Lecture one applied mineralogy

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Applied Mineralogy
Technical Mineralogy;
How much metal is available?
What is a mineral?
What is Applied Mineralogy?
What Applied Mineralogy is not…
History
Review of some mineralogical Concepts

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Lecture one applied mineralogy

  1. 1. Introduction to Applied Mineralogy Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com 2014- 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction
  2. 2. Acknowledgments I acknowledge gratefully the extent to which I have leant on the work contained in several good text books: Applied Mineralogy: Applications in Industry and Environment by Mukherjee, S., 2011. Springer, 572p. Industrial minerals and their uses: a handbook and formulary by Ciullo , P. A.,1996. Noyes Publications-USA From Technology Through Machinery to Kilns for SACMI Tile by Anonymous, 1995. Vol.1 & 2, SACMI, Imola, Italy Materials Handbook by Brady, G.S., and Clauser, H.R., 1977. 11th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York Industrial Minerals and Rocks, Edited by Carr, D.D. 1994, 6th Ed., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, CO Rock-Forming Minerals by Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., 1978. Vols. 1-5, Wiley, New York Applied Clay Mineralogy by Grim, R.E., 1962. McGraw-Hill, New York Chemistry of Clays and Clay Minerals by Newman, A.C.D. (ed.), 1987. Wiley, New York Applied Mineralogy and the industrial use of Minerals by Nickel, K. G. Geology Vol.III, EOLSS. 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 2
  3. 3. Outline of lectures:  Topic 1: Concepts of an applied mineralogy  Topic 2: Mineral processing  Topic 3: Ceramics  Topic 4: Clay Products  Topic 5: Mullite  Topic 6 : Refractories  Topic 7: Abrasive  Topic 8: Glass  Topic 9: Cement 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 3
  4. 4. Keywords: 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 4  Applied Mineralogy  Technical Mineralogy;  Mineral Processing;  Materials Sciences;  Materials Properties;  Ceramics;  Phase Analysis;  Chemical Analysis
  5. 5. Aims of Course: 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 5  Applied Mineralogy course :  Reviewed the most common minerals of important industrial applications.  The Industrial Use of Natural Non-Ore Minerals  Mineralogical Materials Science and Processing  Environmental Behavior of raw materials. All will help you to provide product development professionals – novice and seasoned − with a better understanding of their mineral raw materials. Many important technical products of industry come from the use of natural occurring minerals, the use of some of the most common minerals will be reviewed . My hope is that through this understanding they can develop their skills in matching the most appropriate minerals to their applications while gaining an appreciation of both the common ground and differences in approach they have with counterparts in industries other than their own.
  6. 6. Topic 1: Concepts of an Applied Mineralogy 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 6 A short series of lectures prepared for the Second Levels of Geology, Tanta University 2014- 2015 by Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com
  7. 7. Outline of Topic 1: 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 7 We will explore all of the above in Topic 1.  How much metal is available?  What is a mineral?  What is Applied Mineralogy?  What Applied Mineralogy is not…  History  Review of some mineralogical Concepts
  8. 8. Minerals 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 8  Natural  Solid  Inorganic  Definite chemical composition  Crystal structure due to internal arrangement of atoms http://www.minerals.net/gemstone/index.htm
  9. 9. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 9 http://www.mii.org/www.mii.org
  10. 10. Common uses include: 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 10  Aluminum → packaging, transport, building  Beryllium → gemstones, fluorescent lights  Copper → electric cables, wires, switches  Feldspar→ glass and ceramics  Iron → buildings, automobiles, magnets  Calcite → toothpaste, construction http://www.mii.org/commonminerals.php
  11. 11. What is Applied Mineralogy? 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 11 Applied Mineralogy is the science aiming: i) to study problems related to the use of mineral resources at the service of mankind and ii) to study the impact of human activities on the mineral world. Of particular interest are those problems related to the exploration, exploitation and processing of mineral resources on one hand and the problems related to health, mineral waste disposal and geomaterials alteration on the other hand. In all these problems, applied mineralogy is characterized by a mineral-based approach. By mineralogical approach, we mean a description of any material in terms of mineral phases. This deals with the identification of :  the nature of mineral phases,  the determination of their grain size, shape and structural arrangement (texture analysis). As a corollary, applied mineralogy is also concerned with the development of instruments and sensing technologies that allow to quantify such properties at lab or process level. Because applied mineralogy mostly relates to a microscopical analysis of large-scale problems it is essential that representatively issues be discussed. Sampling theory, statistical process control and upscaling of physical properties are of major interest to this research field.
  12. 12. Definition: 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 12  Applied mineralogy is mineralogical materials science…………  It concentrates on anorganic non-metal materials and comprises all aspects of their analysis, sampling, preparation, synthesis, property determination and evaluation.  Applied mineralogy overlaps with the appropriate sections of other physic-chemical, technical and life sciences. Identification of mineral resources Processing of mineral resources Properties of use of mineral materials Development of instrumentation Environmental incidence of mineral materials Cultural heritage
  13. 13. 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 13 Applied mineralogy and identification of mineral resources Mineralogy takes its roots from the description of naturally occurring phases. In that sense, applied mineralogy is particularly concerned with those minerals occurring in nature and having an impact on human activities (economic mineralogy, environmental mineralogy,…). Applied mineralogy and processing of mineral resources  An important topic in applied mineralogy is the follow up of minerals in industrial processes.  This includes the use of mineralogical / petrographical tools in analyzing :  Sub-products from mineral processing circuits.  Products and wastes/slags from hydro- or pyro- metallurgical processes.  Fired mineral materials : glass, ceramics, refractories, clinker, bricks, …  Hydrated mineral materials : cement, plaster, …  Cut and polished minerals : gems, ornamental stone ,…
  14. 14. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 14 Applied mineralogy and properties of use of mineral materials  Both natural and synthetic minerals are used in many products as fillers, extenders, hydraulic bonding agents, etc.  Applied mineralogy is concerned with the study of relationships between the mineral/microscopical properties and the physical properties of such materials :  Optical properties  Abrasive properties  Mechanical (compression, tension,…) properties of building materials  Mechanical (compression, tension,…) properties of composite materials  Alteration of building materials (ornamental stones, concrete,..) Applied mineralogy and environmental incidence of mineral materials At each step of the industrial cycle (extraction, production, use and destruction of mineral materials) wastes are produced. These wastes enter the environment and interact with the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and impact on earth sustainability. Applied mineralogy is concerned with studies of :  Minerals synthetized within or entering the human body.  Studies of emission dust and nanoparticles emitted into the atmosphere (natural and synthetic) and their impact on climate or health.  Studies of acid mine drainage mineralogy and its impact on heavy metal drainage or immobilization  Geomaterials produced to fix radioactive or toxic elements and their durability.  Mineral barriers used to contain radioactive or toxic elements and their durability.  Mineral waste materials and their diagenesis.
  15. 15. WHERE MINERALOGY REALLY CONTRIBUTES 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 15
  16. 16. Note 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 16 • Compounding raw materials can be toxic, and therefore due caution should always be exercised in the use of these hazardous materials. • Final determination of the suitability of any information or product for use contemplated by any user, and the manner of that use is the sole responsibility of the user. • We strongly recommend that users seek and adhere to a manufacturer’s or supplier’s current instructions for handling each material they use.
  17. 17. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 17 Applied mineralogy and cultural heritage  Archaeometry,  Ornamental stone Applied mineralogy and the development of instrumentation  A mineralogical approach to material analysis will only attract attention if corresponding equipments for mineral quantification / identification are made available. Because of its applied nature, applied mineralogy is particularly concerned by the development of quantitative instruments and instruments that can be put on- line or automated (at least in the long term). Instruments requiring large scale facilities (synchrotron radiation, etc…) are less concerned.  Quantitative instrumentation cannot be recognized in the industrial world if it does not evolve towards recommendations about standards, norms,.. and if it does not state the accuracy of the method. The community of applied mineralogists should therefore promote round robin tests among its members.  Essential techniques used in applied mineralogy include :  Optical Microscopy  Electron Microscopy  Micro-analysis techniques in SEM or TEM conditions (EDX, WDX, EBSP, CL,…)  X-Ray Diffraction  Size distribution analysis techniques  Porosity and pore size distribution analysis techniques  Signal and image analysis techniques (Rietveld refinement, Liberation analysis, etc.)
  18. 18. What Applied Mineralogy is not… 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 18  Applied Mineralogy is not concerned with:  Systematic classification of minerals,  Inventary of mineral species,  Synthetization of new mineral compounds,  Crystallographical computations and simulations, ………. etc.  In a more general sense, applied mineralogy is not concerned with mineralogical investigations of natural (geological) processes without any reference to the potential use or potential environmental impact of such mineral materials.
  19. 19. History 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 19  Applied mineralogy is as ancient as humankind if we consider that the proper choice of a material for making a tool implied already some kind of "applied mineralogy" knowledge.  But, of course, considering that Applied Mineralogy can only result from a proper understanding of our mineralogical environment we cannot refer to the field before the XVIIth century.  Padre Alonso Barba's "El arte de los metales" or Henkel's "Pyrotologia" textbooks are some important landmarks in the understanding of minerals and their link with mineral processing or metallurgy.  But the first book that explicitly refers to the expression of Applied Mineralogy is probably the one of C.P. Brard written in 1821 and entitled: "Minéralogie Appliquée aux Arts" ou Histoire des minéraux qui sont employés dans l'agriculture, l'économie domestique, la médecine; la fabrication des sels, des combustibles et des métaux; l'architecture et la décoration; la peinture et le dessin; les arts mécaniques; la bijouterie et la joaillerie.
  20. 20. Review of Concepts: 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 20 1. Minerals can be identified by examining…..Physical Properties, including…. Luster, Hardness, Cleavage, Color, Streak, Density…. 2. Minerals are classified according to their….. Chemical Composition, including groups like…. Native Elements, Sulfides, Oxides, and the all important SILICATES 3. The “Basic Building Block” of the Silicate Minerals is…..
  21. 21. Mineral Groups 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 21  Rock-forming minerals  ~30 common minerals make up most rocks in Earth’s crust  Composed mainly of the 8 elements that make up over 98% of the crust  Silicates (most abundant)  Non-silicates (~8% of Earth’s crust):  Native elements (monoelemental composition--lack of anion; single elements; e.g., Au)  Oxides ( main anion is O2-)  Hydroxides ( main anion complex is OH-)  Carbonates ( main anion is the oxyacid anion, (CO3)2-)  Halides (main anion is Cl-, F-, Br- or I-)  Sulfates (SO4)2-  Sulfides, sulfarsenides, arsenides, sulfosalts ( main anion is S2- or As3-)  Borates ( the oxyacid anion, BxOy -z)  Nitrates ( the oxyacid anion, NO3 -1)  Phosphates ( oxyacid anion, PO4 -3)  Tungstates ( the oxyacid anion, WO4 -2)  Silicates ( the oxyacid anion, SixOy -z)
  22. 22. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 22 Ferromagnesian Silicates (Fe, Mg) Non-ferromagnesian Silicates (K, Na, Ca, Al) Oxides Carbonates Sulfides/sulfates Native elements
  23. 23. Silica Structure 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 23 • 4 oxygen atoms for every 1 silicon atom • The basic building block of the silicates is the silica tetrahedron. • Each silicon atom is attached to four oxygen atoms by tetahedral bonds. This results in a 4- charge on the SiO4 group.
  24. 24. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 24 Quartz Mica KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F,Cl)2 SiO2 Can you find the “silica” ?
  25. 25. 21 November Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 25 Olivine Feldspar, Quartz Micas Amphibole (Hornblende) Pyroxenes (Augite) Complexity Temp.
  26. 26. MINERALOGICAL SERVICES • Exploration mineralogy • Ore characterization • Petrographic descriptions • Paragenesis, ore associations & modeling • Mineral identification by XRD • Process mineralogy (predictive metallurgy, trouble shooting, process control, plant optimization, etc) • Geometallurgical mapping • Environmental mineralogy • Forensic mineralogy VALUE OF ADVANCED MINERALOGY SERVICES • Exploration target definition • Risk reduction • Control and optimization • Feed-forward control • Ore-type definition • Mining planning strategies • Environmental planning • Economic analysis • Future cash-flow forecast 21 November 2015 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Applied Mineralogy, Introduction 26

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