Reservoir mapping

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Reservoir mapping all you need to know

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Reservoir mapping

  1. 1. • To demonstrate reservoir properties in a plan view projection with objectives to promote optimal field development.• The maps will be used for well placement, reserves calculation, reservoir performance monitoring.• Mapping is part of reservoir characterization, therefore the results of which very depend on the expert’s working knowledge in applied geologic models
  2. 2. WELL PLACEMENT
  3. 3. • TOP/SURFACE MAPS : – Structure Map – Fault Map – Unconformity Map Carried out by DG• THICKNESS MAPS : – Isopachous Map Gross & Net• OTHERS & COMBINED MAPS : – Isoporosity Map - Isopermeability Map – Pressure Map - Saturation Map – Productivity Map - Shale Map – Net to Gross Sand Map - Etc.
  4. 4. MAPPING CONCEPTUAL WORKFLOW DATA PROCESSING PROCESING PRODUCTS REGIONAL 1. GEOLOGIC MODEL GEOLOGY 1. FACIES 2. STRATIFICATION SEISMIC 3. CONTINUITY INTERPRETATION, 4. TRENDS WELL LOGS ZONATION, 5. TECTONIC INTEGRATION, 2. GEOLOGICAL MAPCORE & CUTTING CORRELATION, 1. STRUCTURE ANALYSIS 2. ISOPACH ANALYSIS 3. FAULTS/BARIER & 4. UNCONFORMITYWELL TESTS & DEFINE VALUES 3. RESERVOIR MAP PRESSURE 1. NET PAY 2. POROSITYFLUID ANALYSIS 3. PERMEABILITY 4. PRESSURE PRODUCTION 5. PRODUCTIVITY DATA
  5. 5. BASIC KNOWLEDGEFOR RESERVOIR CORRELATION & MAPPING • LOG ANALYSIS (electro-facies, reservoir parameters, stratigraphy, structure, etc.) • SEISMIC INTERPRETATION (structure, reservoir continuity, hydrocarbon indications) • SEDIMENTARY FACIES, DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS & SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY • MODELS OF BASINS & RESERVOIRS, AND ALSO REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE MAPPED FIELD trends of sedimentation & major tectonic and it’s ramifications • BASIC RESERVOIR ENGINEERING pressure regime, models, fluid propertie and production performance. • BASIC COORDINATE SYSTEMS/GEOMETRY & STEREOMETRY base map, well trajectory, lease boundary etc.
  6. 6. LOG ANALYSISFOR RESERVOIR CORRELATION & MAPPING• LITHOLOGY / FACIES IDENTIFICATIONS & MARKERS DETERMINATION continuity, consistency, missing sections & repetition sections (faults or overturn)• DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT• VERTICAL ZONATIONS – TOP & BOTTOM – FLOW UNIT• FLUID CONTACTS OWC, GOC & GWC• RESERVOIR PARAMETERS Por, Perm, Sw etc• NET PAY THICKNESS DETERMINATIONS
  7. 7. BASIC CURVE SHAPE OF SP & GRfor facies & sedimentary environment determinations
  8. 8. DIP METER dip patterns and it’s geologic associationDIPMETER USES :•Structural dip & fault determinations.•Facies, type of sands & it’s trendsinterpretations (micro resistivity•Fracture identification•Sedimentary structure can beidentified with processed Dipmeter orFMI (formation imaging)
  9. 9. FMI fulbore formation micro imagerRAB resistivity at the bit
  10. 10. SEISMIC FOR RESERVOIR GEOLOGY• Aid in : – Reservoir facies mapping reservoir distribution : lithology, isopach etc 3D – Reservoir properties mapping porosity – Locating / define fluid contacts – Monitoring fluid fronts 4D – Sructure & stratigraphic interpretations• Seismic methods : – 2D Seismic – 3D seismic – VSP – Well to well seismic – Time-lapse seismic monitoring etc.
  11. 11. EXPLOSIVELAPISAN BATUAN
  12. 12. EXAMPLE
  13. 13. VSP VSP Profiling)(Vertical Seismic SLB, OFR, 2007 Autumn
  14. 14. Example :Comparison of VSP & Seismic Results SURFACE SEISMIC IMAGE SURFACE SEISMIC IMAGE TIES WITH VSP SLB, OFR, 2007 Autumn
  15. 15. 3D Seismic
  16. 16. Basic of 4D Seismic
  17. 17. Example : 4D Seismic uses
  18. 18. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES
  19. 19. Distinctive and Common Sedimentary Facies AssociationsVertical successions principally identified by lithology, associations and vertical arrangement of sedimentary structures indicative of particular sedimentary depositional environments
  20. 20. CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS(DIAGRAM BY R.G. LOUCKS AND C.R. HANDFORD, UNPUBLISHED)
  21. 21. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY CONCEPTS• Sequence stratigraphy highlights the role of allogenic controls on patterns of deposition, as opposed to autogenic controls that operate within depositional environments – Eustasy (sea level) – Subsidence (basin tectonics) – Sediment supply (climate and hinterland tectonics)
  22. 22. COMPONENTS OF SEQUENCES SLB, OFR, JAN93
  23. 23. GROSS NET NET PAY
  24. 24. • A MAPABLE PORTION OF THE TOTAL RESERVOIR WITHIN WHICH GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES THAT AFFECT THE FLOW OF FLUIDS ARE CONSISTENT AND PREDICTABLY DIFFERENT FROM THE PROPERTIES OF OTHER RESERVOIR ROCK VOLUME ( mod. EBANK, 1987) – A specific volume of reservoir, may be composed of one or more lithologies and any nonreservoir rock types – Correlative and mappable at the interwell scale – Zonation is recognizable on wireline logs – May be in communication with other flow unit
  25. 25. LEVELS OF RESERVOIRHETEROGENETY (fluviatil rock)
  26. 26. GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL DATA USED TO DEFINE FLOW UNITS Core Pore Petrophysical Gamma Ray Flow Core Lithofacies Plugs Types Data Log Units Capillary φ vs k Pressure 5 4 3 2 1
  27. 27. Schematic Reservoir Layering Profile in a Carbonate Reservoir Flow unitBaffles/barriers SA -97A SA -356 SA -71 SA -344 SA -348 SA -37 SA -251 SA -371 SA -346 3150 3150 3100 3100 3250 3200 3150 3100 3200 3150 3200 3200 3150 3300 3250 3200 3150 3250 3250 3250 3200 3250 3300 3250 3200 3300 3300 3250 3350 3300 3250 3350 3350 From Bastian and others
  28. 28. E• BASED ON : – PRODUCTION TESTINGS the most reliable methods – LOGS (electrical logs combined with FDC & CNL) – PRESSURE SURVEY pressure gradient from RFT – SEISMIC hydrocarbon indications
  29. 29. Fluid Contact Determination with fluid gradient from RFT Oil Gra W die at er nt 0 G ra .36 di en 7 t0 psi .4 depth 33 /ft ps i/f t oil OWCwater RFT depth pressure
  30. 30. CORRELATIONS• “Reservoir Correlation” is part of pre-mapping works of reservoir to locate and trace the lateral distribution, continuity, geometry of reservoirs and it’s flow unit.• Correlation should be carried out based all the available data, a sedimentological and stratigraphic model of the reservoirs.• Some pre-correlation works notes: – Wireline log will be the basic data and will be calibrated and integrated with other data analysis results such as core analysis especially. – Vertical profile analysis of well data should be carried out previously to establish the facies, sequences and sedimentary environment. – Zonation of lithology and flow unit, and also marker inentifications should be geologically sound. – Define the zone top & bottom, zone thickness (gross & net) etc.
  31. 31. Tips for Correlation• Stratigraphic Cross Section is the best demonstration of a correlation results.• The section should show reservoir lateral and vertical facies changes, markers continuity, missing & repetition sections, completion & prod. testing notes, etc.• Good markers can be organic shale, coal/lignite, limestone beds, glauconite, siderite etc. which has good continuity and correspond to the geologic events such as maximum flooding, emmergence etc.• Start the correlation with the whole log section of individual well, make zonation based on electro facies then define all markers and zones of interest. Indicates any missing and repetition section. Then carry out a detail correlation of objective reservoirs.• For reservoir connectivity indication use also fluid contents and contacts, pressure data and production performance data• Prepare a good tabulation (database) of geologic data such as depth of top & bottom of reservoir, net & gross thickness, fault’s depth etc.
  32. 32. CORRELATIONPROBABILISTIC to DETERMINISTIC
  33. 33. After EA Arief S, IPA, 2001
  34. 34. LATIHAN D C B A
  35. 35. WELL #123 LATIHAN WELL #456B OIL OWCA D OIL C
  36. 36. WELL #123 LATIHAN WELL #456B OIL OWCA D OIL C
  37. 37. WELL #123 LATIHAN WELL #456B OIL OWCA D OIL C
  38. 38. Tip for Reservoir Mapping• Prepare a good base-map based on coordinates of wells and seismic shot points (line & BM).• Plot the data accurately then start contouring from the highest positions for structure and refer to seismic maps.• Stucture contour should be stop whenever cross/meet the fault plane. Consider the fault throws and missing/repetition sections for the next blocks contouring.• For isopach maps initiate with facies map construction then followed with isopach contouring.• Understand the contouring principles such as no crossing contour etc.
  39. 39. ’ 00 -1 2 0’ 00 ’ -1 00 -11 0’ 0’ - 1 0’ 20 00 -1 0 -11 ’ 0’ 00 10 00 ’ -1 2 ’ -1 00 ’ 00 0’ -13 0 0’ -1 00’ 0 10 00 0’ -1 20 -1 1-1 -1 0 0 ’ -1 2 -1 0’ 10 -1 0’ 00 -1 0’ - 1 20 ’ 20 ’ 30 0’ ’ 30 0’ ’ 10 ’ 20’ 20 10’ ’ ’ 20 ’ 10 20 ’ 10 0’ 0’
  40. 40. PLAN VIEW -1700’ -1600’ -1500’ ’ -1400 0’ -130 -1000’ -1100’ -1200’ -1300’ -1400’ -1500’ -1600’ SECTION VIEW -1700’- 16 00’-15 00’- 14 0’- 13 00’- 12 00’- 11 00’- 10 00’ 00’ 0- 17
  41. 41. NET PAY MAP CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE MAP 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 Contour unit in meter sub-sea Contour interval 10 mOWC @ 1050 mss
  42. 42. NET PAY MAP CONSTRUCTION 0m ISOPACHOUS MAP 5m 10 m15 m 15 m Contour unit in meter10 m Contour interval 5 m5m0m
  43. 43. NET PAY MAP CONSTRUCTION 0m NET PAY MAP 5m 1050 1040 10 m 1030 1020 101015 m 15 10 5 Contour unit in meter10 m 0 Contour interval 5 m5m0m
  44. 44. FAULT MAP nd ow SURFACES OF FAULTS X AND Y
  45. 45. WEST-EAST CROSS SECTION Y FORMIT UNCON B AS d an S an B dA Sa nd d S anB
  46. 46. STRUCTURE MAP OF A SAND
  47. 47. ISOPACHOUS MAP OF A SAND
  48. 48. NET PAY MAP OF A SAND
  49. 49. STRUCTURE MAP OF B SAND
  50. 50. ISOPACHOUS MAP of B SAND
  51. 51. NET PAY MAP OF B SAND NET OIL NET GAS
  52. 52. FAULT ANALYSIS SEALING OR NON SEALING• Can be based on : – Log analysis – Well test data – Pressure build-up analysis – Interference test – Production data – Using radioactive tracer – Core & Rock Cutting – Correlation & Sratigraphic analysis
  53. 53. ALLAN DIAGRAM Disagregated Phillosillicate- clay-smear & cemented smear fault rocks framework
  54. 54. A B C A D BE C F D E
  55. 55. Allan Diagram for non-sealing fault UP BLOCK UP BLOCK OIL OIL OILDOWN BLOCK DOWN BLOCK OIL Common Oil Water Contacts WATER WATER
  56. 56. NET PAY MAP CONSTRUCTION 0m NET PAY MAP 5m 1050 1040 10 m 1030 1020 101015 m 15 10 5 Contour unit in meter10 m 0 Contour interval 5 m5m0m

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