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20100321 network filesystem_briefs


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    • 1. Network File Systems Briefs [email_address] 3/20/2010
    • 2. Index
      • DEC-DAP
      • SUN-NFS
      • AT&T-RFS
      • CMU-AFS
      • CMU-Coda
      • OFS-DCE/DFS
      • Microsoft-CIFS
      • NetApp-Filer
      • EMC-MPFS
    • 3. Topic-File Storage
      • Block storage vs. file storage.
      • Block storage: EMC and Hitachi.
        • Block I/O access
        • Devices may be directly attached (SCSI or Fibre Channel) or distant accessed (iSCSI or AoE)
      • File storage: NetApp and EMC Celerra.
        • File I/O access
        • Files and directories are present over the network.
    • 4. NEC-DAP (Data Access Protocol)
      • Created in 1976
      • First wildly used network file system
      • A FAL (File Access Listener) is created on each data node to serve network-based access requests.
      • Use local file system to manage local device
    • 5. RPC war-Sun ONC vs. Apollo NCS
      • 1980s.
      • ONC (Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call, now SunRPC).
        • Always in big-endian order.
      • NCS (Network Computing System)
        • Avoid byte-swap if two peers share a common endianness.
    • 6. SUN-NFS (Network File System)
      • Built on top of SUN RPC.
      • V1: in-house development
      • V2: RFC1904. 1989. First release. Stateless. UDP based. Without lock management. Big bull authors (including Bill Joy).
      • V3: RFC1838. 1995. 64-bit support. Asynchronous writes. TCP support. READDIRPLUS operation to get file handle and attributes while scanning dir.
      • V4: RFC3010 and 3530. Learn from AFS and CIFS. IETF. Performance. Security. Session. Includes a stateful protocol.
      • NFS semantic: flush on close
        • check return value of close(2) when working with NFS !
    • 7. SUN-NFSv4.1
      • pNFS – MPFS
      • Directory delegation and notifications
        • Clients can have read-only delegated dir. So local cache is enough for any reads.
        • Server sends change notifications to clients that have delegated dir.
      • Multi-serve namespace
        • Server replicas to serve requests from clients
    • 8. AT&T-RFS (Remote File System)
      • 1980s. SVR3 (Unix System V release 3). Bell lab production.
      • Stateful. Lock management.
      • Complete UNIX/POSIX semantics.
      • Mount devices over network.
      • Digital Equipment, HP and IBM adopted NFS over RFS.
    • 9. CMU-AFS (Andrew File System)
      • 1988. Named after Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon. Part of Andrew project.
      • Kerberos (C/S auth protocol from MIT) for authentication.
      • ACL on dir.
      • Client cache on local file system.
      • Cache consistency—Callback. Server saves all cache information and sends update notify if file changed.
      • Doesn’t support large shared file updating.
        • Single file per message in Andrew Message System, vs. single file per mailbox.
      • Volume. Volume quota. Read-only volume replicas.
      • Shared and local namespace.
      • Predecessor of Transarc, OpenAFS, Arla and Coda.
    • 10. CMU-Coda
      • 1987. From AFS-2
      • Client side persistent cache and logged write updates.
        • Local/global conflicts
      • Server replication, allow all servers to receive write updates.
        • Server/server conflicts
      • Extensive repair, both manual and automated.
      • Continued operation during partial network failures.
      • Network bandwidth adaptation.
    • 11. OFS-DCE/DFS
      • Open Software Foundation(1988). HP, IBM against SUN and AT&T.
      • Developed by Transarc, based on AFS.
      • DCE/LFS (Local Journaling file System, aka Episode) as local cache layer. Improve write performance even over slow network connections.
      • Filesets management.
      • Transarc bought by IBM. OpenAFS announced by IBM in 2000. DCE/DFS killed by IBM in 2005.
    • 12. Microsoft-CIFS (Common Internet File System)
      • AKA SMB (Server Message Block) protocol, originally designed at IBM.
      • Modified and Merged by Microsoft with LAN Manager product in 1990.
      • Renamed to CIFS in 1996.
      • Samba – reverse engineering open source implementation.
      • Opportunistic locking.
        • Batch Locks: client delays sending close request. If a subsequent open request is given, the two cancels each other.
        • Exclusive Locks: If obtained, client may cache all changes before committing. If others open the same file, server sends revocation notify and client flushes all changes.
        • Level 2 OpLocks: After revoking a exclusive lock, server may send Level 2 OpLocks to allow client to cache read but exclude write.
    • 13. Microsoft-CIFS cont.
      • SMB2 in 2006 (Windows Vista). Specification published.
      • Samba 4 adds support for SMB2.
      • Reduce control messages from over a hundred to nineteen.
      • Request pipelining: allow sending requests before response to previous req returns.
      • Compound multiple action in a single request.
      • Larger buffer size and symbolic links.
      • Durable file handle, allows a connection to survive brief network-outage without having to negotiate a new session.
    • 14. NetApp-Filer
      • AKA NetApp Fabric-Attached Storage (FAS).
      • Originally NFS/CIFS based NAS solutions.
      • FTP, TFTP, HTTP, FC (Fiber Channel) and iSCSI are added later.
      • WAFL (Write Anywhere File Layout).
        • Read-only and read-write (FlexClone) snapshot.
        • Two directory models (UNIX and Windows) and two file security models (ACL and bitmask)
        • Consistency points.
        • Automatic fragmentation, saving metadata anywhere on the disk, usually beside its data blocks.
    • 15. EMC—MPFS (Multi-Path File System)
    • 16. More Over
      • Clustered file system.
        • Shared disk.
        • Translation from file-level ops to block-level must be done on client nodes.
        • Examples?
      • Distributed file system.
        • Similar to clustered file systems.
        • Replication and fault tolerance.
        • NFS, CIFS, AFS, Google GFS, etc.
      • Clustered NAS
        • Stripe data/metadata across the cluster of nodes.
    • 17. Thank YOU~~ Most of the contents are taken from Wikipedia. No copyright reserved except that of others’.