Function Based Supports jul 1 2011

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George Sugai presentation for SPA July 1 2011

George Sugai presentation for SPA July 1 2011

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  • Shcool…..sloppy implementationIrrelevant practice50/167…..even prompting desired occasions rule violating behavior
  • NOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”
  • NOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”
  • NOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Baker, 2005 JPBI
  • Research to Practice is dependent on good research.

Transcript

  • 1. Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut May 11 2011www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org George.sugai@uconn.edu
  • 2. Basics Review
  • 3. BasicsBicycling • Keep max. air pressureCooking • Keep knife sharpBilliards • Keep cue level & follow through • Describe mechanism of appliedResearch problems • Multi-tiered prevention PBIS framework
  • 4. Implementation Challenges
  • 5. SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) isFramework for enhancing adoption & implementation of Continuum of evidence- based interventions to achieve Academically & behaviorally important outcomes for All students
  • 6. Integrated Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Supporting Decision Staff Behavior Making PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
  • 7. Tertiary Prevention: CONTINUUM OF Specialized SCHOOL-WIDE Individualized INSTRUCTIONAL & FEW Systems for StudentsPOSITIVE BEHAVIOR with High-Risk Behavior SUPPORT Secondary Prevention: SOME Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ALL
  • 8. Prevention Logic for All Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996 Prevent Decrease worsening & Eliminate Teach,development reduce triggers & monitor, & of new intensity of maintainers of acknowledge problem existing problem prosocial behaviors problem behaviors behavior behaviors Redesign of teaching environments…not students
  • 9. Continuum of Few Support for ALL Some AllDec 7, 2007
  • 10. Continuum of Math Intensive Support for ALL Science “Theora” Targeted Spanish Reading Soc skillsUniversal Soc Studies Basketball Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
  • 11. Continuum of Anger man. Intensive Support for Prob Sol. ALL: Targeted “Molcom” Ind. play Adult rel. Self-assess Attend.Universal Coop play Peer interac Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
  • 12. IMPLEMENTATION W/ FIDELITY CONTINUUM OF CONTINUOUS EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRESS INTERVENTIONS MONITORINGUNIVERSAL PBIS CONTENT EXPERTISE &SCREENING & RtI DATA-BASED FLUENCY DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM TEAM-BASED SOLVING IMPLEMENTATION
  • 13. Responsiveness to Intervention Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Intensive, Individual Interventions •Individual Students 1-5% 1-5% •Individual Students •Assessment-based •Assessment-based •High Intensity •Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions •Some students (at-risk) •Some students (at-risk) •High efficiency •High efficiency •Rapid response •Rapid responseUniversal Interventions 80-90% 80-90% Universal Interventions •All students •All settings, all students•Preventive, proactive •Preventive, proactive Circa 1996
  • 14. SWPBS Practices ClassroomNon-classroom Family • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Student
  • 15. SCHOOL-WIDE CLASSROOM1.1. Leadership team 1.All school-wide2.Behavior purpose statement 2.Maximum structure & predictability in routines &3.Set of positive expectations & behaviors EVIDENCE- environment4.Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide BASED 3.Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. expected behavior5.Continuum of procedures for encouraging INTERVENTION 4.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- expected behavior PRACTICES based instructional curriculum & practices 5.Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays6.Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule of appropriate behavior. violations 6.Continuum of strategies for responding to7.Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & inappropriate behavior. evaluation INDIVIDUAL STUDENT FAMILY ENGAGEMENT1.Behavioral competence at school & district levels NONCLASSROOM 1.Continuum of positive behavior support for all2.Function-based behavior support planning 1.Positive expectations & routines families3.Team- & data-based decision making taught & encouraged 2.Frequent, regular positive contacts,4.Comprehensive person-centered planning & 2.Active supervision by all staff (Scan, communications, & acknowledgementswraparound processes move, interact) 3.Formal & active participation & involvement as5.Targeted social skills & self-management 3.Precorrections & reminders equal partnerinstruction 4.Positive reinforcement 4.Access to system of integrated school &6. Individualized instructional & curricular community resourcesaccommodations
  • 16. School-wide1. Leadership team2. Behavior purpose statement3. Set of positive expectations & behaviors4. Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior5. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior6. Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations7. Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring& evaluation
  • 17. SETTING Teaching Library/ Matrix All Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria Compute Assembly Bus Settings r Lab Be on task. Eat all your Give your food. Study, Respect Sit in one Watch for best effort. Walk. Have a plan. Select read, Ourselves spot. your stop. Be healthy compute. prepared. foods.Expectations Be kind. Use normal Play safe. Hands/feet Listen/watch. Use a quiet voice Include Practice Whisper. Respect to self. Use voice. volume. others. good table Return Others Help/share appropriate Stay in your Walk to Share manners books. with applause. seat. right. equipment. others. Pick up Use Replace Push in Wipe your Recycle. litter. equipment trays & chairs. Pick up. Respect feet. Clean up Maintain properly. utensils. Treat Treat chairs Property Sit after self. physical Put litter in Clean up books appropriately. appropriately. space. garbage can. eating area. carefully.
  • 18. Teaching Academics & Behaviors ADJUST for DEFINE Efficiency Simply MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE MODEL Continuously PRACTICE In Setting
  • 19. Road signs can be effective; however, when used incorrectly,….
  • 20. Dean FixsenKaren Blase UNC
  • 21. “Making a IMPLEMENTATION turn” Effective Not Effective Maximum Effective StudentPRACTICE Benefits Not Effective Fixsen & Blase, 2009
  • 22. Start w/ What Works Focus on FidelityDetrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
  • 23. Evaluation CriteriaEffective • Desired Outcomes?Efficient • Doable?Relevant • Contextual & Cultural?Durable • Lasting?Scalable • Transportable?
  • 24. Political Funding Visibility Policy Support SWPBSImplementation LEADERSHIP TEAM Blueprint (Coordination) www.pbis.org Behavioral Training Coaching Evaluation Expertise Local School/District Implementation Demonstrations
  • 25. 12.4 - Mean Percentage Students (2009-10) (Majors Only) Mean % Students 2009-2010 Majors Only Students 6+ Students 2 to 5 Students 0 or 1100% 90% 9% 19% 24% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 91% 81% 76% 10% 0% Pre-K K-6 6-9 9-12 K8-12 N = 2565 713 266 474
  • 26. Students 6+12.5 - Mean Percentage ODRs (2009-10) (Majors Only) Mean % ODRs 2009-2010 Majors Only Students 2 to 5 Students 0 or 1 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 74% 82% 84% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Pre-K K-6 6-9 9-12 K8-12 Students: 9% 19% 24% 18%
  • 27. 10.2 - Problem Behavior: K-6 K-6 Problem Behavior ODR25%20%15% % Group ODRs Mean % ODRs10%5%0%
  • 28. 10.3 - Problem Behavior: 6-9 6-9 Problem Behavior ODR25%20%15% % Group ODRs Mean % ODRs10%5%0%
  • 29. 10.4 - Problem Behavior: 9-12 9-12 Problem Behavior ODR25%20%15% % Group ODRs Mean % ODRs10%5%0%
  • 30. Bethel School District Office Discipline Referrals 2001-2008 1000 900 800 700Number of Referrals 600 2001-02 2002-03 500 2003-04 2004-05 400 2005-06 2006-07 300 2007-08 200 100 0 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade Level
  • 31. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION •Function-based support •Wraparound ~5% •Person-centered planning ~15% SECONDARY PREVENTION SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club PRIMARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION •Teach SW expectations •Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement •Effective instruction •Parent engagement~80% of Students
  • 32. District-Region School SWPBS Leadership Team SWPBS Tier 1 Specialized Behavior Support TeamT1 Systems T1 Practices Group-based Tier 2 Individual Tier 3 T2 Systems T2 Practices T3 Systems T3 Practices
  • 33. Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior 26 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -O 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ct 3- N BL o 16 v -N o 30 v -N CI/ CO ov 7- D ec 6- Ja n +75% CI/CO 13 -J a n 18 -J a n 27 -J a n 3- CI/CO +80% F eb meds. Began 8- F e 17 b -F eb 25School Days -F eb 4- M a 11 r -M a +90% CI/CO 30 r -M ar 5- A p 13 r -A p 29 r -A p 10 r -M a 19 y -M Jade ay Farrell Helena Results Class B
  • 34. Check In/Out Pt Card Name________________ Date ________ GOALS 8:30 9:30 10:30 11:30 12:30 1:301. RESPECT OTHERS 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 02. MANAGE SELF 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 03. SOLVE PROBLEMS 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 RESPONSIBLY Goal _____ Rating Scale Pts Possible _____ 2 = Great Pts Received_____ 1 = Ok % of Pts _____ 0 = Goal Not Met Goal Met? Y N
  • 35. Class B 100 BL CI/ CO CI/CO +75% CI/CO +80% CI/CO +90%Results + 90 80 HelenaComposite 70Peers 60 50 Peer Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 Jade 70 60 Peer 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 Farrell 80 70 Peer 60 50 40 30 20 10 Began meds. 0 n n n ov ov ov pr 10 r 11 r eb eb 30 r ar eb eb r n 19 y ay ec ct p a a p a a a a Ja -O -A -A M N -M -M -N -N A -J -J -J D F F -F -F -M -M 3- 6- 5- 3- 8- 4- 13 18 27 13 29 7- 26 16 30 17 25 School Days
  • 36. 100 BL CI/ CI/CO CI/CO FB FB CO 75% 80% plan plan 2 90Study 2 80 70 Marce llusResults 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior Blair 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 Be n 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 Oliv ia 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ov n n n 30 v ov 29 r 10 r 11 r b b 30 r ar b b r n 19 y ay ec ct p p a o a p a a a a e e e e Ja -O -A -A N M -N -N -M -M A -J -J -J D F F -M -M -F -F 3- 6- 5- 3- 8- 4- 7- 13 18 27 13 26 16 17 25 School Days
  • 37. 100 BL CI/ CI/CO CI/CO FB FBStudy 2 90 CO 75% 80% plan plan 2 80Results + 70 Marce llusComposite 60 50 PeerPeer 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 Peer Blair 70 Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 Be n 70 60 Peer 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 Peer Oliv ia 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ov n n n 30 v ov 29 r 10 r 11 r eb eb 30 r ar 25 b eb r n 19 y ay ec ct p p a o a p a a a a e Ja -O -A -A N M -N -N -M -M A -J -J -J D F F -M -M -F -F 3- 6- 5- 3- 8- 4- 7- 13 18 27 13 26 16 17 School Days
  • 38. FBA Basics
  • 39. Function-based support is all about… Re-design & improvement of learning & teaching environments – Attention to environment&function – Not re-design of individuals – Change in behavior of plan implementers
  • 40. Non-validated Interventions for Students with EBD EXAMPLES CONCERNS• Sensory re-integration or • Poor ecological (school) validity stimulation • Redirected specification of• Facilitated actual causal factors communication • Adverse side effects• Introspective psychoanalytic therapies • False hopes & expectations • Inefficient use of resources &• Rebirthing therapies opportunities • Lack of empirical support
  • 41. Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysisProblem *Contextual fitBehavior *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan Intervention & Support *Continuous improvement Plan *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation •Team-based Impact on • Behavior competence Behavior & Lifestyle
  • 42. What is Function Based Support? Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & positive behavior support Attention to environmental context Emphasis on function of behavior Focus on teaching effective, efficient, & relevant behaviors Attention to behavior of implementers
  • 43. 1. Why do FBA?Understand factors that contribute to Improve quality of BIPoccurrences of PB Remove Add triggersAntecedent Consequence Better triggers & & maintainers stimuli stimuli alternatives maintainers of of SS PB
  • 44. 2. What is FBA? Systematic problem solving process forDeveloping statements Serving as bases for about factors that developing high quality contribute to of BIP occurrences of PB
  • 45. 3. How do I know if FBA has been done? 1. Clear & measurable definition of problem behaviors. 2. Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement 3. Data (direct observation) to confirm testable hypothesis. 4. Behavior intervention plan based on testable hypothesis
  • 46. Archival Review 1. Informal MORE Problem Solving Meeting INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE ChecklistFBA LEVELS 2. Indirect INDIRECTFA Interview Routine Analysis A-B-C 3. Direct MORE DIRECT Structured, Planned Observation Observation COMPLICATED 4. Planned DIFFICULT Experimental or Functional FORMAL Manipulation Analysis
  • 47. SWPBS Conceptual Foundations Behaviorism Laws of Behavior ABA Applied Behavioral Technology PBS Social Validity SWPBS All Students
  • 48. 4. What is “testable hypothesis?” Probability statement Elements of about behavior TE used to occurrences develop BIP Triggering Maintainingantecedents consequences
  • 49. Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit”Setting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior Consequences Infrequent Following Preceding Set ofevents that events that events that relatedaffect value maintain trigger or behaviors of maint. behaviors occasion of concern conseq. of concern (RC) (function) • “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed • Represents basic working unit of FBA • Directly guides development of BIP
  • 50. Setting Events – Unique situations in which factors unique to individual • Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict). – By changing value of reinforcers E.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.
  • 51. • Work completion is less important (reinforcing) to Demetri after he has had an argument with his girlfriend before class, or• Cologne’s use of verbal profanity is more likely (escape) when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, or• Peer attention is less distracting (reinforcing) when Manuella isn’t feeling well.
  • 52. • Lack of sleep decreases value (reinforcement) of getting to school on time, increases value of going to Hot Dog Haven.• Lack of breakfast increases value (reinforcement) of getting sent to office (by fending machines) for failing to follow directions.• Having a fight with boyfriend decreases value (reinforcement) of listening to lecture.• Getting >50% of problem wrong decreases value (reinforcement) of starting new worksheets.
  • 53. “FUNCTION” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence NONEXAMPLES “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
  • 54. 5. What is “behavior function?”Function =maintaining 2 basic functions factors Positive Negative reinforcement reinforcement (get/access) (escape/avoide)
  • 55. Only 2 Basic FunctionsPos Reinf Neg Reinf
  • 56. Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005
  • 57. 6. What is “response class?” Set of topographically different behaviors having same function Teaching more contextuallyDevelopment of BIP based appropriate behaviors from on RC same RC as PB
  • 58. More effective in Easier to do receiving than PB consequenceAt least as More likelyrelevant as triggered PB “More contextually appropriate”
  • 59. Consider response classSet of topographically different behaviors with similar or related purpose or function – Hit, spit, runaway, yell… • Escape difficult task request – Cry, hit, whine, raise hand, spit….. • Obtain adult attention
  • 60. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication &teachers present multiple task demands, shemakes negative self-statements & writes profanelanguage on her assignments. Teaching stafftypically send her to the office with a disciplinereferral for being disrespectful. What function? Avoid difficult tasks Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Misses 12:30 Teachers Sequoia makes Teacher sends medication make negative self- Sequoia to multiple statements & office for being task demands writes profane disrespectful language
  • 61. Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teasedseveral times by his friends before class. When heenters the class, his teacher stares at his hair.Caesar immediately says “what are you staringat?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. Escape adult & What function? peer attention Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is His teacher Caesar asks His teacher teased several stares at his his teacher sends him to times about his hair in class what she’s in-school hair by his staring at detention friends before class
  • 62. Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is hersecond language. When another studentapproaches & says something to her inEnglish, Cleo turns away. The other studentwalks away. This happens several times duringthe day. What function? Escape peer attentionSetting event Antecedent Response ConsequenceNew student Student Cleo turns Other approaches & away student walks speaks in away English
  • 63. When his teacher asks him what the capitol cityof a country is, Napoleon gives the correctanswers. His teacher praises his correct answer,& tells him he may work by himself or a friendon the rest of the assignment. Access peer & What function? Setting event Antecedent Response adult attention Consequence None Teacher asks Napoleon Teacher gives what capitol give correct verbal praise city of country answer & time to work is with a friend
  • 64. As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him &say “what’s up?” He looks back and says:“Who ya lookin’ at?!”“Ya want some ofthis?!”“Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shaketheir heads & all him “weirdo.” Access OR escape What function? peer attention? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence How do you know? How do you know? ?? Look at him. “Who ya Kids shake “What’s up!” lookin’ at?” Assess? heads & “Ya want call him Some?”“Ya “weirdo” talkin’ to me?
  • 65. TE is “best guess.”What if testable hypothesis is incomplete or inaccurate? Review what you know Collect more information Change hypothesis statement Test/confirm new hypothesis statement
  • 66. TE1 for Hillary: "When Hillary sits next toBill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs."• Test manipulation? – Put Al in Bill’s seat.• Effect: – Hillary whispers in Al’s ear. Develop new TE!
  • 67. TE2: “When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.”• Test manipulation? – Put Monica in Bill’s seat.• Effect: – Hillary does not whisper.
  • 68. Avoid explanatory fictions Restatement of problem & not measurable (-) She’s aggressive because she’s angry (+) When she is teased about her looks & family, she uses profanity & hits until the teasing stops.
  • 69. Avoid explanatory fictionsNot measurable or testable (-) He’s emotionally disturbed (+) When he is with peers, he talks about hurting them & himself.
  • 70. “Petunia”• Problem: Petunia is in 9th grade & very inattentive. In class, she is forever inattentive, distractible, off-task, & bothering others.• Explanatory fiction: Petunia has ADHD & conduct disorders• Testable hypothesis: Petunia works on each assignment for about 2 minutes, answers before presentation of questions are completed, asks other students for help, & gets out of her seat 12 times per 30 min. period.
  • 71. “Rhus”• Problem: Rhus is an 11th grader with autism. He’s high functioning but is hated by his peers. When he gets frustrated, he screams & bites his hand.• Explanatory fiction: Rhus has Fragile X & is emotionally disturbed• Testable hypothesis: Rhus has verbal skills to describe his situation, but if presented with difficult academic work & short timelines, he screams until teachers help him. If peers tease him, he bites his hand, & the teasing stops.
  • 72. “Catoneaster”• Problem: Catoneaster is a 7th grader who resists going to school each morning.• Explanatory fiction: Catoneaster has parent separation anxiety• Testable hypothesis: Catoneaster finds attention from his Dad to be very rewarding. His mother died when he was 5 years old. When he argues with his Dad in the parking lot, his Dad takes him out for breakfast & brings him back during 2nd period.
  • 73. “Azalea”• Problem: Azalea is an 8th grader who skips most of her morning classes.• Explanatory fiction: Azalea is a school phobic.• Testable hypothesis: On days she misses breakfast, Azalea goes to the cafeteria to eat instead of going to class. When she gets to the cafeteria, she visits with her friends until a teacher tells her to go class. Her friends tell her she is cool the way she talks to teachers & skips 1st period.
  • 74. WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS: AsVeloce is walking, other kids look at him &say “what’s up?” He looks back andsays: “Who ya lookin’ at?!”“Ya wantsome of this?!”“Ya talkin’ to me?!”Kids shake their heads & all him“weirdo.” Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence ?? Look at him. “Who ya Kids shake “What’s up!” lookin’ at?” heads & “Ya want call him Some?”“Ya “weirdo” talkin’ to me?
  • 75. Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions• Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has two behaviors that interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:
  • 76. Setting Antecedent Consequence Behavior Event Event Event Teacher Verbal Teacher repeats protest, presents request 4 to non- None multiple 5 times & compliance, step threatens foot request. after school stomping. suspension.Setting Antecedent Consequence Behavior Event Event Event Pushes Peers play peers away, Peers stop game & uses None playing with have profanity, Kirsten. conflict. throws rocks.
  • 77. Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions• Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors. They developed following two testable hypotheses:
  • 78. Setting Antecedent Consequence Behavior Event Event Event Turns eyes Peers try to away, does engage Amy not comply Peers move None in con- verbally, pull away. versations. s sweater over his head.Setting Antecedent Consequence Behavior Event Event Event Teachers Turns eyes Teachers sit give Amy away, does down next to corrective not comply her, rub her None feedback verbally, pull shoulders, & about her s sweater say comforting work. over his words. head.
  • 79. Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS”STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____ Date: ____January 11___________Interviewer: ___________Sugai________ Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school.C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum.STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.
  • 80. STEP 4: Routine AnalysisSchedule Activity Likelihood of Problem Behavior Specific Problem Behavior(Times) Low High See escalation described8:00 Waiting to enter building 1 2 3 4 5 6 above Mostly teasing and touching property of others.8:15 Advisory & Planning 1 2 3 4 5 6 Doesn’t escalate much further Occasional name9:15 Language Arts 1 2 3 4 5 6 calling/teasing See escalation described10:15 Recess 1 2 3 4 5 6 above11:30 Math 1 2 3 4 5 6 Occasional teasing See escalation described12:00 Lunch 1 2 3 4 5 6 above12:35 Earth Science 1 2 3 4 5 6 Minor verbal harassment See escalation described1:15 Art or Phy Ed 1 2 3 4 5 6 above2:00 Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rarely a problem See escalation described2:50 Waiting for bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 above
  • 81. Fundamental Rule!
  • 82. Desired Typical Alternative ConsequenceSummary StatementSetting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Alternative
  • 83. Desired Typical Summary Statement Alternative Consequence Do work Points, w/o grades, complaints. questions, more work. Setting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior Consequences Lack of peer Do difficult Noncompliance, Avoid task, contact in 30 math profanity, remove from minutes. assignment. physical class. aggression, Function AcceptableWhy is function important? Alternative Ask forBecause consequences break,compete!! ask for help.
  • 84. Desired Typical Alternative ConsequenceSummary StatementSetting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Alternative
  • 85. Setting Event Antecedent Behavior ConsequenceManipulations Manipulations Manipulations Manipulations
  • 86. Desired Typical Summary Statement Alternative Consequence Do work Points, w/o grades, complaints. questions, more work.Setting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior ConsequencesLack of peer Do difficult Noncompliance, Avoid task,contact in 30 math profanity, remove from minutes. assignment. physical class. aggression, Function Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help.
  • 87. Setting Event Antecedent Behavior ConsequenceManipulations Manipulations Manipulations Manipulations ImmediatelyArrange for peer Introduce review Teach options to reinforceinteraction type problem problem behavior: entering class.before math before difficult 1. Ask for breakclass tasks 2. Ask for help Provide 3. Turn in reinforcer w/in 1Provide positive Remind of assignment as is. min. of startingadult contact alternative task (3 min., 5 behaviors Teach missing min., 10Sit with math skills minutes)preferred peer Do first problem together Give break & help Sit with preferred peer when done
  • 88. Desired Typical Summary Statement Alternative Consequence Ignore & Delayed problem teacher solve attention. laterSetting Events Triggering Problem Maintaining Antecedents Behavior ConsequencesRides city Teacher Profanity Teacher bus corrects Verbal attention peers protests Function Acceptable Alternative Discuss in private
  • 89. Setting Event Antecedent Behavior ConsequenceManipulations Manipulations Manipulations ManipulationsOn days city bus Give >3 positive Teach J. how, When J. engagesridden, check in acknow- when, & where to in problemwith counselor ledgements per express verbal behaviorto review days min. to peers protest, & how to immediatelyschedule & walk during walk away from disengage fromwith counselor transitions. problem situations him, & engageto classroom in transitions. peers. Give private & quiet corrections When J. engages to peers. in replacement behaviors Remind J. of provide adult acceptable & attention desired (discussion) replacement behaviors
  • 90. Do quiz without Discussion about complaints. answers & homework.On Mondays and/or Daily nongraded quiz Verbal protests, slump Avoids doing quiz & when up all of the on previous night’s in chair, walks out of homework discussion. night before. homework room. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting.
  • 91. Do quiz without Discussion about complaints. answers & homework.On Mondays and/or Daily nongraded quiz Verbal protests, slump Avoids doing quiz & when up all of the on previous night’s in chair, walks out of homework discussion. night before. homework room. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting.+ Give time to + Give easy + With first sign of Teach options toreview “warm-up” task problem behavior: problem behaviors,homework. before doing quiz. remove task, or 1. Turn in blank+ Give quiet time + Precorrect request completion 2. Turn in w/ namebefore starting. behavior options & of task next period. 3. Turn in w/ name consequences. + Remove task & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name based on step in task analysis (STO). & 50% of items + Provide effective done. verbal praise & other reinforcers.
  • 92. 7. How quality of function-based behavior intervention plans be improved? 1. BIP should reflect information from FBA 2. BIP should describe what should adults do 3. BIP will vary across settings based on TH & RC function 4. Student, family, &/or advocates should participate in planning 5. BIP should be developed by team of individuals who collectively have • (a) direct knowledge & experience with student, (b) behavioral expertise, & (c) implementation fluency 6. Teams should develop formal routine & structure for developing BIP 7. Progress should monitored continuously to • (a) make formative decision, (b) check implementation fidelity, & (c) evaluate progress toward intended outcomes
  • 93. FBA/BIP Team Process Steps1. Collect information.2. Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement.3. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement.4. Develop “competing pathways” summary statement.5. Develop BIP.6. Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP.7. Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.
  • 94. Neutralize Make triggers Make problem Make setting irrelevant. behavior consequences event inefficient. ineffective.
  • 95. 6 FBA Misrules1. Only one way to conduct FBA…. NO – FA process is basically same – Methods for collecting data may vary • Observe • Ask • Review records • Test
  • 96. 2. Must do everything every time….NO • Base FBA activity on what you know • FBA is systematic planning process
  • 97. 3. Everyone has to know how to do a full FBA…. NO • Small number of people must have high fluency • All people must know process & what to expect • Some individuals must work on sustainability
  • 98. 4. FBA is it….. NO • One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support academic, medical, vocational, mental health, etc.
  • 99. 5. FBA is only for students with disabilities… NO • Process for behavior of all individuals across multiple settings
  • 100. 6. “Power,”“authority,”“coNO ntrol,” etc. are functions…. 2 research validated functions Pos. &Neg. Reinf.
  • 101. Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysisProblem *Contextual fitBehavior *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan Intervention & Support *Continuous improvement Plan *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation •Team-based Impact on • Behavior competence Behavior & Lifestyle