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Oil shale..New fossil fuel for century



Oil shale resource is called unconventional oil resources to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods (e.g., conventional oil resources). Most of the world's ...

Oil shale resource is called unconventional oil resources to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods (e.g., conventional oil resources). Most of the world's oil reserves are recorded as unconventional crude oil. Oil shale deposits represent staggering resource figures. Estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey suggest a global resource of 3 trillion (1012) barrels of oil, but reasonable estimates as high as 12 trillion barrels have been made. About half of the resource is located in the western United States. This articles aims to sight some light on the oil shale as the important types of unconventional oil deposits in the earth as well as how much can be economically recovered from oil shale.



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  • Nice and appreciable presentation.
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  • At best a fair summary using mostly dated material on the subject of oil shale. Where Harraz states that oil source rocks contain 0.5-2.0 % organic material, rock is not oil shale unless it contains at least 5-10% organic material. Oil shale is not just source rock, some of it is the richest source rock known. Kerogen of one type or another is the source of all oil. Not all oil shale contains the kind of waxy kerogen found in the Green River Formation. Harraz is wrong to assert that carbonate rich oil shale is difficult to process. Indeed, siliceous shale can be much tougher than carbonate-rich shale. Green River Formation oil shale is also uniquely rich in diagenetic feldspar, which does make it tough, but no one stopped producing shale oil from oil shale because of that. The terms oil shale and shale oil have been used for these rocks and their product for more than a century, and it is not inappropriate to call a rock that yields oil an oil shale, whether it requires heat or complex hydraulic fracturing to get oil from the rock. So priority goes to first use. If asphalt is a solid, is it wrong to call asphaltene-rich oil-saturated rocks oil sands? Finally, the most recent cost estimates suggest economic recovery requires $38-65/barrel oil. It is wrong to assert that the oil is not economically recoverable. Estonia, China, Australia and Brazil do it now, and companies are beginning design of plants to do so now in the U. S. Those interested in a more up-to-date view of oil shale may wish to visit the website of the Center for Oil Shale Technology and Research and go to the Oil Shale Symposia pages, where recent work on oil shale development from a wide range of viewpoints is tabulated.
    Jeremy Boak, Director
    Center for Oil Shale Technology and Research
    Colorado School of Mines
    Viewpoints are mine, not positions of the Colorado School of Mines
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    Oil shale..New fossil fuel for century Oil shale..New fossil fuel for century Presentation Transcript

    • Oil ShaleBy Prof. Dr. Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com
    • What is petroleum? • Petroleum: A general term for all naturally occurring hydrocarbons (hydrogen + carbon) • Solid Hydrocarbons: Asphalt • Liquid Hydrocarbons: Crude oil • Gas Hydrocarbons: Natural Gas: methane, butane, propane, etc. The simplest hydrocarbon is Methane (CH4)Source Rocks (i.e., Oil Shale) Organic Matter • Sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (~ 0.5 - 2% by weight) • Most commonly microscopic marine material, but it can be land based material • Organic material cannot decay too much (It has to keep its carbon). 2 April 13, 2012 HZH
    • Origin and Habitat of Petroleum Fossil fuels : Local large concentrations of organic matter in sedimentary rocks, in the form of coal, oil or natural gas. The origin of fossil fuels Biomass energy in general, starts with photosynthesis. Oil Shale April 13, 2012 HZH 3
    • Origin and Habitat of Petroleum Many organic carbon-rich marine and lake shales never reach the burial temperature level at which the original organic molecules are converted into hydrocarbons forming oil and natural gas. Instead, the alteration process is limited to certain wax-like substances with large molecules. This material, which remains solid, is called kerogen, and is the organic substance of so- called oil shales. Kerogen can be converted into oil and gas by further burial by mining the shale and subjecting it to heat it in a retort. April 13, 2012 HZH 4
    • Occurrence of Oil and Gas In nature, crude oil deposits are occurring in two different modes, namely: i) Conventional oil reservoirs Figure shows Crude oil reservoirs; Hydrocarbon trap; traditional oil well methods. ii) Unconventional oil reservoirs. Oil that has escaped to the surface and extracted by mining techniques. Unconventional deposits, such as:- • Marsh gas , • Coal-bed methane, • Tar sands, and • Oil shales.  Oil Shale Considered a source rock for Figure show oil shale and fossil in oil shale from conventional crude Reservoir resources Messel pit, south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. April 13, 2012 HZH 5
    •  This articles aims to shows some light on the oil shale (i.e., Burn rocks or Source Rocks) as the important types of unconventional oil deposits in the earth. Producing energy from rock that burns is entering into a new research and development phase. Can these processes now in the experimental stages unlock some of oil shale’s enormous potential ? April 13, 2012 HZH 6
    • Oil Shale (Burn Rocks or Source Rocks) Silty marlstone containing relatively large amounts of organic matter called kerogen Kerogen : heated produce oil and natural gas April 13, 2012 HZH 7
    • Figure shows mining method to exploited oilshale deposits Figure shows extracting oil from oil shale deposits oil  Most of the worlds oil reserves are recorded as unconventional crude oil. April 13, 2012 HZH 8
    • OIL SHALE VARIETIESBased on mineral content of Oil shales, three categories can recognized namely: – i) Carbonate-rich oil shales • content a large amount of carbonate minerals (such as calcite and dolomite) that mixed with oil shale, • have usually the organic-rich layers sandwiched between carbonate-rich layers. • are hard formations that are hard and resistant to weathering. • are difficult to process using ex-situ methods. ii) Siliceous oil shales • are usually dark brown or black shales. • are not rich in carbonates but rather in siliceous minerals (such as quartz, feldspar, clay, chert and opal). • are not as hard and weather-resistant • may be better suited for extraction via ex-situ methods. iii) Cannel oil shales • are usually dark brown or black shales, • consist of organic matter that completely encloses other mineral grains. • are suitable for extraction via ex-situ methodsApril 13, 2012 HZH 9
    • Fig.13: Shows Woodford Shale Formation at Oklahoma, USA. Fig.14: Show tar sand in association with asphalt in SeepViola Limestone, Oklahoma – USA. Fig.15: Shows coals and Coaly Shales at San Juan Basin, New Mexico- USA. April 13, 2012 HZH 10
    • OIL SHALE CLASSIFICATION There are varying classifications of oil shales depending: on their mineral content, type of kerogen, age, depositional history, and organisms from which they are derived. High quality Figure shows Van Krevelen diagram which showing types of kerogen and pathways for April 13, 2012 HZH generation of methane and elimination of carbon dioxide and water during coalification. 11 Liptinite corresponds to types I and II kerogen, vitrinite to type III, and inertinite to type IV.
    • The most used classification of oil shales was developed between1987 and 1991 by Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong, basedon the environment where the initial biomass was deposited . According to this classification oil shales are designated as:- i) Terrestrial. ii) Lacustrine (lake-bottom-deposited). iii) Marine (ocean bottom-deposited. Table Classification of oil shales by environment of deposition (Hutton, 1987) Lacustrine Marine Terrestrial (lake-bottom-deposited) (ocean bottom-deposited) (Type III, low quality (H/C)) (Type II) (Type I, High quality (H/C)) Kukersite; Lamosite; Cannel coal Tasmanite; Torbanite Marinite Huttons classification scheme has proven useful in estimating the yield and composition of the extracted oil .
    • Figure shows photographic of channel-Fill SandstoneResting on Marine Shale Red Fork, Oklahoma, USA Figure shows fossils in Ordovician kukersite oil shale,April 13, 2012 HZH northern Estonia 13
    • COMPOSITION OF OIL SHALEa) Organic matter (macerals) in oil shale Three major types of organic matter (macerals) in oil shale are i) Telalginite, ii) Lamalginite, and iii) Bituminite b) Inorganic matrix matter in oil shale Mineral matter in oil shale contains fine-grained silicate and carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, siderite, quartz, feldspar (orthoclase, albite, and anorthite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), marcasite, rutile, limonite, gypsum, nahcolite, dawsonite and alum. Some oil-shale deposits also contain metals such as vanadium, zinc, copper, and uranium among others Table General composition of oil shales (Altun, et al., 2006) Inorganic matrix Bitumens Kerogens Insoluble in CS2; Quartz; feldspars; clays (mainly illite and chlorite); carbonates Soluble in CS2 Containing uranium, iron, (calcite and dolomite); pyrite and others vanadium, nickel, molybdenum, ....... etc April 13, 2012 HZH 14
    • COMPOSITION OF OIL SHALE Photomicrograph showing detail of the varves in a rich Colorado oil shale specimen. The organic laminae are themselves finely laminated. The mineral laminae contain considerable organic matter, but they are readily distinguished by their coarser grain and greater thickness. Note sand grains (white). Enlarged 320 diameters. Figure show intercalation of Organic-Rich Thin Laminae with inorganic (minerals) laminae.April 13, 2012 HZH 15
    •  Largest oil shale deposits in the world are located in the Eocene Green River Formation in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. April 13, 2012 HZH 17
    • In-Place Resources• Total within the Green River Formation – 1.5 to 1.8 trillion bbls 1,800 1,600 Billion Barrels of shale oil – Colorado – 1.0 trillion barrels 1,600 – Wyoming – 300 billion barrels 1,400 – Utah – 165 billion to 321 billion barrels 1,200 1,000 World conventional crude reserves – 1.3 trillion barrels 800 U.S. conventional crude reserves – 22 billion barrels 600  Saudi Arabia conventional crude reserves – 262 billion 400 barrels 200 5 18 25 35 58 69 90 0 an l a S. a a il co ae ali in ni az U. rd oc Isr Ch to str Br Jo or Es Au M April 13, 2012 HZH 18
    • Recovery Methods • Underground/surface mining and surface Oil Tech’s surface retort retorting Environmental concerns: – Disturbance of land – Use of water resources – Greenhouse gas emissions – Impacts on water and air qualityRoom and pillar oil shale mine in Estonia April 13, 2012 HZH 19
    • rch Next Research Phase Phase Recovery Methods ast) to CommercialtionIn-situhale Test retorting • Heater & Producergrated –pilot,shale slowly to 650 to Heat Wells scaleable 700 degrees F Water & Freeze Wells Temperature – Lease land (160M RD&D Recover 1/3 gas and 2/3 Monitor Wells light oil s) – In Colorado, potential for 1d similaracre to yield 1 million to commercial barrels of oil age (5120 acres) Solid Shale Fractured Shale Water Bearingve construction/site Advantages: Environmental concerns: Zonewparation 07Much less land disturbance – – Groundwater contamination ear life followed by – No tailings – Energy consumptiondeled – Better recovery efficiencyamation/closure – Allows access to deeper oilall testdecision near end of the decade,mercial 2006shale reserves Energy Forum – Higher-quality product April 13, 2012 HZH 20 t lots of work ongoing between now and then.
    • White River Oil Shale Mine, Uinta Basin April 13, 2012 HZH 21
    • “Back-of-the-envelope” (2006 data)Underground mine: • Utah crude oil production =• Assumptions: 50,000 bbls per day – 40 ft of 35 gpt oil shale • Utah petroleum consumption – 5,000 acre lease = 145,000 bbls per day – 50% material recovery • U.S. crude oil production – 90% shale oil extraction efficiency = 5 million bbls per day• Results: • U.S. petroleum consumption – 200 million bbls of oil = 21 million bbls per day – 30,000 bbls per day for 20 years • U.S. crude oil imports = 10 million bbls per dayIn-situ methods:• Assumptions: • Utah’s refinery capacity = – 124 ft of 25 gpt oil shale 167,000 bbls per day – 5,000 acre lease • Utah’s refinery inputs = – 60% shale oil extraction efficiency 151,000 bbls per day• Results: • Utah’s spare refinery capacity = – 700 million bbls of oil 16,000 bbls per day –April 13, 2012 95,000 bbls per day for 20 years HZH 22
    • SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS In nature, crude oil deposits are occurring in two different modes, namely: i) Conventional oil reservoirs; and ii) Unconventional oil reservoirs. Most of the worlds oil reserves are recorded as unconventional oil type which oil shale is important types of this deposit in theearth Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rocks containing significant amounts of kerogen, and belonging to the group of sapropelfuels . Oil shales can be classified by their composition (carbonate minerals such as calcite or detrital minerals such as quartz and clays)or by their depositional environment (large lakes, shallow marine, and lagoon/small lake settings). Much of the organic matter in oil shale is of algal origin, but may also include remains of vascular land plants. Three major type oforganic matter (macerals) in oil shale are telalginite, lamalginite, and bituminite . Some oil-shale deposits also contain metals whichinclude V, Zn, Cu, U. Most oil shale deposits were formed during Middle Cambrian, Early and Middle Ordovician, Late Devonian, Late Jurassic, andPaleogene times through burial by sedimentary loading on top of the algal swamp deposits, resulting in conversion of the organic matterto kerogen by diagenetic processes . The largest deposits are found in the remains of large lakes such as the deposits of the Green RiverFormation of Wyoming and Utah, USA. Oil-shale deposits formed in the shallow seas of continental shelves generally are much thinner than large lake basin deposits. Oil shale is shale that contains abundant organic matter that has not decomposed completely to produce petroleum. Oilshales are source rocks that have not been exposed to heat or pressure long enough to convert their trapped hydrocarbons intocrude oil. Technically speaking, oil shales are not really shales and do not really contain oil, but are usually relatively hard rocks(i.e., marls) containing a waxy substance called kerogen. Oil can be extracted from oil shales, but they must be heated to high enough temperatures to drive the oil out. Since this processrequires a lot of energy, exploitation of oil shales is not currently cost-effective, but may become so as other sources of petroleum becomedepleted. April 13, 2012 HZH 23
    •  Most of the worlds oil reserves are recorded as unconventional crude oil.  Fossil fuels will continuous for ever .April 13, 2012 HZH 24
    • • References Alali, J. (2006). "Jordan Oil Shale, Availability, Distribution, And Investment Opportunity". International Oil Shale Conference. Amman, Jordan, (PDF) 70p• Altun, N. E.; Hiçyilmaz, C.; Hwang, J.-Y.; Suat Bağci, A.; and Kök, M. V. (2006). "Oil Shales in the world and Turkey; reserves, current situation and future prospects: a review" (PDF). Oil Shale. A Scientific-Technical Journal (Estonian Academy Publishers) 23 (3): 211–227.• (http://www.kirj.ee/public/oilshale/oil-2006-3-2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-16).• Bauert, H. (1994). "The Baltic oil shale basin—An overview". Proceedings 1993 Eastern Oil Shale Symposium- University of Kentucky, Institute for Mining and Minerals Research: 411–421.• Carman, E.P. and Bayes, F.S. (1961). Occurrence, Properties, and Uses of Some Natural Bitumens (U.S Bureau of Mines information circular 7997- United States Bureau of Mines. (PDF), p. 20.• (http://ds.heavyoil.utah.edu/dspace/bitstream/123456789/5295/1/Utah-Tar-111.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-17).• Dyni, J. R. (2006). Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits. Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5294, (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey.• (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5294/pdf/sir5294_508.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-09).• Elayer, R.W.; Dorling, I.P.; and McKie, P.W. (1990). Oil Shale Exploration and Geology . In: Brown, R.L. ed., Surface Mining. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. Chapter 2.9.• (http://books.smenet.org/Surf_Min_2ndEd/sm-ch02-sc09-ss00-bod.cfm. Retrieved 2008-07-08).• Hutton, A.C. (1987). "Petrographic classification of oil shales". International Journal of Coal Geology 8 (3): 203–231.• Lee, S. (1990). Oil Shale Technology. CRC Press. pp. 10.• (http://books.google.com/books?id=N0wMCusO6yIC&pg=PA253&lpg=PA10.Retrieved 2007-07-09).• Ots, A. (2007). "Estonian oil shale properties and utilization in power plants" (PDF). Energetika (Lithuanian Academy of Sciences Publishers) 53 (2): 8–18.• (http://images.katalogas.lt/maleidykla/Ener72/Ener_008_018.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-07).• Savory, E. (2007). Energy conversion. ES 832a. Lecture 4 – Fuels. (PPT). Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering. University of Western Ontario.• (http://www.eng.uwo.ca/people/esavory/ES%20832_Lect%204.ppt. Retrieved 2007-10-27).• Sweeney, J. J.; Burnham, A. K.; and Braun, R. L. (1987). "A Model of Hydrocarbon Generation from Type I Kerogen: Application to Uinta Basin". AAPG Bulletin 71 (8): 967–985.• (http://aapgbull.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/8/967. Retrieved 2007-07-09).• Teh, Fu Yen and Chilingar, G. V. (1976). Oil Shale. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 15–26.• (http://books.google.com/books?id=qkU7OcVkwaIC&pg=PA15. Retrieved 2009-05-31).• World Energy Council.(2007) Survey of energy resources (PDF) (21st ed.) United States Bureau of Mines.• (http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/ser2007_final_online_version_1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-13).