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Is sexual violence related to Internet exposure:  empirical evidence from Spain   Jorge Sainz  Associate Professor  Applie...
Motivation <ul><li>Growth of Internet has affected individual behavior.  </li></ul><ul><li>Adult content is one of the mai...
Motivation <ul><li>Spain is also a special case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography was banned until 1976 </li></ul></ul><u...
Internet sex  <ul><li>What is pornography? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vatican: “real o simulated sexual acts removed from the i...
Literature (the conservative view)  <ul><li>Pornography weakeness the moral values of society, eliminating its moral stabi...
Literature (the feminist view)  <ul><li>Is degrading to woman as increases the inequality between genres, empowers males w...
Literature (the feminist view)  <ul><li>Most of these results are based on lab experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Several probl...
Literature (the liberal view)  <ul><li>Freedom of speech is at stake, and it has to be preserved unless human suffering is...
Literature (country results)  <ul><li>Country and society are a key factor to understand the outcome to the exposition to ...
Literature (Spain)  <ul><li>Cánovas (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social values are in decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Por...
Modelling sexual violence  <ul><li>Emprical models are based on Becker (1968) and Ehrilch (1973) over rationality on crime...
Data <ul><li>One of the main problems </li></ul><ul><li>Data for the 50 provinces from1998 to 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Sexua...
Results (OLS) Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
Results (Panel Data) Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
Results (Main findings) <ul><li>For rape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative relation with adult content  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Conclusions <ul><li>Internet porn has had an important effect on society </li></ul><ul><li>One of them is the widespread o...
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Is sexual violence related to Internet exposure?

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Transcript of "Is sexual violence related to Internet exposure?"

  1. 1. Is sexual violence related to Internet exposure: empirical evidence from Spain Jorge Sainz Associate Professor Applied Economics Universidad Rey Juan Carlos [email_address] Joan Torrent Professor Economic and Business Universitat Oberta de Catalunya [email_address]
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Growth of Internet has affected individual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult content is one of the main traffic drivers. </li></ul><ul><li>That make it available to a larger group of users. </li></ul><ul><li>That affects the whole society: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminist: Degrades females. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moralist: Decay of moral and traditional values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical liberals: Freedom of speech is at stake and has to be defended. </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Spain is also a special case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography was banned until 1976 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Catholic base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over reaction to sexual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are we looking for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should pornography be banned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a substitution between online pornography and rape? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What other factors affect sexual violence in relation with online porn? </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  4. 4. Internet sex <ul><li>What is pornography? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vatican: “real o simulated sexual acts removed from the intimacy of the parties” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allen: “media material used to increase sexual arousal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seto: “depiction of sexual activity where participants are objectified” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McKelroy: “explicit artistic depiction of men and woman as sexual beings” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ours: “sexual explicit images of individuals, regardless of their genre, intended to produce sexual arousal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not taking in account illegal images (violence or pedophilia) </li></ul></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  5. 5. Literature (the conservative view) <ul><li>Pornography weakeness the moral values of society, eliminating its moral stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Malamuth and Check (1981): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments show that users of porn become less sympathetic to sexual violence victims. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linz et al (1993): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should act to protect society against immorality and low respect among individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul (2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It becomes more relevant if it is widely availabe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laydel (2004): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web also removes inefficiencies in delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reisman (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its effect is similar to those of drugs </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  6. 6. Literature (the feminist view) <ul><li>Is degrading to woman as increases the inequality between genres, empowers males with respect to females in their sexual relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights should be subordinated to a larger good, protect woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Dworking (1979) McKinnon (1995): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography degrades woman, reinforcing the hostility towards females, transforming in socially acceptable behaviors that are discriminatory. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russel (1988) Cowan and Dum (1994): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is not direct causality, but it predisposes individuals to accept rape and brake social rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bergner and Brideges (2002) Kutchinsky (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments are not conclusive or just conclusive on causality. </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  7. 7. Literature (the feminist view) <ul><li>Most of these results are based on lab experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Several problems arise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample selection, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linz (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term expositions has no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allen et al (1995) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence images have a stronger effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McKelroy (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography is just a way for woman to get more information about sex. </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  8. 8. Literature (the liberal view) <ul><li>Freedom of speech is at stake, and it has to be preserved unless human suffering is at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Pornography is a easy target, but its prohibition will only be one step before other freedoms are restricted </li></ul><ul><li>Tsang (1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its experience is related to own moral principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lottes et al (1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It depends on personal principals and values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hald (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the individuals are key to its result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different countries have different results. </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  9. 9. Literature (country results) <ul><li>Country and society are a key factor to understand the outcome to the exposition to pornography. </li></ul><ul><li>Malamouth et al (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a country has larger trust between men and women it can help relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kutchinsky (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baltic countries and the US didn’t get affected by the increase of pornography. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government commissioned studies in the UK, New Zealand and Australia were not conclusive either. </li></ul><ul><li>Kendall (2010) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar study to ours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is not relation in the US </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  10. 10. Literature (Spain) <ul><li>Cánovas (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social values are in decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography is degrading for men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martínez (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are powerless with respect to Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography worsens that situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malen (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal paper about the effects of pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not gives any causality </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  11. 11. Modelling sexual violence <ul><li>Emprical models are based on Becker (1968) and Ehrilch (1973) over rationality on crime </li></ul><ul><li>There is some debate over the issue if sexual crime is rational or not (Posner, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>We are assuming that sexual violence is rational </li></ul><ul><li>We follow Dahl and DellaVigna (2008) in developing a model where sexual crime depends on exposure, controlling on socio economic factors </li></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  12. 12. Data <ul><li>One of the main problems </li></ul><ul><li>Data for the 50 provinces from1998 to 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape, Sexual assault and Battery, Exhibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underreporting and conviction problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data on cases reported to court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data on Internet access by EGM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography consumption based on estimates by the largest provider of pornographic content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls obtained generally by INE based on causal factors in other felonies </li></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  13. 13. Results (OLS) Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  14. 14. Results (Panel Data) Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  15. 15. Results (Main findings) <ul><li>For rape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative relation with adult content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors have similar results that other crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution between rape and porn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Assault and Exhibition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a positive relation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the objectification of woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specially in youngsters </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?
  16. 16. Conclusions <ul><li>Internet porn has had an important effect on society </li></ul><ul><li>One of them is the widespread of pornography </li></ul><ul><li>This has had some effects into society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a substitution between porn and rape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But an increase violence on woman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The paper have several shortcomings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for robustness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve estimations with additional variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the model </li></ul></ul>Is Sexual Violence Related to Internet Exposure?

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