom management styles, with the latter being more effective in improving social and academic outcomes for students. century. The work of these How do we deﬁne good theorists still inﬂuences much behaviour management? contemporary thinking. Does good behaviour A major general trend management lead to apparent today in the ﬁeld improved learning of behaviour management outcomes for students? studies is an emphasis on Does classroom behaviour the avoidance of coercive management need to be styles of behaviour part of a whole school management. The adoption behaviour management of non-coercive management plan? styles does not mean that What is the role of the the teacher is no longer school leadership? ‘in charge’. Throughout What works and what the literature, there is a doesn’t work? clear distinction drawn Is behaviour management between ‘authoritarian’ and an issue that affects the ‘authoritative’ classroom retention of teachers in management styles, with the the profession?
3. Behaviour management and effective teaching and learning 3 For many teachers and they regularly experience. Hattie found that expert school leaders in the past, Hattie’s research about the teachers showed high respect a quiet and disciplined impact of key inﬂuences for students. classroom was the hallmark on the variance in student The manner used by the of effective teaching. By achievement indicates that teacher to treat the students, contrast, it is now recognised it is excellence in teachers respect them as learners and that behaviour management that makes the greatest people, and demonstrate care skills in themselves are a difference. He investigated and commitment for them are necessary but not sufﬁcient the differences between attributes of expert teachers. condition for creating expert, accomplished and By having such respect, they an effective learning experienced teachers (Hattie, can recognize possible barriers environment. These skills 2003). to learning and can seek ways are one element in a skilled Some of Hattie’s ﬁndings are to overcome these barriers …. teacher’s repertoire of particularly interesting in the The picture drawn of experts is practice. context of classroom and one of involvement and caring There is no doubt that behaviour management. He for the students, a willingness well-ordered classrooms and found that expert teachers to be receptive to what the schools facilitate effective have deeper representations students need, not attempting teaching and that good about teaching and learning to dominate the situation and because of these deeper (Hattie, 2003). representations can be In a meta-analysis of more The manner used by the teacher to treat the much more responsive to than 100 studies Marzano,students, respect them as learners and people, students. In discussing how Marzano and Picketing expert teachers [guide] (2003b) found that the and demonstrate care and commitment for learning though classroom quality of teacher-student them are attributes of expert teachers. interaction, he described relationships is the keystone for how expert teachers have a all other aspects of classroom multidimensionally complex management. They described behaviour management skills perception of classroom effective teacher-student are necessary for teachers situations. In comparing relationships as having to perform the core task of expert teachers with improving student learning nothing to do with the experienced and novice outcomes. Behaviour teacher’s personality or even teachers, he noted that management is a crucial whether the students view the skill for both beginning and Expert teachers are more teacher as a friend. Rather, the experienced teachers. effective scanners of classroom most effective teacher-student Research has consistently behaviour, make greater relationships are characterized demonstrated the reference to the language of by speciﬁc teacher behaviors: importance of teachers and instruction and learning of exhibiting appropriate levels the quality of their teaching students, whereas experienced of dominance; exhibiting in the lives of children. For teachers concentrate more on appropriate levels of many young people, school what the teacher is saying and cooperation; and being may be the only stable and doing to the class and novices aware of high-needs students predictable environment concentrate more on student (Marzano & Marzano, behaviour (Hattie, 2003). 2003).
4. Styles of behaviour management4 Dominance is deﬁned as the teacher’s ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both academics in a number of studies discussed by and student behavior. This contrasts with the more negative Marzano and Marzano as an important connotation of the term dominance as forceful control or characteristic of effective teacher-student command over others (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). relationships (Wubbels et al., 1999; Marzano and Marzano note that other studies indicate that Wubbels & Levy, 1993). when asked about their preferences for teacher behavior, students typically express a desire for this type of teacher-student interaction. For example, in a study that involved interviews with more than 700 students in grades 4-7, students articulated a clear preference for strong teacher guidance and control rather than more permissive types of teacher behavior (Chiu & Tulley). Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing clear behavior expectations and learning goals and by exhibiting assertive behavior (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). Most teachers have ‘high needs’ students in their classrooms and all teachers know how difﬁcult it can be to balance the needs of these students against the collective needs of the class. Marzano and Marzano note that school may be the only place where the needs of many students who face extreme challenges are addressed. The reality of schools often demands that classroom teachers address these severe issues, even though this task is not always considered a part of their regular job. Marzano and Marzano describe ﬁve categories of high- needs students: passive, aggressive, attention problems, perfectionist and socially inept. They further divide the category of aggressive students into three sub-categories: hostile, oppositional and covert. They found that the most effective classroom managers did not treat all students the same; they tended to employ different strategies with different types of students. In contrast, ineffective classroom managers did not appear sensitive to the diverse needs of students. … An awareness of the ﬁve general categories of high-needs students
5. 5and appropriate actions for each can help teachers build strongrelationships with diverse students.Effective teaching and learning requires more than an orderlyclassroom. Traynor, in a review of the literature, identiﬁed ﬁvestrategies used by teachers in classroom management:1. coercive2. laissez-faire3. task oriented4. authoritative5. intrinsic (Traynor, 2002).Traynor investigated the pedagogical soundness of the ﬁveclassroom order strategies drawn from the literature, using twocriteria:1. Teaching and learning must result in the development or practice of a desired learning skill.2. Teaching and learning must contribute to the maintenance or development of a student’s emotional well-being.This small study, conducted in two middle school classrooms,found that the authoritative and intrinsic strategies werepedagogically sound and to be recommended (Traynor, 2002).Two of these ﬁve approaches appear to be more effectivethan the other three: authoritative and intrinsic. Using theauthoritative strategy, the teacher manages student behavior byenforcing a speciﬁc and reasonable set of classroom rules (Collette& Chiapetta, 1989 as cited by Traynor, 2002). When middle school students were askedTraynor notes that the goal of the intrinsic strategy for classroom to deﬁne caring teachers, they made clearorder is to increase student control over himself/herself. … ﬁrm,fair and sensitive policies are the key components in establishing distinctions between the characteristics ofand maintaining school discipline (Gaddy & Kelly, 1984 as cited in teachers who care and those who do not.Traynor, 2002).In a seminal paper Lewis, Romi, Qui and Katz (2005) addressedquestions of teachers’ classroom discipline and studentmisbehaviour through students’ perceptions in three different Involvement in decision-making (the extent to whichcountries: Australia, China and Israel. Over 700 teachers teachers tried to include students in decisions relating toand more than 5000 secondary students were involved in discipline)this study. The study compared students’ perceptions of the Discussion (provides for the voice of the individual student)extent to which different discipline strategies were used, and Hintinginvestigated the relationship between student misbehaviour Aggression.and classroom discipline in each national setting. Variousstrategies were examined: Punishment was ranked as the most commonly used strategy Punishment in Australia, the fourth most commonly used strategy in Israel Recognition/rewarding and the ﬁfth most commonly used strategy in China.
6. Styles of behaviour management6 The broad pattern of results indicates that teachers sampled from China appeared more inclusive and supportive of students’ voices when it comes to classroom discipline and are less authoritarian (punitive and aggressive) than those in Israel or Australia… the Australian classrooms are perceived as having least discussion and recognition and most punishment. (Lewis et al., 2005) Lewis points out that cultural factors may have some inﬂuence on these perceptions. This study refers to two previous publications – Hyman and Snook’s Dangerous Schools and What You Can Do About Them (2000), and Lewis’s Classroom Discipline and Student Responsibility: The Students’ View (2001). Both publications indicate the potential negative impact of some classroom management/discipline strategies. Hyman and Snook conjecture that: Unnecessarily harsh and punitive disciplinary practices against students create a climate that contributes to school violence. This issue is little recognized and scarcely researched (Hyman & Snook, There is sometimes a feeling in schools that a 2000 as cited in Lewis, 2001) choice has to be made between concentrating Lewis’s 2001 publication is a report of the perceptions of over on pupil welfare - responsiveness – and a focus 3,500 Australian school students. This study on learning and achievement – demandingness. demonstrates empirically that in the view of these students, Lessons drawn from the literature on parenting their teachers are characterized by two distinct discipline styles. style would suggest that the best outcomes are The ﬁrst of these was called “coercive” discipline and comprised Punishment and Aggression (yelling in anger, sarcasm, group achieved where both are the focus of school punishments, etc.). The second style, comprising Discussion, Hints, policy and procedures (Scott & Dinham, 2005). Recognition, Involvement and Punishment, was called “Relationship based discipline” (Lewis, 2001 as cited in Lewis et al., 2005). The 2001 Lewis report concluded that: Students who receive more Relationship based discipline are less disrupted when teachers deal with their misbehavior and generally extensive observations of parents and children (Baumrind, 1971, act more responsibly in that teacher’s class. In contrast, the impact 1991). Baumrind concluded that four dimensions of parent-child of Coercive discipline appears to be more student distraction from interactions could reliably predict children’s social, emotional, and work and less responsibility (Lewis, 2001 as cited in Lewis et al., cognitive competence. Control reﬂects consistent enforcement of 2005). rules, provision of structure to children’s activities, and persistence Researchers have discussed effective parenting as a model in gaining child compliance. Maturity demands reﬂect expectations for teacher inﬂuence. Wentzel (2003) takes an “ecological perspective” to understand how a caring classroom to perform up to one’s potential, and demands for self-reliance environment is created and the importance of contextual and self-control. Clarity of communication reﬂects the extent to factors in students’ behaviour. This work drew on which parents solicit children’s opinions and feelings, and use
7. 7reasoning to obtain compliance. Nurturance reﬂects parental also tend to pursue appropriate social and academic classroomexpressions of warmth and approval as well as conscientious goals more frequently than students who do not (Wentzel, 2003).protection of children’s physical and emotional well-being (Wentzel, Scott and Dinham (2005) have explored models of good2003). teaching through what research has shown about goodWentzel identiﬁed a number of theoretical models developed parenting. They note that different styles of parenting haveto explain how teachers promote positive student behaviour, been the subject of extensive research, beginning withwhich are quite similar to family socialisation models: Baumrind’s 1991 description of two dimensions of parenting styles: responsiveness and demandingness.For example, Noddings (1992) suggested that four aspects ofteacher behaviour are critical for understanding the establishment Responsiveness, also described as warmth of supportiveness,of an ethic of classroom caring: (a) modeling caring relationships is deﬁned by Diana Baumrind as ‘the extent to which parentswith others, (b) establishing dialogues characterized by a search for individually foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertioncommon understanding, (c) providing conﬁrmation to students that by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s specialtheir behavior is perceived and interpreted in a positive light, and needs and demands’ (Baumrind, 1991). Parental demandingness(d) providing practice and opportunities for students to care for (also referred to as behavioural control) refers to the claimsothers. Noddings’ notions of dialogue and conﬁrmation correspond parents make on their children to become integrated intoclosely with Baumrind’s parenting dimensions of democratic the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision,communication styles and maturity demands (Noddings, 1992, as disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child whocited in Wentzel, 2003). disobeys (Scott & Dinham, 2005).Wentzel noted that when middle school students were asked Scott and Dinham note thatto deﬁne caring teachers, they made clear distinctions betweenthe characteristics of teachers who care and those who do not what is of interest and importance to teachers is the place of(Wentzel, 1997; Wentzel, 2003): self-esteem in this model of outcomes. Self-esteem is commonly regarded as the cause of other desirable outcomes. However,Speciﬁcally, students tend to describe caring teachers as those who the comparison between permissive and authoritarian parentsdemonstrate democratic and egalitarian communication styles suggests that self-esteem is not the cause of anything, rather it isdesigned to elicit student participation and input, who develop the consequence of having warm and responsive parents … andexpectations for student behavior and performance in light of presumably teachers (Scott & Dinham, 2005).individual differences and abilities, who model a “caring” attitude There is sometimes a feeling in schools that a choice has to beand interest in their instruction and interpersonal dealings with made between concentrating on pupil welfare - responsivenessstudents, and who provide constructive rather than harsh and – and a focus on learning and achievement – demandingness.critical feedback. … Lessons drawn from the literature on parenting style would suggestSubsequent work has demonstrated that students who perceive that the best outcomes are achieved where both are the focus oftheir teachers to display high levels of these caring characteristics school policy and procedures (Scott & Dinham, 2005)
8. and what doesn’t work8 What works There are many theoretical models and practical strategies Common classroom mistakes What to do instead in the area of classroom behaviour management. What Mistake No. 1 Deﬁning misbehavior 1. Deﬁne misbehavior by its by how it looks function works and what doesn’t work depends on a range of factors Mistake No. 2 Asking: Why did you 2. Assess the behavior directly to including school context and policies, professional collegiality, do that? determine its function Mistake No. 3 When an approach 3. Try another way and the skills and strategies of individual teachers. In Learning isn’t working, try harder to Discipline, Metzger, for example, discusses a number of Mistake No. 4 Violating the 4. Follow the guidelines for techniques and strategies developed over many years’ teaching. principles of good classroom rules classroom rules Mistake No. 5 Treating all 5. Treat some behaviors as Can’t- Metzger is a practising secondary teacher, a co-director of misbehaviors as “Won’t do’s” do’s a mentoring program at her school and a co-teacher of a Mistake No. 6 Lack of planning for 6. Appropriately plan for transition transition time time methods course at Harvard University. She describes her Mistake No. 7 Ignoring all or nothing 7. Ignore wisely struggles as a beginning teacher to control her classes and at all how, even today, she can overreact when tired or frazzled, when Mistake No. 8 Overuse and misuse 8. Follow the principles of effective of time out time-out I don’t know the students, or when I’m just tired of adolescents Mistake No. 9 Inconsistent 9. Have clear expectations that (Metzger, 2002). expectations and consequences are enforced and reinforced constantly Metzger recalls the ‘anchoring principles’ she used in her early Mistake No. 10 Viewing ourselves as 10. Include students, parents and the only classroom manager others in management efforts years of teaching, both ‘simple’ and ‘more complex’. She lists the Mistake No. 11 Missing the link 11. Use academic instruction as a following simple and complex principles of survival: between instruction and behavior behavior management tool Mistake No. 12 Taking student 12. Take student misbehavior behavior too personally professionally, not personally Simple Complex Source: (Barbetta et al., 2005) 1. Don’t escalate. De-escalate 1. Ask questions 2. Let students save face 2. Give adult feedback 3. Insist on the right to sanity 3. Respect the rights of the whole Mistake No. 11, missing the link between instruction and class. 4. Get help 4. Ask the students to do more behavior, focuses on the importance of appropriate instruction. 5. Get out of the limelight – or the 5. Remember which rules are line of ﬁre important At times there is a direct link between our lessons and student 6. Bypass or solve the perennial misbehavior. Perhaps our lesson is too easy or difﬁcult, ineffective, problems Source: (Metzger, 2002) or nonstimulating, which can lead to student misbehavior (Center, Deitz & Kaufman, 1982 as cited in Barbetta et al., 2005). Metzger elaborates on each of these principles. She reﬂects, To counter this, Barbetta et al recommend using academic for instance, on one of these principles, the principle of ‘de- instruction as a behaviour management tool: escalation’: The ﬁrst line of defense in managing student behavior is effective Don’t escalate, de-escalate. Teachers, like parents, need to use a instruction. Good teachers have always known this and research light touch. Let go of some infractions. Whisper instead of yell. Use supports this notion (Evertson & Harris, 1992). In 1991 Jones humour. Change locations. Divide and conquer. Talk to students found that when teachers demystify learning, achievement and privately. Make a tiny hand movement. Call kids by name. Smile a lot. Listen. Listen. Listen (Metzger, 2002). behavior improve dramatically (Jones, 1991). Examples of how to demystify learning include students establishing their learning Other researchers (Barbetta, Norona, & Bicard, 2005) offer a practical application of school-based research in the area goals, students monitoring their own learning, involving students in of behaviour management and describe twelve common developing classroom rules and procedures, and relating lessons to classroom mistakes and what to do instead: students’ own lives and interests (Barbetta et al., 2005).
9. Restorative justice practices 9 Restorative In schools, restorative justice In Restorative Justice: The in a number of Australian practices hold students Calm After the Storm, Lyn schools. The agency practices offer responsible to the person Harrison discusses restorative recommends a whole school an alternative they have harmed rather practices: approach for maximum student behaviour than to the ‘authorities’. While Restorative justice is a impact, based on the management students are accountable for philosophy and a set of following six principles: their behaviour, the focus is 1. Focus on the relationship approach. practices that embrace on repairing the damage they and how people are the right blend between a caused to other members of affected. high degree of discipline, the school community and 2. Restore damaged which encompasses clear on restoring relationships. relationships. expectations, limits and Restorative practices can be 3. Talk about the behaviour consequences, and a high without blaming or a whole school behaviour degree of support and becoming personal. management approach or nurturance. Steinberg (2001) 4. See mistakes and an approach practised by suggests that this blend tends misbehaviour as an individual teachers in their to correlate with the best opportunity for learning. classrooms. psychological and behavioural 5. Accept that sometimes we outcomes for children … The philosophy of restorative cannot get to the ultimate Restorative justice programs in processes was outlined in truth. schools aim to develop: Class: A Journal for School 6. Be future-focused and talk communities that value Communities as follows: about how to make things the building of quality right (Harrison, 2006b). If we were to examine our relationships, coupled with school disciplinary systems, clear expectations and Each principle and its most would be retributive or limits; application in school settings adversarial. These systems ask restorative skills, in the way is outlined in terms of daily three basic questions: we interact with young interactions and a whole What rules were broken? people, and using teachable school community (students, Who broke them? moments to enhance teachers and parents) How shall we punish the learning; commitment to collaborative breaker of the rules? restorative processes that problem solving. Principles resolve conﬂict and repair 1 and 3, for instance, are Restorative processes ask: damaged relationships; and, elaborated as follows: Who’s been hurt? communities that are Principle 1 What are their needs? forward-looking, optimistic In a traditional school, the How can we repair the and inclusive (Harrison, focus is on rules and rule- harm? 2006b). breaking, with punishment as The focus shifts to the harm, During the last ﬁve years, the primary intervention. In a who is responsible and how we the Sydney based not-for- restorative school, the focus can work together to repair the proﬁt welfare agency, Marist in on relationships and how damage to relationships (Circle Youth Care, has developed people are affected. A common Speak, 2002). restorative justice programs feature in most students with
10. Restorative justice10 practices behavioural difﬁculties is that react aggressively and argue world. In Australia they How does it work in they have an underdeveloped back. In either of these two were introduced in a formal schools? sense of ‘other. There is little classic responses, the student sense in the 1990s in Wagga Procedures for the appreciation that another is distracted from any sense Wagga, New South Wales application of restorative human being is at the receiving of ‘other’. In a restorative with the aim of keeping justice practices are usually end of their misbehaviour. A key conversation, the teacher is young offenders away from standardised. A number of focus of this work is to develop absolutely clear about the the courts and the custodial schools have adopted whole in students a greater empathy inappropriateness of the system. Restorative justice school restorative practices for others or what is referred to behaviour and the effect approaches. For example, one holds offenders accountable as ‘relational thinking’. that this behaviour has on secondary college employs for their actions but allows others – but this conversation affective questions adapted Principle 3 them to redress wrongs, to is respectful and engaging from the Marist Youth Care’s Talk about the behaviour restore relationships and to Restorative Justice Program. (Harrison, 2006b). be re-integrated into the without blaming or being These are: personal. The common Restorative justice practices community. The emphasis is What happened? responses from students when have historically been on repairing damage rather How did it happen? you scold or lecture them used in many Indigenous than punishing, shaming or How did you act in this are either to shut down or communities across the isolating the offender. situation?
11. 11 Who do you think was affected? How were you affected? What needs to happen to make things right? If the same situation happens again, how could you behave?If, for instance, somethinghappens in the classroom, we content, things have changed. by twenty-one percent, Many teachers assume thatget the students to see that At the surface level, there has detentions fell by thirty-four a student with challengingtheir behaviour doesn’t just been an increased amount percent and out of school behaviours is best seatedaffect them, but it also has an of work being produced by suspensions fell by forty- close to them to maximiseimpact on the teacher and on students, and relational slips for two per cent. Feedback has supervision. This can bethe learning of the whole class. being sent out of the classroom indicated growing support counterproductive since theThat’s one of the beneﬁts of have decreased signiﬁcantly in the school community for authority ﬁgure close by canthis approach – students begin (Grade 5/6 teacher). restorative practices. escalate oppositional behaviourto see how others are affected Individual teachers using (Hewitt, 1999). Some teachers Do restorative justiceand accept responsibility for practices work in schools? restorative practices in ask the student to nominatethat (Rosanne Clough, Principal their classrooms may also a positive peer to sit with, It is often difﬁcult toDonremy College). note changes in behaviour and that peer student then attribute changes in schoolIntroducing these questions and classroom climate. The indicates to the student when communities to a particularcan help to develop a Inquiry into Restorative they observe off-task or initiative because of thecommon language and Justice Principles in Youth escalating behaviour. When necessarily longitudinalapproaches to be used in Settings (Standing Committee approaching a particularly nature of much educational on Education Training and agitated student, it’s best notdealing with inappropriate research. However, there Young People, ACT 2006)behaviour in everyday school is considerable evidence to do so from the front, which cites the example of asituations, rather than simply that restorative justice is confrontational, but from the recently graduated teacherchallenging that behaviour practices can have an effect side (Harrison, 2006a). of a Year 2/3 class who(Australian Government in changing school climates had undertaken a short Restorative practices canQuality Teacher Programme, and in direct change, such as restorative practices training: operate effectively with2005). a reduction in the number of In the classroom now, it is other approaches to suspensions and exclusions.One cluster of ﬁve schools so much easier. I am feeling classroom management. Paul Harney (2005), forestablished an Emotional more empowered to deal with While restorative practices instance, presents bothLiteracy project and used things” (Standing Committee are based on an agreed set quantitative and qualitativerestorative practices (Fould, on Education Training and of principles and processes, evidence from a study of2006). Teachers involved in Young People, ACT 2006). other behaviour management the effects of restorativethis project commented on models and applications are justice practices in three In Managing Students withthe impact of the change: in keeping with the spirit Catholic secondary colleges Challenging Behaviours, LynAfter several weeks of in Sydney. Over eighteen Harrison discusses various and philosophy of theseimplementing the values months, absenteeism fell de-escalating interventions: practices.
12. Behaviour management: teachers an issue that affects all12 Behaviour management is an (2004), discuss the variety it also includes coming to teachers working in isolation issue that affects all teachers. of attractions to teaching terms with and learning to and without collegial support. Research indicates that careers: handle the variety of emotional While challenging behaviours factors related to behaviour Consistently, the most fulﬁlling and social support roles for amongst students - notably management play a role in aspects of teaching are students, which have become uncooperative and abusive the decision of many early the learning achievements an increasing expectation of behaviour from students as career, and other teachers of students, down to single teachers over recent years, and young as in the ﬁrst years of to leave the profession. individuals, for whom teachers teachers’ broader participation primary school – were talked Issues related to behaviour have responsibility – the light in school life… New teachers about by most teachers, it management are particularly of understanding coming into frequently expressed appeared to be much less of a important in the ﬁrst years students’ eyes; new, more uncertainty over classroom problem for teachers in those of teachers’ careers. The socially responsible patterns management skills, particularly schools where a consistent, daily experiences and reality of behaviour demonstrated in relation to meeting the school-wide behaviour of the classroom may be and so on (Skilbeck & Connell, widely varied individual learning programme operated, and quite different from the 2004). needs of students in the teachers felt they had support expectations of beginning inclusive classroom (Skilbeck & from both colleagues and However, the same report teachers. also notes some of the major Connell, 2004). school management (Skilbeck A recent MCEETYA difﬁculties and frustrations of Research has shown clearly & Connell, 2004). (Ministerial Council for a teaching career: that professional collegiality While it is desirable for Education, Employment Common to most teachers in and deprivatisation of classroom behaviour Training and Youth Affairs) their early years are workload practice are major factors management to be part of report focussed on teachers and classroom management in effective teaching and a whole school behaviour in their ﬁrst ten years of challenges, often presented as learning. Effective and management plan, there is employment in government, severe. While workload issues supportive leadership is a much that teachers can do Catholic and independent includes the sheer amount of major part of this picture. individually within their own schools in four Australian time and effort required for A whole school approach classrooms to create an states. The authors of the lesson planning, preparation, to behaviour management appropriate atmosphere to report, Skilbeck and Connell evaluation and documentation, will be more effective than carry out their core tasks.
13. comment 13There is no one-size-ﬁts-all solution to remove problemsrelated to behaviour management from classrooms. Differentapproaches work in different situations. No behaviour USEFUL WEBSITESmanagement plan will work with all children all the time. http://www.education-world.comHowever, an approach that works most of the time, for mostteachers, will improve the learning climate of any school. This website covers a range of educational issues,Whatever the plan or approach, the emphasis throughout including approaches to behaviour management. Thethe research literature is on building positive relationships site is funded by corporate advertisers and is free forwith students and on adopting authoritative as opposed to all visitors.authoritarian teaching styles.Haim Ginott (1922-1973) was a clinical psychologist, child http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/therapist and parent educator who worked with children,parents and teachers. His work focussed on a combination of The UK Government’s Teachernet provides some usefulcompassion and boundary setting. In 1972, Ginott described resources and links to other interesting sites.the classroom teachers’ position in terms of their importanceand inﬂuence in the lives of children:I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive How to cite this Digest:element in the classroom. It’s my personal approach that createsthe climate. It’s my daily mood that makes the weather. As a Wilkinson, J. & Meiers, M. (2007). Managing studentteacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life behaviour in the classroom. NSWIT Research Digest,miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of 2007(2). Retrieved Month DD, YEAR, frominspiration. I can humiliate or humour, hurt or heal. In all situations, http://www.nswteachers.nsw.edu.auit is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalatedor de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized (Ginott,1972).
14. 14 REFERENCES Australian Government Quality Teacher http://ctdownsyndrome.org/images/ Standing Committee on Education Training Programme. (2005). Impact, stories/newsletters/newsletter_ and Young People. (2006). Inquiry into responsibility, redress: using restorative fall_2006.pdf (retrieved November restorative justice principles in youth justice to manage behaviour. AGQTP 23, 2007). settings - Interim report. Canberra: Newsletter. Jones, V. (1991). Experienced teachers Legislative Assembly for the ACT. Barbetta, P. M., Norona, K. L., & Bicard, assessment of classroom management http://www.parliament.act.gov.au/ skills presented in a summer course. downloads/reports/03RJInterimReport. D. F. (2005). Classroom behavior Journal of Instructional Psychology, 18, pdf (retrieved November 23 2007) management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. 103-109. Traynor, P. L. (2002). A scientiﬁc evaluation Preventing School Failure, 49(3), 11-19. Lewis, R., Romi, S., Qui, X., & Katz, Y. J. of ﬁve different strategies teachers use (2005). Teachers’ classroom discipline to maintain order. Education, 122(3), Circle Speak. (2002). Making a difference: and student misbehavior in Australia, 493. http://ﬁndarticles.com/p/articles/ Restorative practices in the China and Israel. Teaching & Teacher mi_qa3673/is_200204/ai_n9033761/ educational setting. Class: A Journal for Education, 21(6), 729-741. Reprint pg_1 (retrieved November 23, 2007). School Communities, 1(1), 9. available from http://www.latrobe. Wentzel, K. R. (1997). Student motivation Evertson, C., & Harris, A. (1992). Synthesis edu.au/education/downloads/papers/ in middle school: The role of of research: What we know about RLewis_ClassroomDiscipline_ perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of managing classrooms. Educational AustraliaChinaIsrael.pdf (retrieved Educational Psychology, 89, 311-419. Leadership, 49, 74-78. November 23, 2007). Wentzel, K. R. (2003). Motivating students Fould, K. (2006). Calwell Cluster Marzano, R. J., & Marzano, J. S. (2003). to behave in socially competent Emotional Literacy Project. Curriculum The key to classroom management. ways. Theory Into Practice, 42(4), 319. Perspectives, 26(2), 20-25. Educational Leadership, 61(1), 6-13. http://ﬁndarticles.com/p/articles/ Ginott, H. G. (1972). Teacher and child: A Reprint available from http://bonﬁre. mi_m0NQM/is_4_42/ai_111506829 book for parents and teachers. New learnnc.org/ncmtec1/DPI_NCsite/ (retrieved November 23, 2007). York: Macmillan. Lessons%20ﬁles/Key%20to%20 Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., van Tartwijk, Classroom%20Management.pdf Harney, P. (2005). Restorative Justice. J., & Admiral, W. (1999). Interpersonal (retrieved November 23, 2007). Professional Educator, 4(3), 14-17. relationships between teachers and Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Picketing, D. students in the classroom. In H. C. Harrison, L. (2006a). Managing students J. (2003b). Classroom management that Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), New with challenging behaviours. works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Professional Educator, 5(2), 10-13. Directions for Teaching Practice and Metzger, M. (2002). Learning to discipline. Research (pp. 151-170). Berkeley, Harrison, L. (2006b). Restorative justice: Phi Delta Kappan, 84(1), 77-84. California: McCutchan. The calm after the storm. Leadership http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/ Wubbels, T., & Levy, J. (1993). Do you in Focus, 9-11. k0209met.htm (retrieved November know what you look like? Interpersonal Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers make a 23, 2007). relationships in education. London: difference: What is the research Scott, C., & Dinham, S. (2005). Parenting, Falmer Press. evidence? Interpretations, 36(2), teaching and self esteem. The Australian 27-38. Retrieved November 23, Educational Leader, 27(1), 28-30. 2007 from http://www.acer.edu. Further reading: Skilbeck, M., & Connell, H. (2004). au/documents/RC2003_Hattie_ A useful current reference providing Teachers for the future: The changing TeachersMakeADifference.pdf extensive coverage of research in the area nature of society and related issues Hewitt, B. (1999). The control game: for the teaching workforce. Canberra: of behaviour management is: Exploring oppositional behaviour. Ministerial Council for Education, Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). Reclaiming children and youth. Journal Employment Training and Youth Affairs. (2006). Handbook of Classroom of Emotional and Behavioural Problems, http://www.mceetya.edu.au/verve/_ Management: Research, Practice and 8(1), 30-33. Reprinted in Connecticut resources/teachersforthefuture_ﬁle. Contemporary Issues. Mahwah, New Down Syndrome Congress Quarterly pdf (retrieved November 23, 2007) Jersey: Erlbaum.