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Network File Systems Briefs [email_address] 3/20/2010
Index <ul><li>DEC-DAP </li></ul><ul><li>SUN-NFS </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T-RFS </li></ul><ul><li>CMU-AFS </li></ul><ul><li>CMU...
Topic-File Storage <ul><li>Block storage vs. file storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Block storage: EMC and Hitachi. </li></ul><ul...
NEC-DAP (Data Access Protocol) <ul><li>Created in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>First wildly used network file system </li></ul><...
RPC war-Sun ONC vs. Apollo NCS <ul><li>1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>ONC (Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call, now Sun...
SUN-NFS (Network File System) <ul><li>Built on top of SUN RPC. </li></ul><ul><li>V1: in-house development </li></ul><ul><l...
SUN-NFSv4.1 <ul><li>pNFS – MPFS </li></ul><ul><li>Directory delegation and notifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients can...
AT&T-RFS (Remote File System) <ul><li>1980s. SVR3 (Unix System V release 3). Bell lab production. </li></ul><ul><li>Statef...
CMU-AFS (Andrew File System) <ul><li>1988. Named after Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon. Part of Andrew project. </li></u...
CMU-Coda <ul><li>1987. From AFS-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Client side persistent cache and logged write updates. </li></ul><ul><...
OFS-DCE/DFS <ul><li>Open Software Foundation(1988). HP, IBM against SUN and AT&T. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Transarc,...
Microsoft-CIFS (Common Internet File System) <ul><li>AKA SMB (Server Message Block) protocol, originally designed at IBM. ...
Microsoft-CIFS cont. <ul><li>SMB2 in 2006 (Windows Vista). Specification published. </li></ul><ul><li>Samba 4 adds support...
NetApp-Filer <ul><li>AKA NetApp Fabric-Attached Storage (FAS). </li></ul><ul><li>Originally NFS/CIFS based NAS solutions. ...
EMC—MPFS (Multi-Path File System)
More Over <ul><li>Clustered file system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared disk.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation from f...
Thank YOU~~ Most of the contents are taken from Wikipedia. No copyright reserved except that of others’.
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20100321 network filesystem_briefs

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  • Transcript of "20100321 network filesystem_briefs"

    1. 1. Network File Systems Briefs [email_address] 3/20/2010
    2. 2. Index <ul><li>DEC-DAP </li></ul><ul><li>SUN-NFS </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T-RFS </li></ul><ul><li>CMU-AFS </li></ul><ul><li>CMU-Coda </li></ul><ul><li>OFS-DCE/DFS </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft-CIFS </li></ul><ul><li>NetApp-Filer </li></ul><ul><li>EMC-MPFS </li></ul>
    3. 3. Topic-File Storage <ul><li>Block storage vs. file storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Block storage: EMC and Hitachi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block I/O access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices may be directly attached (SCSI or Fibre Channel) or distant accessed (iSCSI or AoE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File storage: NetApp and EMC Celerra. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File I/O access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files and directories are present over the network. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. NEC-DAP (Data Access Protocol) <ul><li>Created in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>First wildly used network file system </li></ul><ul><li>A FAL (File Access Listener) is created on each data node to serve network-based access requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Use local file system to manage local device </li></ul>
    5. 5. RPC war-Sun ONC vs. Apollo NCS <ul><li>1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>ONC (Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call, now SunRPC). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always in big-endian order. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NCS (Network Computing System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid byte-swap if two peers share a common endianness. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. SUN-NFS (Network File System) <ul><li>Built on top of SUN RPC. </li></ul><ul><li>V1: in-house development </li></ul><ul><li>V2: RFC1904. 1989. First release. Stateless. UDP based. Without lock management. Big bull authors (including Bill Joy). </li></ul><ul><li>V3: RFC1838. 1995. 64-bit support. Asynchronous writes. TCP support. READDIRPLUS operation to get file handle and attributes while scanning dir. </li></ul><ul><li>V4: RFC3010 and 3530. Learn from AFS and CIFS. IETF. Performance. Security. Session. Includes a stateful protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>NFS semantic: flush on close </li></ul><ul><ul><li>check return value of close(2) when working with NFS ! </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. SUN-NFSv4.1 <ul><li>pNFS – MPFS </li></ul><ul><li>Directory delegation and notifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients can have read-only delegated dir. So local cache is enough for any reads. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server sends change notifications to clients that have delegated dir. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-serve namespace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server replicas to serve requests from clients </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. AT&T-RFS (Remote File System) <ul><li>1980s. SVR3 (Unix System V release 3). Bell lab production. </li></ul><ul><li>Stateful. Lock management. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete UNIX/POSIX semantics. </li></ul><ul><li>Mount devices over network. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Equipment, HP and IBM adopted NFS over RFS. </li></ul>
    9. 9. CMU-AFS (Andrew File System) <ul><li>1988. Named after Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon. Part of Andrew project. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerberos (C/S auth protocol from MIT) for authentication. </li></ul><ul><li>ACL on dir. </li></ul><ul><li>Client cache on local file system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache consistency—Callback. Server saves all cache information and sends update notify if file changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t support large shared file updating. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single file per message in Andrew Message System, vs. single file per mailbox. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume. Volume quota. Read-only volume replicas. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared and local namespace. </li></ul><ul><li>Predecessor of Transarc, OpenAFS, Arla and Coda. </li></ul>
    10. 10. CMU-Coda <ul><li>1987. From AFS-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Client side persistent cache and logged write updates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local/global conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server replication, allow all servers to receive write updates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server/server conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive repair, both manual and automated. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued operation during partial network failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Network bandwidth adaptation. </li></ul>
    11. 11. OFS-DCE/DFS <ul><li>Open Software Foundation(1988). HP, IBM against SUN and AT&T. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Transarc, based on AFS. </li></ul><ul><li>DCE/LFS (Local Journaling file System, aka Episode) as local cache layer. Improve write performance even over slow network connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Filesets management. </li></ul><ul><li>Transarc bought by IBM. OpenAFS announced by IBM in 2000. DCE/DFS killed by IBM in 2005. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Microsoft-CIFS (Common Internet File System) <ul><li>AKA SMB (Server Message Block) protocol, originally designed at IBM. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified and Merged by Microsoft with LAN Manager product in 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Renamed to CIFS in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Samba – reverse engineering open source implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunistic locking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch Locks: client delays sending close request. If a subsequent open request is given, the two cancels each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive Locks: If obtained, client may cache all changes before committing. If others open the same file, server sends revocation notify and client flushes all changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 OpLocks: After revoking a exclusive lock, server may send Level 2 OpLocks to allow client to cache read but exclude write. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Microsoft-CIFS cont. <ul><li>SMB2 in 2006 (Windows Vista). Specification published. </li></ul><ul><li>Samba 4 adds support for SMB2. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce control messages from over a hundred to nineteen. </li></ul><ul><li>Request pipelining: allow sending requests before response to previous req returns. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound multiple action in a single request. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger buffer size and symbolic links. </li></ul><ul><li>Durable file handle, allows a connection to survive brief network-outage without having to negotiate a new session. </li></ul>
    14. 14. NetApp-Filer <ul><li>AKA NetApp Fabric-Attached Storage (FAS). </li></ul><ul><li>Originally NFS/CIFS based NAS solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>FTP, TFTP, HTTP, FC (Fiber Channel) and iSCSI are added later. </li></ul><ul><li>WAFL (Write Anywhere File Layout). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-only and read-write (FlexClone) snapshot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two directory models (UNIX and Windows) and two file security models (ACL and bitmask) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic fragmentation, saving metadata anywhere on the disk, usually beside its data blocks. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. EMC—MPFS (Multi-Path File System)
    16. 16. More Over <ul><li>Clustered file system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared disk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation from file-level ops to block-level must be done on client nodes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed file system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to clustered file systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication and fault tolerance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFS, CIFS, AFS, Google GFS, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clustered NAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripe data/metadata across the cluster of nodes. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Thank YOU~~ Most of the contents are taken from Wikipedia. No copyright reserved except that of others’.
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