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Cispb010 final (8-10)
1. Years 8-10Protective Behaviours: EarlyRefining skills for life AdolescenceHealth and Physical Featured text Chicken Soup forEducation the Kid’s SoulProtective Behaviours: Refining skills for life is a programof work intended for use by teachers of students in Years8-10. It provides teaching strategies linked to the EarlyAdolescence (8-10) Syllabus scope and sequencestatements. Teachers should use their professionaljudgement to decide how much of the content to addresswith any particular class according to the students’ needsand abilities.Chicken Soup for the Kid’s Soul: 101 stories ofcourage, hope and laughter for kids aged 8-12By Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen, Patty Hansen andIrene DunlapThis book contains a collection of courageous stories writtenby children, teenagers and celebrities. The stories covertopics of persistence, relationships, problem-solving, goalsetting and decision making. Chicken Soup for the Kid’s Soul by Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen, Patty Hansen and Irene Dunlap, published by Health Communication Inc. Reproduced with permission of Health Communication Inc.Lesson plans developed by Protective Behaviours WA(Inc), Senior Editor, Justine OMalley in collaboration withthe Department of Education WA.This resource contains various images from© Thinkstock, 2010 and © Department of Education,Western Australia, 2010 used under licence. CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education © Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Table of contents Overview 1 About this resource 2 What do I need to know? 3 Importance of teaching 8 Protective Behaviours Content focus 17 What will I do in my 21 classroom? Lesson plans 21 Resources 58 1 What if..? Questions to promote problem solving 117 skills Teacher toolkit 120 Teacher toolkit templates 134 Protective Behaviours 157 order formCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Lesson themes Theme 1: We all have the right to feel safe at ALL times Overview Theme 2: We can talk with someone about anything no matter what it is Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Theme 1 Theme 1 Theme 1 Developing a range of Early warning signs Stages of safety continuum feelings Safe and unsafe risk taking Minimising risk Rights and responsibilities Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Theme 2 Theme 2 Theme 2 Safe versus unsafe secrets Networks Definition of persistence Minimising risk scenarios How to talk/listen to Persistence as a strategy someone on your network Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Theme 2 Theme 2 Theme 2 Program review Public versus private Safe and unsafe touches Assertiveness Review of personal network Internet safety Personal space Saying noCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours – Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 1
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence About this resourceProtective Behaviours: Refining skills for life is a series of ten lessons which encourages thelearning and development of skills for life in order for students to feel, be and keep safe.Teachers are encouraged to implement the full series of ten lessons into their schoolprogram to ensure that the content identified in the Health and Physical Educationlearning area of the Early Adolescence (8-10) Syllabus is addressed. Lessons can betaught in isolation but would not address the full range of content. Cross curricular activitiesand opportunities have been included in the program. If you feel uncomfortable teachingcertain aspects of the Protective Behaviours program, there are a number of agencies thatare available to teach the content or assist you with the delivery of the content. Phase/s of Learning Early Childhood Middle Childhood Early Adolescence Late Adolescence 8-10 Learning Area/s Languages The Arts English H&PE Mathematics Science S&E T&E (LOTE) x Values Pursuit of Respect & knowledge & Self acceptance concern for Social & civic Environmental commitment to & respect of self others & their responsibility responsibility achievement of rights potential x x x xThis resource includes: advice to teachers about the resource the focus of teaching showing links to the Early Adolescence (8-10) Syllabus an overview of lessons and related resources learning and teaching activities, monitoring suggestions and supporting resourcesTeachers should use their professional judgement to decide how much of the contentto address with their particular class.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 2
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence What do I need to know?ChildrenChildren enter the classroom bringing with them experiences gained from their family,community, culture and place. They bring their diverse experiences, perspectives,expectations, knowledge and skills to their learning. It is important that teachers ascertainchildren’s prior knowledge before beginning a program of work to determine ways ofsupporting all children to learn.Opportunities to work in pairs and in large and small groups provide contexts for children toengage in oral language build new relationships and co-operate with others. They learn tocommunicate their needs and emotions while recognising and being aware of the needs andemotions of others. Research shows that students are more likely to use and understand alife skill that they have practiced repeatedly. It is also important that students are madeaware if and when they are using a life skill in order that they better understand that life skillscan be used in a range of situations. These skills need to be taught throughout all phases oflearning over a range of contexts and situations in order that students have opportunities topractice, understand and master them.TeacherTeaching Protective Behaviours – some fundamental principlesWhen introducing and teaching Protective Behaviours, teachers must ensure that the contentof the program is supported and reflected in the creation of a safe learning environment.More information on strategies for teaching a Protective Behaviours program can be found inthe Teacher toolkit section of this program.Supporting Aboriginal childrenAboriginal children generally enter the school learning environment with a rich culturalbackground and as proficient communicators in their home language. While some childrenmay have little or no understanding of English, others may understand and use an Englishdialect (Aboriginal English). Aboriginal children are more likely to thrive in a classroom inwhich their cultural background and home language is acknowledged and respected.Immersion in oral language in intended teaching and play contexts enhances the ability ofAboriginal children to learn in Standard Australian English (SAE). Continually rephrasing andrestating and providing visual cues in the form of photographs, illustrations anddemonstrations increase the likelihood of children understanding and participating inexplanations, discussions and conversations in SAE.Aboriginal children may need support in asking and responding to direct questions. Providingexplanations before asking direct questions ensures that every child has the opportunity torespond and experience success (eg This is the title. The title tells us the name of the story.What is this?). Aboriginal children are more likely to respond to questions if they understandwhy they are being asked questions (eg I want to know what you know, I do not know a lotabout home talk so I need you to tell me).For further information on supporting Aboriginal children, teachers are advised to access thefollowing resources via the Department portal: Aboriginal languages resource file (Resource ID: DETK102110) contains an online gallery of images suitable for printing and photocopyingCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 3
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Aboriginal perspectives across the curriculum (APAC) provides information on how to broaden and deepen children’s and teachers’ understandings of Aboriginal cultures and ways of being. It can be accessed at det.wa.edu.au/education/apac Embedding Indigenous perspectives across the curriculum is a national project that supports teachers in exploring and better understanding the diversity of Aboriginal peoples’ distinct values, histories, languages, cultural beliefs and practices: embeddingindigenousperspectives.edu.auIt is important that approaches to protective behaviour strategies take the culturalbackgrounds of the students (and their families/carers) into respectful consideration. This isespecially important if the norms of behaviour of the school are not consistent with those ofthe home. These norms can include any area such as parenting, discipline, social dynamicsor language. The difference in behaviours and expectations between home and school maynot only cause confusion for the students, but it may also cause friction with the families.When giving advice, any of the specific challenges and stressors that face families who areculturally and linguistically diverse must be taken into account. These challenges include: Migration stress; Acculturative stress; Displaced sense of belonging and cultural identity; Perceived or experienced racism and discrimination; Intergenerational conflict; Low standard Australian English proficiency; Insufficient awareness of institutional systems and local services available; Loss or lack of extended family, social and community supports; Negative previous experiences in education; Poor settlement experience in period after arrival in new country, and Socioeconomic disadvantage. (Adapted from Sawrikar, 2009)Therefore approaching advice must be done with care. A qualified cultural mediator who maybe, for example, a respected elder in the community, an appropriate community member whospeaks the same language as the those concerned or a local Aboriginal and IslanderEducation Officer (for Aboriginal students) will be able to greatly assist in dealingwith protective behaviour strategies.The learning, teaching, assessment cycleThe learning, teaching, assessment cycle begins with what the children know and can do.Therefore it is recommended that teachers gather quality information about the abilities oftheir children before beginning any program of work. This information will guide teachers inusing their professional judgement to decide on when to introduce content based onchildren’s prior learning and achievement.The following resources are recommended to assist teachers in providing a differentiatedcurriculum for children in their classes and can be found via the Department portal: Early Childhood (K-3) Syllabus scope and sequence documents provide advice on what to teach children at each year level in all eight learning areas. Some pre-primary children may be ready to learn and be taught content for Year 1. Literacy and Numeracy Resources are practical resources that have been developed to support teachers to improve the literacy and numeracy skills of children.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 4
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Literacy Net and Numeracy Net can be used to track the development of children and assist teachers in making judgements about what to teach. First Steps Literacy and First Steps Numeracy materials help teachers to be more strategic about what to teach, how to teach it, when to teach it and, more importantly, why.Otitis mediaThe ability to hear the sounds of the English language is critical for literacy learning. Otitismedia (middle ear infection) may result in conductive hearing loss and can have a severeimpact on learning. One of the strategies for decreasing the occurrence of otitis media isBreathe, Blow, Cough (BBC). Information on otitis media and BBC can be found on theAboriginal Education Directorate web page on the Department of Education website -det.wa.edu.au/aboriginaleducation/detcms/portal.Resources used in the programResource kitTeachers/schools have the option to purchase a resource kit from Protective Behaviours WAto support the program. A Protective Behaviours WA resource order form has been includedat the end of this resource. The prices of resources and their availability are correct at timeof writing.BooksCastle, C 2000, For Every Child, Phyllis Fogelman Books, New YorkKrovatin, C 2004, The Best Ghost Stories Ever, Turtleback Books, St Louis USAJohnsen, K 1986, The Trouble with Secrets, Parenting Press Inc, Seattle, Washington USAThomas, R 2002, The Paper Bag Baby, Red Fox, London UKCanfield, J, Hansen, M, Hansen & P, Dunlap, I 1998, Chicken Soup for the Kid’s Soul: 101Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter, Health Communications Inc, Deerfield Beach,Florida USAMarsden, J 1993, Tomorrow, When the War Began, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1994, The Dead of the Night, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1995, The Third Day, the Frost, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1996, Darkness be my Friend, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1997, Burning for Revenge, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1998, The Night is for Hunting, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaMarsden, J 1999, The Other Side of the Dawn, Pan Macmillan Publishers, AustraliaOther useful resourcesSongsThere are many songs that can be used to develop the concepts of Protective Behaviours.Specific songs about Protective Behaviours can be purchased from Protective BehavioursWA. Teachers can also source many engaging songs that have meaning to the topics andconcepts of Protective Behaviours.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 5
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly AdolescenceThe CD Sing yourself safe is a useful resource which compliments the themes and learningexperiences in the Protective Behaviours program. A copy of the first verse and chorus ofthese songs has been included in as resource 27. The songs cover topics of early warningsigns, feelings, feeling safe, saying no, public and private, persistence and secrets. The CDcan be purchased from Safe4Kids, Protective Behaviours WA and Wooldridges.Other songs used in the resource include:‘Wibbly the wombat’ by Jayne HeskettBooksAbdel-Fattah, R 2006, Ten things I Hate About Me, Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney,AustraliaBrugman, A 2002, Walking Naked, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, AustraliaByars, B 1973, The Eighteenth Emergency, The Bodley Head, United KingdomDumbleton, M 2003, Watch Out for Jamie Joel, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, AustraliaMurphy, K 2005, The King of Whatever, Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Camberwell, VictoriaPaterson, K 1977, Bridge to Terabithia, Harper Collins, United KingdomWebsitesChild Health Promotion Research Centre – established at Edith Cowan University, WesternAustralia, to improve the overall physical, emotional, mental health and well-being of childrenand young people and their families through high-quality, applied research. Website at:http://www.chprc.ecu.edu.auSummary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child from the UNICEF website athttp://www.unicef.orgThinkUKnowhttp://www.thinkyouknow.org.auThe Linehttp://www.theline.gov.auCybersmarthttp://www.cybersmart.gov.auProtective Behaviours WAhttp://www.protectivebehaviourswa.org.au/Children’s Safety Australia website: posters and other resourceshttp://www.childsafety.org.au/resources.htmlSafe4Kidshttp://www.safe4kids.com.auChildwisehttp://www.childwise.netCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 6
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly AdolescenceTeacher resourcesLaws, C & Moore, A 2009, Protective Behaviours: Early Learning, The Protective BehavioursConsultancy Group of NSW, Sydney.Children’s Protections Society 2003, Protective behaviours: A personal safety program,Lesson Plan level: 1 & 2, Children’s Protections Society, West Heidelberg, Vic.Teacher resources accessible though the Department of Education websiteBreathe, Blow, CoughCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 7
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Importance of teaching Protective BehavioursBackground informationProtective Behaviours: Refining skills for life is a living skills and personal safety program.The aim is to strengthen the resilience of students as they grow and develop.It focuses on giving students life skills to protect themselves from abusive situations and onteaching students to avoid a wide range of potentially unsafe situations.Why do we need Protective Behaviours? Because 96% of abused children are abused by someone known and trusted by them (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2000-2001). 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 7 boys are sexually abused in Australia before they reach the age of 18 (Australian Institute of Criminology 2004). To help protect children as we simply cannot be with them every minute of the day. To empower children with the right to feel safe and act to keep themselves safe. To give children and adults permission to talk about problems they face. 1 in 5 respondents lacked confidence/knowledge on what to do if they suspected child abuse (Australian Childhood Foundation Report 2006). Only 3% of children will ever tell of their abuse (Savi Report 2004).What does Protective Behaviours aim to do?Statistical data shows that students are more likely to be harmed by someone they knowrather than someone they do not know.There are many personal safety issues that our students are exposed to. We are now moreaware of the physical and emotional trauma of bullying, cyber bullying, exclusions, sexualabuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse and living with domestic violence.Our students are potentially exposed to a wide range of situations that put them at risk thatcould cause them short and long term physical and emotional harm and violate their basicrights.Teaching preventative strategies is a proactive way to strengthen our students’ ability to keepthemselves safe and minimise risk. It is important students develop personal safety andresilience skills from a well presented and structured program.For child abuse prevention programs to be of value they need to be taught over time andconstantly reinforced.Protective Behaviours can be used by students and adults to keep themselves safe andworks towards reducing violence in the community.It provides the basis for helping students be safe and stay safe from the risks that surroundus in everyday lives.The Protective Behaviours beliefs and skills: are lifelong; are for a range of places where we might be unsafe – at home, at school, in the community; and can be applied to a range of unsafe situations including physical abuse, family violence, sexual abuse, bullying, emotional abuse and verbal abuse.How is Abuse Categorised?CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 8
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly AdolescencePhysical abuseDeliberate, ill treatment commonly characterised by physical injury and harm. Physical harmor maltreatment is caused to the child as a result of practices such as biting, beating,shaking, scalding, burning, punching, kicking, shoving and breaking bones.Physical indicators of physical abuse: Bruises Welts Burns Cuts Missing teeth Fractures Self mutilation Clumps of hair missing Bite marks SwellingBehavioural indicators of physical abuse: Fear of going home Injuries that are not consistent with the explanation that the child gave Evasive answers to questions Avoidance of issues, questions and situations Disclosure of abuse directly to a teacher or adult or indirectly to friendSexual abuseSexual abuse is when an adult or young person uses their power, authority or force toinvolve a child in sexual activity. Includes a range of behaviours including oral sex; touching a child’s genitals; exhibitionism; any form of penetration; any exposure to or involvement in child pornography; molesting; and fondling.Physical indicators of sexual abuse: Bruises or bleeding in genital area Blood stained underwear Pregnancy or fear of pregnancy Urinary tract infections Pain, swelling or itching in genital area Sexually transmitted infectionCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 9
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Massive weight changeBehavioural indicators of sexual abuse: Disclosure of involvement in sexual activity directly to an adult Indirectly disclosing to a friend or acquaintance Possession of pornographic material Reluctance to change clothes in front of others Inappropriate sex play or premature understanding of sex Threatened by physical contact, closeness Fear of going home Injuries that are not consistent with the explanation that the child gave States of fear are evident, eg. anxiety, depression, socially withdrawn Poor peer relationships Inappropriate expressions of affection Evidence of sexual themes evident in play, artwork, stories or actionsEmotional AbuseWhere persistent and consistent inappropriate behaviour undermines and erodes theemotional development and wellbeing of an individual. Involves such abuse as humiliation,intimidation and threats.Physical indicators of emotional abuse: Symptoms of stress Bedwetting Diarrhoea Lethargy or fatigue Eating disorders Psychosomatic complaints Failure to thrive Speech disordersBehavioural Indicators: Mental or emotional developmental lags Behaviours inappropriate for age Poor peer relationships Extreme attention seeking behaviours Run away attempts Attempted suicide Low self esteemCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 10
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Truancy or school avoidance Excessive shyness or withdrawal Severe depression Violence is a subject for art or writing Habit disordersNeglectThe failure to provide reasonable care where the result can be detrimental to developmentand wellbeing. Children may be neglected when they do not receive food, care and attention.Physical indicators: Unexplained bruises Poor hygiene Constant fatigue Consistent hunger Inappropriate dress Inadequate nutrition Unattended medical needs Developmental delaysBehavioural Indicators: Self destructive Frequently absent Tardiness Regular displays of fatigue Early arrival at school or reluctant to leaveIt is important to note that not any single indicator proves that abuse is taking place, but therepeated presence of an indicator or a combination of indicators should raise concerns toeducators of the possibility of abuse.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 11
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly AdolescenceProtective Behaviours themes Theme 1 Theme 2 We all have the right to We can talk with someone about feel safe at all times anything no matter what it is Key Concepts Key Concepts Early Warning Signs Safety Networks Body signals Feeling safe Asking for help Specific, internal, Recognising safety Relationships physical sensations Rights and Communicating with Feelings and responsibilities and supporting others reactions Secrets and surprises Inviting people to be Minimising risk on your network Safety continuum Persistence Personal spaceStrategies for teaching Protective Behaviours1. Desensitised early warning signsWhen reviewing early warning signs it is necessary to consider that not all students mayexperience early warning signs for a variety of reasons. Some students may have becomedesensitised through previous or current traumatic experiences or have sensory disorders.The concept of early warning signs is expanded beyond physical responses of the body tounsafe situations to include emotional responses and external indicators such as time orlocation2. Creating the learning environmentIt is important that teachers are provided with the skills and strategies to build an atmosphereof trust and confidence.Protective Behaviours education can generate strong feelings, therefore it is important thatthe teacher is resourced with strategies and skills to emphasise strengths and positivefeelings, develop trust and build communication.Such strategies include: Parent/caregiver involvement Group norms Ground rules One step removed Protective Interrupting Language of safety Network review Persistence Theme reinforcement Teacher supportCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 12
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Parent/carer involvement Even though parental consent is not necessary, parents still need to be informed about the curriculum content and how they may be involved in reinforcing the themes. Group norms Group norms are behaviours that form part of regular classroom activities. They include the behaviours formed from group discussions and are usually generated by the students themselves. Group norms are part of a protective strategy to prevent disclosure of personal or distressing events. Examples of group norms include: listening to others; talk when it is your turn; don’t talk about something that has happened to yourself or your family; if you don’t want to talk about something – you don’t have too, just pass. Ground rules Establish ground rules. This is important as it helps provide a safe environment for students to express their opinions. These can include: o Only one person to talk at a time o Use appropriate language – this includes appropriate terminology o Racially or sexist language o Show respect for the views of others o Allow everyone to express their views One step removed One step removed is a third person strategy that allows students to practise a skill in a non-threatening situation without disclosing personal or family information. Students are presented with a potentially abusive situation such as a story or picture and asked what the person could do to keep safe. For younger students puppets, songs and scenarios could be used to problem solve. Questions could include, ’What could someone do to keep safe?’ or ‘What if …….. What could they do then?’ Protective interrupting Protective interrupting is a strategy to prevent students from making a personal disclosure in a situation where the student or others who may be exposed to the disclosure are vulnerable. The teacher must interrupt the student and invite them to talk privately as soon as possible after the lesson. Protective interrupting involves the following steps: 1. Interrupt the child by acknowledging them and preventing further disclosure (eg ‘Thank you, it sounds as though you have something important to talk about, why dont we have a chat at recess?’) 2. Be supportive and gently indicate that the child can talk in a more private situation. 3. Quietly arrange to see the child as soon as possible. 4. Listen attentively in a private location within the school and reassure the child that telling was the right thing to do. 5. If abuse is disclosed, explain to the child that because they are being harmed you need to make sure they are safe and gain some help for them. Do not promise the child you will keep it secret. 6. Reassure the child that the abuse was not their fault. 7. Explain what is likely to happen next. 8. Complete the school reporting form for child abuse as soon as possible. Language of safety The language of safety includes verbal and non-verbal messages that will create a safe environment. Language that is respectful, empowering, non-threatening, and inclusive and promotes communication is a core element of developing protective behaviours.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 13
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence The teacher should model and students encouraged to use language that is not abusive, racist, sexist, violent or victimising. Language can be used to build self-worth, confidence and problem solving. Network review Students need to identify a number of trusted people who they can talk to. Students who are isolated may experience difficulty in developing a network and should be made aware of services available. Networks must be reviewed regularly to ensure that people are suitable, willing and available. Persistence This is a strategy where students are persistent in seeking help or taking action with a person on their network. If a child is not satisfied with the response of one person, they try the next person until they feel that they have been heard and got the help needed to feel safe. Theme reinforcement Theme reinforcement is used to ensure that the message is emphasised and clearly understood. The themes need to be continually repeated throughout the Protective Behaviour lessons and ideally across all learning areas throughout the curriculum. Examples of achieving theme reinforcement include: posters, songs or stories. Teacher support Teaching protective behaviours may arouse feelings that cause distress or concern. Teachers should ensure that they have developed their own personal network of trusted people with whom they can discuss their reactions or concerns. Counselling is available to metropolitan and country teachers through the Prime Employee Assistance Program.3. Responding to disclosuresOne of the objectives of the Protective Behaviours program is to increase a child’s helpseeking behaviours such as telling a person on their network if they feel unsafe. Teachersmay experience feelings of shock, anger and helplessness. It is important to conceal thesefeelings as your reactions may adversely affect the child concerned.Do Reassure the child that telling was the right thing to do. Allow the child to tell the story in their own words. Use protective interrupting if their disclosure is in an inappropriate situation. Find a quiet place to talk. Let the child know what will happen next.Don’t Dismiss or ignore the disclosure. Put words in the child’s mouth, push for details or investigate as this could jeopardise the interviewing process of DCP and WA Police. Make the child repeat the disclosure to the principal or third party. Stop the child from talking even though you may have heard enough to make a report. Promise not to tell. Confront the person believed to be the abuser. Engage in general staffroom discussion about the disclosure.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 14
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence4. Skills for lifeResearch shows that students are more likely to use and understand a life skill that they aremade aware of. It has been proven that students need to rehearse and practise these skillsin order to better understand how to use them effectively. It is important to teach thestudents the names of the skills, as well as how to utilise them in a real situation. Learningthe name of a skill will help students to recall on it when needed.The Department of Education K-10 Syllabus states that life skills can be taught as standalone topics or can be integrated throughout a Health program. The Protective Behaviours:Refining skills for life program engages both these methods to help students develop thefollowing skills for life in order to empower the students and promote resilience. Helpful and positive thinking- which involves skills such as: o understanding links between thoughts/feelings and behaviour; and o positive self-talk. Understanding emotions- which involves skills such as: o being aware of a range of feelings; o regulating their own feelings; and o reading others’ emotions. Resourcefulness- which involves skills such as: o problem predicting and problem solving; o decision making; o goal setting; and o persistence. Relationship skills- which involves skills such as: o group skills; o help seeking and disclosure; and o assertive communication. Self-understanding- which involves skills such as: o knowing their own values and how to stand up for them; and o self-reflection.A successful method for encouraging students to learn and practise these life skills is to havethem on display in the classroom. At the closure to each lesson, teachers can refer back tothese displays and articulate with the students which skills were being practised. A Skills forlife poster has been included in the resources section to put on display in the classroom. Theposter can be kept on display throughout the program to provide the teacher and thestudents with a reference of the skills for life they will be practising.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 15
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education Early Adolescence Preventive Education and the Health Promoting Schools FrameworkThe Health Promoting Schools Framework (World Health Organisation, 1986) is widely recognised as a best practice model of promoting health within a school community. This framework suggests that positive health outcomes are much more likely when classroom health education is complemented and reinforced by a supportive school environment and effective links to family and the community. Curriculum professional development Ethos and environment for school staff Whole-school approach to protective behaviours, skills for life, Online Professional Learning Protective Behaviours resilience and safety education Online Professional Learning Child Protection Promote a safe, supportive school environment Background information package in resources Promote resilience HPE Newsletter Protective Behaviours Safety Guidelines and action plans Professional Learning Seminars Procedures for student support and incident management SDERA Professional Learning Help to identify support roles in the school community Promote and facilitate student and staff well-being Resources linked to HPE Learning Area outcomes Preventative Education content planned across all year levels Protective Behaviours K/PP Package A planned comprehensive cross-curricular approach to preventive Protective Behaviours Years 1-3 Package education across all year levels Protective Behaviours Years 4-7 Package All staff members understand they have a responsibility for Protective Behaviours Years 8-10 Package Protective Behaviours Education in a context of Respectful Relationships Education and National Safe Schools Framework Growing and Developing Healthy Relationships Specific policies related to child protection Mind Matters SDERA Challenges and Choices (K-10) SDERA Getting it together(Drug and Road Education) Keeping in Touch Curriculum Framework K10 HPE Syllabus Overview K10 HPE Integrated Scope and Sequence Parents/caregiver and community Curriculum Overview Information flyer sent to parents Parent information evenings Parent tab on school website with Protective Behaviours information Forums Information in school newsletters Links with community agencies (eg Child Protection , PBWA) CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education © Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 16
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Content focusThe content focus for Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life consists of scope and sequence statements from the Early Adolescence (8-10)Syllabus. Teachers will continue to make professional judgements about when to introduce content based on students’ prior learning andachievement.Health and Physical Education YEAR 8 YEAR 9 YEAR 10Context and topics Content Context and topics Content Context and topics ContentWellness Knowledge and Wellness Knowledge and Wellness Knowledge andSelf-understanding Understandings Self-understanding Understandings Self-understanding Understandings developing and The meaning and influences of different The meaning and understanding mental The meaning and maintaining self- dimensions of health beliefs and values, dimensions of health health issues and their dimensions of health esteem as an attitudes and values including those related lifestyle behaviours and impact on self and social, cultural, adolescent Growth and to sexuality and gender consequences society environmental and recognition of roles development on self-esteem and Growth and Lifelong relationships political factors that self-concept development influence the recognition of changes behaviours that relationships and community’s health in responsibilities influence growth and mental health issues how to enhance the community support to and attitudes development Developing respectful health of self and enhance relationships well-being balancing community strategies Social-emotional well relationships others the social, emotional, mental health services to promote health physical and mental being building and assessing the impact of emotional and mental dealing with negative Growth and mental health different types of maintaining positive health on behaviours relationships development relationships relationships as anTypes and nature of adolescent the positive and health promotions – lifestyle behaviours andrelationships values and beliefs government support for their impact on society understanding changing negative effects of peer importance of family Ways to keep healthier pressure on health building positive societal cohesion relationships and peers and safer behaviours relationships applying social skills to the impact of stress factors influencing managing risk Social-emotional well relationships in the and strategies to different situations and relationships strategies to enhance being work place manage stress relationships relating appropriately in resilience strategies to manage enhancing personal Social-emotional well cyber bullying relationships rules, laws, policies to relationships health and the health of being promote health SMS bullying others qualities of positive Ways to keep healthier strategies to enhance relationships enhancing seeking advice and help and safer communicating and encourage societal environments Enhancing resilience as effectively in the cohesion rights and plans to avoid and factors to consider for a an adolescent manage risk community responsibilities in safe learning public health harm minimisation andCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 17
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence relationships environment thinking optimistically coping strategies services/agencies Ways to keep healthier appreciating diversity Resources and making connections rules laws and policies domestic violence and saferPower in relationships consumer skills to promote safety Inclusivity risk management in the promoting positive health actions and strategies community types of power attitudes discrimination, services/agencies to promote taking action to peer pressure protective behaviours – harassment and Learning physical health – enhancing maintain their own and Plan A/Plan B vilificationBeing resilient as an activities physical and social others’ mental andadolescent time management environments Resilience emotional health factors to consider for a coping and responding strategies to seek help Resources and managing change preventative measures safe learning to change and environment benefits of support consumer skills coping with loss and strategies to minimise challenge factors that influence grief harmful or risky identifying fears and access and use of coping with breakdown behaviours and Self-management Safety health services hazardous situations feelings of relationships Skills Safety me and others health information dealing with conflicting reaching out rules, laws and policies demands Understanding going out about safety to promote a safe emotions physical and social creating connections – strategies to keep safe how to identify the Safety environment friendships and identification and Self-management different types of Managing risk Resources and belonging emotions and ways protection against Skills strategies to deal with consumer skills protective strategies they are expressed unsafe situations Understanding emotions personal safety issues sources and access toRecognising abuse how to take cultural factors influencing risk in an uncontrolled health information for differences into taking strategies to identify, feelings and warning environment different communities signals account in self- recognising, assessing interpret and monitor influences on ‘the self’ influences on health factors that influence a understanding and responding to risk protective strategies decision making model community’s ability to ways to enhance our situations how to examine the and risk behaviours access and use health self-understanding Road safety and our influence of others on servicesSafety self-understanding Driving and socialising Managing emotions attitudes andSafety with behaviours how to track and responsible driver and how to manage passenger behaviour Self-managementindependence laws and rules challenge the emotions Skills connection between skills and attitudes that gaining independence strategies to cope with risk taking thoughts, feelings and support safe road Understanding and the risks it brings emotions positive choices behaviours behaviour emotions positive and negative Reviewing the situation how to limit the impact Environmental health how to examine the risks factors to consider of peer pressure influence of others settings and making our when choosing the Managing emotions environment safer and strategies to cope with circumstances where most appropriate risk taking occurs how to manage healthier influences person for help emotions and limit the workplace health and strategies to cope with protective behaviours Planning before impact of value laden safety outside influences onSafety in community deciding judgements self-understanding rights and strategies to assert strategies to owning Managing emotions responsibilities themselves and taking community strategies safe practices near Deciding and acting responsibility for that are used to copeCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 18
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence buses/trains ways to apply the emotional health of self with intense emotions passenger safety decision making model and others in particular situations safety on wheels Monitoring and ways to identify strategies to cope with evaluation emotional states and and reduce stress aquatic safety proposed strategies to skills and actions to Deciding and acting cope with overt and cope with them how to analyse covert peer influence strategies to monitor community measures how to review the thoughts, emotions and used to protect effectiveness of physical feelings that individuals strategies to resilience influence personal Reviewing the situation identity and the how decisions can preventative measure behaviour of others affect health and safety strategies to create ways to enhance self- awareness and limit confidence Interpersonal Skills fallout Reviewing the situation Communicating Monitoring and how to apply the evaluating ways to adapt decision making model communication skills strategies to monitor when considering and evaluate decisions active listening skills to beliefs and values; establish relationships predicting risks and how to analyse benefits individual and group how to read body decisions and the language how to select people effects they have on Building and nurturing and services that can the environment and relationships help the health and safety of how to behave Planning before themselves and others appropriately in varying deciding relationships/situations strategies to assert individual rights and Interpersonal Skills Preventing and Communicating managing conflict predict the consequence of active listening skills to ways to deal actions enhance relationships appropriately with conflict communication skills to Interpersonal Skills manage conflict of ways to deal values appropriately with Communicating teasing/bullying Building and nurturing ways to establish relationships how to apply assertive effective skills communication ways to build and showing empathy, influence relationships risk evaluation within the community strategies tolerance and sensitivity how to treat others ways to communicate when in a position of effectively when there powerCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 19
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence Cooperating and is conflict strategies to limit collaborating in groups how to recognise and negative influences ways to cooperate with respond to the Preventing and peers to enhance emotional states of managing conflict safety others how to manage/resolve strategies to deal with ways to communicate conflict when in a exclusion in a range of social position of power Leading, initiating and situations ways of selecting, facilitating Building and nurturing applying and adjusting ways to organise and relationships assertion manage groups how to build ways to minimise leadership skills to relationships with potential conflict enhance safety unfamiliar others harm minimisation ways to cope with skills dysfunctional ways to cope with relationships change/conflict/challen how to demonstrate ging situations acceptable and negotiation skills appropriate behaviour Leading, initiating and ways to cope with facilitating changes in relationships leadership strategies when supporting others how to consider rights of other how to express feelings, needs, ideas, Preventing and empathy and support managing conflict to others in a socially assertive and culturally communication skills to appropriate manner manage conflict negotiation skills problem solving skills ways to minimise harm through selection and planning assertion techniques Leading, initiating and facilitating leadership strategiesCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 20
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescence What will I do in my classroom?This section contains a series of detailed learning and teaching activities and supporting resources with a Health and Physical Education focus.For detailed information on the links to the Early Adolescence (8-10) Syllabus refer to the content focus for this series of lessons. By clicking onthe attachment tab, you can access this section as a word document.Health and Physical Education Content Lesson focus Activities and monitoring ResourcesWellness | SafetyYEAR 8 Theme 1: We all have Lesson 1: Feelings Resource 1: StrengthKnowledge and the right to feel safe cardsUnderstandings at all times Resource 2: Theme Observation and monitoring:The meaning and Establish students’ posters During the lesson note the students who are able to:dimensions of health base line of Resource 3: Safety knowledge identify when they feel safe brainstorm attitudes and values Students to describe how they are feeling in different contexts and situations Resource 4: Skills forWays to keep healthierand safer understand Theme 1 analyse and discuss the Bill of Rights life poster and be aware that it KWL chart, KWHL rules, laws, policies to relates to them as promote health Learning experiences: chart and X-chart well as everyone from Teacher toolkit enhancing environments else 1. Introduce the Protective Behaviours program. templates factors to consider for a Develop/reinforce Write the words ‘Protective Behaviours’ on the whiteboard. safe learning Summary of the UN students’ Divide the class into small groups. Provide each group a KWL chart or Convention on the environment understanding of KWHL chart. Ask each group to discuss the topic and then summarise Rights of the ChildSelf-management Skills rights and the KWL chart (know, want to know, learnt) or KWHL chart (know, available atUnderstanding emotions responsibilities want to know, how to learn it, learnt). Jigsaw the answers from each http://www.unicef.org how to identify the Explore the range of group to provide a class list. /magic/media/docum different types of emotions/feelings Summarise the class thoughts on Protective Behaviours and create a ents/what_rights_flye emotions and ways they that may be class KWL or KWHL chart. r_english.pdf are expressed experienced or the book For Explain the importance of the Protective Behaviours program to theInterpersonal Skills Develop an students by saying, ‘The Protective Behaviours program is very Every Child - the UNBuilding and nurturing understanding that important because it teaches us how to feel, be and keep safe. Convention on the feelings differ Protective Behaviours provides opportunities to develop skills for life rights of the child inCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 21
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly Adolescencerelationships between people and that can be applied to a range of contexts and situations. These skills words and pictures how to behave situations, and that are essential to help keep you feel, be and keep safe throughout your UNICEF appropriately in varying this is ok life. Now that you are getting older there are different situations that you Pictures/photos of relationships/situations Students to be able might find yourself in where you feel unsafe. It is still really important landscapes from to visualise their that you remember that you all have the right to feel safe at all times calendars/books safe place whether you are 3 years old or 13 years old. The Protective BehavioursYEAR 9 Blank paper programs talks about feelings, safe and unsafe risk taking, safe andKnowledge and unsafe secrets, persisting in asking for help from people on your Writing/drawing toolsUnderstandings network and respecting personal space. The Protective Behaviours WhiteboardGrowth and development program teaches us that each of you are very important people. Let’s Whiteboard markers start by finding out what your strengths are’. how to enhance the Resource 26: health of self and others 2. Feelings activity: EmotionsWays to keep healthier Discuss skills for life and the importance for using positive self-talk with Backgroundand safer the students. The Skills for life poster (Resource 4) can be displayed to information on help reinforce these skills. Protective rules laws and policies to promote safety Spread the Strength cards (Resource 1) out on a table/bench area. interrupting from the Ask students to select one or two cards they feel, or someone has told Importance of actions and strategies to them, reflects some of their strengths. Protective promote health – Behaviours section enhancing physical and Invite students to share the choices they have made and why they made social environments them.Self-management Skills Each student then cuts out the question cards (Resource 1) and assignsUnderstanding emotions strengths to each of the questions, or provides a written response. how to track and Discuss with others to compare. challenge the connection 3. Set the parameters: between thoughts, Explain to students what can and cannot be discussed. Disclosures of feelings and behaviours personal things need to be addressed with the teacher after class.Managing emotions Explain protective interrupting to ensure students know which personal strategies to owning and things should not be shared with the group. Information on protective taking responsibility for interrupting is provided in the section ‘Importance of teaching Protective emotional health of self Behaviours’. and others Set group guidelines such as the teacher cannot keep unsafe secrets strategies to monitor and must share any information with authorities that is relevant. thoughts, emotions and Discuss group norms and then create group norms for the class. physical feelings that influence personal 4. Introduce Theme 1: discuss Theme 1 with the students. identity and the Write it on the board to keep it displayed for the duration of the lesson. behaviour of others Show students the Theme posters (Resource 2) and use as a templateInterpersonal Skills for them to create their own to be displayed around the classroom.CISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 22
Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical EducationEarly AdolescenceBuilding and nurturing 5. Group discussion: Theme 1relationships Dissect Theme 1 using an X-chart format where students include at least how to demonstrate five words to describe each of the following sections of the theme: acceptable and ‘We all’ – who do we mean by all? Make sure students understand that appropriate behaviour each of them are included in ‘all’. ‘have the right’ – what is a right? Something we are born with, thatYEAR 10 cannot be bestowed or taken away by someone else.Knowledge and ‘to feel safe’ – why feel safe rather than be safe? We cannot guaranteeUnderstandings that we are going to be safe in every situation, however we have theThe meaning and right to feel safe.dimensions of health ‘at all times’ – what do we mean by all? Day, night, today, tomorrow, social, cultural, yesterday, 24/7. environmental and Ask students to brainstorm what safety means to them using the Safety political factors that brainstorm activity sheet (Resource 3). influence the 6. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child community’s health and attitudes Discuss what a child is in the terms of the law: someone under the ageSocial-emotional well of 18, or someone who appears under the age of 18 without properbeing identification. strategies to enhance Explain to the students the history of the UN Convention on the Rights of and encourage societal the Child. It was developed in 1989 to protect children from cohesion discrimination, neglect and abuse. The Convention includes civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.Ways to keep healthierand safer Hand out a copy of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to the students. rules, laws and policies to promote a safe Discuss the skills for life of self-understanding and emphasise the physical and social importance of knowing own values and how to stand up for them. environment 7. Group discussion: Rights and responsibilitiesSelf-management Skills Discuss with the students that with rights comes responsibility. That is ifUnderstanding emotions we all have the right to feel safe, do we have the responsibility to ensure strategies to cope with other people feel safe? outside influences on Focus on articles 12, 14, 16, 24, and 28. self-understanding Discuss a ‘Bill of Rights’.Deciding and acting 8. Bill of Rights activity: how to analyse Ask students to form groups of four or five. community measures used to protect Using the following scenario, the groups must create a Bill of Rights withCISPB010 | Protective Behaviours: Refining skills for life – Health and Physical Education© Department of Education, Western Australia, 2010 Not for NEALS 23
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