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Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
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Lecture 1:Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources

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Earth Resources; Reserves and resources; Nonrenewable Mineral Resources ; What are industrial minerals?; Why are industrial minerals so important?; Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits; …

Earth Resources; Reserves and resources; Nonrenewable Mineral Resources ; What are industrial minerals?; Why are industrial minerals so important?; Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits; Classification of industrial minerals; Factors important in evaluating an industrial minerals deposit; Selected industrial rocks and minerals

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  • 1. Topic 1: Concepts of an Nonrenewable Nonmetallic Mineral Resources A short series of lectures prepared for the Third year of Special Geology, Tanta University 2013- 2014 by Hassan Z. Harraz hharraz2006@yahoo.com 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits
  • 2. From raw material To Final Product
  • 3. Outline of Topic 1:          Earth Resources Reserves and resources Nonrenewable Mineral Resources What are industrial minerals? Why are industrial minerals so important? Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits Classification of industrial minerals Factors important in evaluating an industrial minerals deposit Selected industrial rocks and minerals We will explore all of the above in Topic 1. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 3
  • 4. Reserves vs. Resources Reserves  Natural resources that have been discovered & can be exploited profitably with existing technology  Oil – 700 billion barrels 28 October 2013 Resources The term ―resource‖ refers to the total amounts of a commodity of particular economic use that is present in an area. These estimates include both extractable and non-extractable amounts of this commodity. Deposits that we know or believe to exist, but that are not exploitable today because of technological, economical, or political reasons Oil – 2 trillion barrels Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 4
  • 5. Total Resources High Discovered Undiscovered Proven Resources Hypothetical, Known speculative, Unconceived resources or inferred Resources (located resources but not measured) Potential Economical Threshold Recoverable resources (not likely to be economic in Technological foreseeable future) Threshold Nonrecoverable resources (present in the earth but not obtainable with present technology) Limit of Low crustal abundance High 28 October 2013 Low Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz assurance Degree of geologic Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 5
  • 6. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources      Earth crust = Minerals + rock Minerals –inorganic compound that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust  Solid  Regular internal crystalline structure. Rock – solid combination of one or more minerals. Mineral Resource: Any mineral useful to humans Ore: A rock that can be profitably mined for a mineral (often a metal) or for minerals (metals)  High Grade Ore; has high concentration of the mineral  Low Grade Ore: smaller concentration Gangue: Minerals other than ore present in a rock 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 6
  • 7. Resources  Major types of Earth Resources covered in this class include: i) Metallic mineral deposits (or Ore Deposits): which can be further subdivided into (a) precious metals, (b) non-ferrous metals (as the base metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Sn, and elements like Al), (c) iron and ferroalloy metals (as Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, V, and Co), (d) minor metals and related non-metals: Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, REE, Ta, Te, Ti, and Zr, (e) fissionable elements: U and Th. ii) Non-Metallic (or Industrial Rocks and Minerals): which include such industrial minerals and materials like barite, gypsum, halite , graphite, asbestos, limestone, sand, basalt, … etc. iii) Gemstones: e.g. Diamonds, Rubies, Amethyst Sapphires, Zircons, garnets, .. etc. iv) Energy resources (or Fossil Fuels) such as coal, oil, gas, geothermal energy, solar energy, and nuclear energy. v) Water  It should be pointed out that most if not all of the above mentioned resources are fairly common, and indeed do occur in many crustal rock types. However, their concentrations (or average crustal abundances) are so low that they are not easily extracted from these rocks . For an economic deposit to form, these ―commodities‖ have to be concentrated by some natural method, which is why tend to treat them separately from our regular ―petrology‖ classes. Concentration factors for some metals are also given below. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 7
  • 8. Renewable and Non-renewable Resources  Renewable resources  Resource can be replenished over relatively short time spans  Examples include :  Plants  Animals for food  Trees for lumber  Energy from flowing water, sun, wind  Non-renewable resources  Significant deposits take millions of years to form; from a human perspective there are fixed quantities  It’s a one-time only deal.  Once exploited and used the resource is gone forever.  Examples:  Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)  Metals (iron, copper, uranium, gold)  Some resources, such as groundwater, can be placed in either category depending on how they are used 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 8
  • 9. Earth Resources can be … Exhaustible or Nonrenewable Perpetual or Renewable  Mineral Resources  Metallic: {Ferrous, Nonferrous (or Polymetallic), Precious}  Nonmetallic: {Industrial, Gemstones}  Energy Resources Radioactive Minerals Fossil Fuels: (Coal, Oil and Natural Gas)  Alternate/futuristic energy resources. 28 October 2013  Direct solar energy.  Indirect effects related to hydrological cycle (e.g., wind, oceans, tides, running water etc). Potentially Exhaustible/ Renewable  Fresh Air  Fresh Water  Fertile Soil  Biodiversity Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 9
  • 10. 10 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits http://eps.berkeley.edu/courses/eps50/documents/lecture31.mineralresources.pdf 10
  • 11. Fig.2: Selected raw materials consumed in the U.S., 1900-95. For this graph, construction materials (crushed stone, sand and gravel) have been separated from the remainder of the industrial minerals to illustrate the upsurge in construction following the end of World War II 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 11
  • 12. World production of non-fuel mineral commodities in 1999 Metals Non-Metallic minerals Table from Lottermoser, 2007. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 12
  • 13. Finding a deposit The old fashioned way of finding a mine was your prospector with a pick and shovel, a gold pan, and a lot of luck. Today, technologies used include, but are not limited to, exploration geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and satellite imagery. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 13
  • 14. Methods For Finding Mineral Deposits • A. Photos and Satellite Images • B. Airplanes fly with radiation equipment and magnetometers • C. Gravimeter (density) • D. Drilling • E. Electric Resistance Measurement • F. Seismic Surveys • G. Chemical analysis of water and plants 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 14
  • 15. Finding a deposit Geology  Geology is the study of the planet Earth—the materials of which our planet is made, the processes that act on these materials, and the products formed.  Geologists use ground-mapping techniques to identify features seen on satellite images and aerial maps of large tracts of the continent. Remote sensing: Landsat and Satellite Imagery  Ground-based surveys are expensive, and one can often experience difficulty in mapping large-scale structures. However, large geological structures are often readily visible on satellite imagery. 28 October 2013 Geophysics  Geophysical exploration involves searching for favorable mineral deposits using the physical properties of rocks.  Geophysical investigations ground-penetrating radar studies or the use of seismic waves to show contrasting rock types.  The selected rock units of interest might then be mapped and sampled. Geochemistry  Geochemists can determine the composition of what lies below the Earth's surface by sampling soil. Soil at the surface can carry a chemical signature of what lies below, because of the movement of chemicals through the rise and fall of the water table.  Positive geochemical results from surface sampling are followed by a drilling program. Because of the great expense, drilling is only carried out when the area is very likely to contain substantial mineral deposits.  Drilling produces either rock fragments, or 'cores' of rock for sampling to determine whether the mineral deposit contains worthwhile concentrations of ore mineral Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 15
  • 16. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources     Mineral Deposits Non-Renewable Earth crust materials It’s a one-time only deal.  Once exploited and used the resource is gone forever.  Mineral resources include reserves = identified deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably now or in the future with technological advances. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 16
  • 17. Mineral Resources 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 17
  • 18. Mineral Resources  Non-metallic mineral deposits (NM)  Industrial Minerals (IM)): Sulfur, Gypsum, Coal, Barite, Salt, Clay, Feldspar, Borax, Lime, Magnesia, Potash, Phosphates, Silica, Fluorite, Asbestos, Abrasives, Mica  Precious stones: Gem Minerals,  Construction minerals : Stone, Sand, Gravel, Limestone  Metallic mineral deposits or (Ore mineral deposits):  Ferrous: Iron and Steel, Cobalt, Nickel  Non-ferrous: Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead, Aluminum, Titanium, Manganese, Magnesium, Mercury, Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Silver, Gold, Platinum  Energy Resources  Fossil Fuels: Coal, Oil, Natural Gas  Uranium  Geothermal Energy 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 18
  • 19. What are Nonmetallic Deposits ? Typical examples of natural Industrial Mineral Deposits :            Clays Silica sand Talc Limestone/chalk Gypsum Pumice Potash Carbonate Minerals Evaporite Salts Phosphate Sulphur Typical examples of synthetic IM: Mullite Aluminas Silicon carbide ppt calcium carbonate Spinel Soda Fused minerals 28 October 2013 made from: bauxite, kaolin bauxite quartz + coke lime & CO2 magnesite + alumina salt + limestone + coal + ammonia alumina, magnesia, spinel Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 19
  • 20. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources Use of the word “mineral” is very broad 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 20
  • 21. Geology of Industrial Minerals Deposits Geology provides the framework in which mineral exploration and the integrated procedures of remote sensing, geophysics, and geochemistry are planned and interpreted. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 21
  • 22. Why are Non-Metallic Deposits so important? 22 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 22
  • 23. Nonmetallic Deposits in your kitchen Glass/glasses/ light bulbs Ceramic tiles/mugs/ plates ….etc. Paint IM in your kitchen 28 October 2013 silica sand, limestone, soda ash, borates, feldspar, lithium kaolin, feldspar, talc, wollastonite, borates, alumina, zirconia TiO2, kaolin, mica, talc, wollastonite, GCC, silica Plastic white goods eg. fridge, washer Wooden flooring Drinking water Wine/beer Salt Sugar Detergents/soap Surfaces Books Oven glass Heating elements Wallboard/plaster Metal pots/cutlery talc, GCC, kaolin, mica, wollastonite, flame retardants (ATH, Mg(OH)2) treatment materials- borates, chromite treatment materials- lime, zeolites diatomite, perlite filters salt lime in processing borates, soda ash, phosphates marble, granite kaolin, talc, GCC, lime, TiO2 in paper petalite, borates fused magnesia insulators gypsum, flame retardants mineral fluxes & refractories in smelting Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 23
  • 24. Why are IM so important? Main consuming market mineral sectors Abrasives Absorbents Agricultural Cement Ceramics Chemicals Construction Oil well drilling Electronics Filtration 28 October 2013 Foundry Glass Metallurgy Paint Pigments Paper Plastics Refractories Flame retardants Welding Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 24
  • 25. Why are IM so important? Mineral to end use market Bentonite Clay cat litter manufacturer pet owners drilling mud manufacturer oil producer foundry sand binder auto engine producer Talc cosmetics manufacturer babies/beautiful people 28 October 2013 plastics compounder garden furniture/auto dash Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation papermaker magazine publisher Nonmetallic Deposits 25
  • 26. Why are IM so important? Mineral to end use market Silica Sand Glassmaker Abrasive manufacturer beer bottles sand blasting buildings Ceramic manufacturer tiles/sinks/toilets Zeolites Emery Diatomite foot odour control abrasive manufacturer filter manufacturer retail 28 October 2013 emery boards/sandpaper Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation wineries/breweries Nonmetallic Deposits 26
  • 27. Why are IM so important? Mine to market supply chain • centres of high population • their economy - the driver • directly influence demand for NM Supply sector logistics sector consuming market sector 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 27
  • 28. Why are IM so important? Mine to market supply chain SUPPLY SUPPLY LOGISTICS MARKET 28 October 2013 exploration mineral finance plant engineering mining processing trading port handling mineral inspection freight warehousing/distribution direct market mineral consumer intermediate market mineral consumer end market mineral consumer Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation DEMAND Nonmetallic Deposits 28
  • 29. General characteristics of Nonmetallic Mineral Deposits     Highest volume and tonnage low value, but vital commodities High total value Prices are more stable  NM are prerequisite raw materials for a wide range of industrial and domestic products      Recycling is not much of an issue Price of the unit value is so low that transportation becomes a major issue Rarely exported. Feasibility study: Often need to find a market before looking for a nearby deposit Depending on their uses, product purity and grain size may become very important factors in deciding the suitability and price of the commodity  NM support and add value to industrial sectors  Market demand drives NM supply Some deposits are formed by more than one process Rare Commodities: • Boron, Garnet, Iodine, Lithium, Sodium carbonate, Vermiculite, Wollastonite. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 29
  • 30. Classification of Industrial Minerals  End-use and genesis (Bates, 1960)  By unit price and bulk (Burnett, 1962)  Unit value, place value, representative value (Fisher, 1969)  Chemical and physical properties (Kline, 1970)  Geologic occurrence and end-use (Dunn, 1973)  Geology of origin (Harben and Bates, 1984)  Alphabetical (Harben and Bates, 1990; Carr, 1994) 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 30
  • 31. Classification of industrial rocks and minerals 1- Genetic classification A- Igneous Rocks  Granite  Basalt and diabase  Pumice and pumicite  Perlite B- Metamorphic Rocks  Slate  Marble C- Sedimentary Rocks  Sand and gravel  Sandstone  Clay  Limestone and dolomite  Phosphate rock  Gypsum  Salt 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 31
  • 32. Industrial minerals A- Igneous Minerals  Nepheline syenite  Feldspar  Mica  Lithium minerals  Beryl B- Vein and Replacement Minerals  Quartz crystal  Fluorspar  Barite  Magnesite 28 October 2013 C- Metamorphic Minerals  Graphite  Asbestos  Talc  Vermiculite D- Sedimentary Minerals and sulfur  Diamond  Diatomite  Potash minerals  Sodium minerals  Borate  Nitrates  Sulfur Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 32
  • 33. Selected Industrial Mineral Deposits: 1) Abrasives:  Garnet, Quartz, diamond, diatomite, pumice  Effect of carborundum 2) Aggregates:     Coarse and fine aggregates Fillers Proximity to market Optimum targets for exploitation. 3) Cement and concrete:  Portland cement: Made by calcining a mixture of limestone (~ 75 – 80%) and clay (20 – 25%). 5% Gypsum or anhydrite is added after calcinations.  MgO of limestone has to be low.  Alkalis have to be low if used in concrete to prevent aggregate – cement reactions 4) Building Stones and Rip-rap:     Durability and hardness Ease of quarrying Color and aesthetic value Impurities and other undesirables 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 33
  • 34. Selected Nonmetallic Deposits: 5) Glass:      90% of all glass is of the soda-lime-silica type (quartz sand + limestone + sodium carbonate). Glass sand has to be 95 – 99.8% SiO2. Glass sand has to be well sorted, between 20 and 100 mesh, and must be free from refractory minerals. Small amounts of Al2O3 help prevent devitrification Other mineral products (borates, Se, As, CaF2) added to obtain certain characteristics. 6) Gypsum:      Alabaster: ornamental stone Plaster of Paris: heated form of gypsum used for casts, plasterboard, … etc. Occurs as part of the evaporite succession Sequence of formation of evaporites: Calcite dolomite gypsum halite sylvite Mg – salts. Exported by a few countries. 7) Asbestos:  Chrysotile and Crocidolite  Serpentinites and their veins  Cancer hazard and role of fiber glass 8) Clay minerals:  Kaolinite: China clay (paper filler, porcelain and ceramics, cosmetics) and Ball clay (pottery and ceramics, refractories, and insecticides).  Halloysite: Pottery and ceramics  Kaolinite + illite: bricks and tiles.  Bentonite (smectite): Oil well drilling fluids, suspending agents. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 34
  • 35. Selected Nonmetallic Deposits: 9) Fluorspar:  Acid grade (97% CaF2): used in the manufacture of HF and cryolite (flux).  Ceramic grade (80 – 96% CaF2): used for the manufacture of ceramics, enamels, glasses and glass fibers.  Metallurgical grade (> 60% CaF2): used in the iron and steel industry. 10) Graphite: 11) Olivine:  Uses: Slag conditioner in iron and steel making; foundry sand; blast cleaning agent; refractory bricks.  Extracted from large dunite bodies. 12) Perlite:  Used primarily as an insulator with its high heat resistance and high sound absorption.  Hydrated obsidian: restricted to areas of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism.  Various grades resulting from differences in the degree of hydration. 13) Pyrophyllite and Sillimanite: 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 35
  • 36. Selected Nonmetallic Deposits: 14) Phosphate Rocks: Uses: 90% of all phosphates is used as fertilizer, 10% used for animal feedstuff, detergents, food and drink products, fire extinguishers, dental products, and surface treatment of metals. Sources of the commodity: 76% from chemical sedimentary beds, 23% from carbonatites and other igneous rock complexes, and 1% from Guano. Textures: oolitic, nodular, pelletal, or micritic, closely mixed with calcite, quartz, and clay minerals. Examples: the Permian Phosphoria formation of Idaho and Montana; significant deposits in Morocco and Peru. Modern day examples: of the coast of Peru, and the SE Georgia embayment. Origin:  Upwelling of deep, cold seawater and its longshore flow across shallow, warm, well – lit, continental shelf environments.  The cold water has the ability to dissolve more calcite (and apatite) than warm water.  Upwelling causes a decrease in the CO2 of the seawater, which in turn results in an increase in its pH.  The increase of pH (to values > 7) decreases the solubility of apatite. The higher T has the same effect, so phosphate is precipitated in the shelf environment probably in the form of cryptocrystalline fluorapatite known as ―collophane‖. The main source of this phosphate was the upwelled biomass.  The energetic environment reworks the precipitated phosphate to form pellets, oolites, …. etc. A significant amount of phosphate also forms during diagenesis by the replacement of carbonates.  Best location for deposition is embayments and irregularities of the shoreline, which allows for the development of eddies and ―Gyres‖.  Deposition of phosphorites seems to be tied to periods of transgressions (following the upwelling), which helps rework these deposits, and moves the phosphate grains towards the shore where they are trapped in those embayments. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 36
  • 37. Use of Phosphate • • • • • • • Phosphates were once commonly used in laundry detergent in the form trisodium phosphate (TSP), but, because of algae boom-bust cycles tied to emission of phosphates into watersheds, phosphate detergent sale or usage is restricted in some areas. In agriculture, phosphate is one of the three primary plant nutrients, and it is a component of fertilizers. Rock phosphate is quarried from phosphate beds in sedimentary rocks. In former times, it was simply crushed and used as is, but the crude form is now used only in organic farming. Normally, it is chemically treated to make superphosphate, triple superphosphate, or ammonium phosphates, which have higher concentration of phosphate and are also more soluble, therefore more quickly usable by plants. Fertilizer grades have three numbers; the first is the available nitrogen, the second is the available phosphate (expressed on a P2O5 basis), and the third is the available potash (expressed on a K2O basis). Thus a 10-10-10 fertilizer would contain ten percent of each, with the remainder being filler. Surface runoff of phosphates from excessively-fertilized farmland can be a cause of phosphate pollution, leading to eutrophication (nutrient enrichment), algal bloom, and consequent oxygen deficit. This can lead to anoxia for fish and other aquatic organisms in the same manner as phosphate-based detergents. Phosphate compounds are occasionally added to the public drinking water supply to counter plumbosolvency. The food industry uses phosphates to perform several different functions. For example, in meat products, it solubilizes the protein. This improves its water-holding ability and increases its moistness and succulence. In baked products, such as cookies and crackers, phosphate compounds can act as part of the leavening system when it reacts with an alkalai, usually sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Phosphate minerals are often used for control of rust and prevention of corrosion on ferrous materials, applied with electrochemical conversion coatings 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 37
  • 38. Factors important in evaluating an Industrial Mineral deposits                 Customer specifications Distance to customer (transportation) Ore grade--concentration of the commodity in the deposit By-products Commodity prices Mineralogical form Grain size and shape Undesirable substances Size and shape of deposit Ore character Cost of capital Location Environmental consequences/ reclamation/bonding Land status Taxation Political factors 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 38
  • 39. Building Stones and Rip-rap Building materials     Durability and hardness Ease of quarrying Color and aesthetic value Impurities and other undesirables  Perhaps the most important geological deposits are those that we use for building purposes.  These come from all geological environments.  The most important economic factor for building materials is that the material has to be close to where it is going to be used, as the highest cost is in its transportation.  Building materials are by far the lowest cost geological materials and their value is usually in the order of only a few dollars per ton  Crushed rock (commonly referred to as Aggregate Stone: Natural aggregate (crushed stone, sand, and gravel) is the most commonly used building material, along with concrete which is derived from crushed limestone. Bricks are made from fine aggregate along with clay which acts as the binding material, and iron oxide minerals for colouration.  Aggregate is also used as a sub-surface lining on our roads. Plaster is derived from crushed and refined gypsum.  Dimension stones are much higher-value building material and are used as decorative facings on buildings. By far the most commonly used dimension stones are marbles. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 39
  • 40. Palisandro marble quarry 45 km south-east of Karibib, Namibia. Photo: I Graham © Australian Museum Hawkesbury sandstone 'Yellow Block' (17 cm x 7 cm). Bondi Quarry, Sydney, New South Wales. Photo: S Humphreys © Australian Museum. 28 October 2013 Granite (16 cm x 7 cm). Near Sodwalls Railway Station, Bathurst District, New South Wales. Photo: S Humphreys © Australian Museum. Marble (17.5 cm x 12.5 cm). Angaston, South Australia. Photo: S Humphreys © Australian Museum. Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Gabbro slab 'Imperial Black' (12 cm x 11 cm). Black Hill, north-east of Adelaide, South Australia. Photo: S Humphreys © Australian Museum. Nonmetallic Deposits 40
  • 41. Limestone / Calcıte • • Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3). Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or flint, as well as varying amounts of clay, silt and sand as disseminations, nodules, or layers within the rock. Uses of Limestone • The manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide); • Cement and mortar; • Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soil conditions; • Crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads; • Limestone is especially popular in architecture as building stone/ material; • Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs; • As a reagent in desulfurizations; • Glass making; • Toothpaste; • Added to bread as a source of calcium 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 41
  • 42. Evaporite Deposits          Evaporite deposits are formed by evaporation of lake water or seawater. The layers of salts precipitate as a consequence of evaporation.  Salts that precipitate from lake water of suitable composition include sodium carbonate (Na 2CO3), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and borax (Na2B4O7.1OH2O). Huge evaporite deposits of sodium carbonate were laid down in the Green River basin of Wyoming during the Eocene Epoch.  Oil shales were also deposited in the basin. Borax and other boron-containing minerals are mined from evaporite lake deposits in Death Valley and Searled and Borax Lakes, all in California; and in Argentina, Bolivia, Turkey, and China. Much more common and important than lake water evaporites are the marine evaporites formed by evaporation of seawater. The most important salts that precipitate from seawater are:  Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O).  Halite (NaCl).  Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O). Low-grade metamorphism of marine evaporite deposits causes another important mineral, sylvite (KCl), to form from carnallite. Marine evaporite deposits are widespread.  In North America, for example, strata of marine evaporites underlie as much as 30 percent of the land area. Marine evaporites produce:  Most of the salt that we use.  The gypsum used for plaster.  The potassium used in plants fertilizers. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 42
  • 43. Potash • Potash is the most important source of potassium in fertilizers. • Flotation is one of the major methods to upgrade the potash. • Normally fatty acids are used as collectors for flotation. However, this type of collectors is not always suitable for the treatment of complex phosphate ores when calcite and dolomite are present. • Calcite and dolomite tent to co-float with phosphate giving low concentrate grades. • Potash can be separated from halite by reverse flotation. 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 43
  • 44. Graphite  Graphite is one of the allotropes of carbon. Unlike diamond, graphite is an electrical conductor.  Graphite holds the distinction of being the most stable form of solid carbon ever discovered.  It may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is hard to ignite. Classification of Graphite  There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit: (1) Crystalline flake graphite (53%) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular (Madagascar-open pit, 410-950 $/t) (2) Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles (MexicoUnderground mines, 240-260 $/t) (3) Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates, and is probably hydrothermal in origin (Sri Lanka-Underground mines).
  • 45. USE AREAS OF GRAPHITE MAJOR USE AREAS REFRACTORIES (High temperature applicationsMelting Point 3927°C) Coarse flakes Graphite crucibles Carbon-magnesite/alumina bricks (95-99% C) Monolitics (gunning and ramming mixtures) Continuous casting ware (nozzles, troughs) STEEL MAKING Amorphous or fine flaked Carbon rising in molten steel Lubricating dies during hot metal extrution EXPANDED GRAPHITE Flakes Made from flake graphite using chromic acid sulphuric acids to produce foils Can be used to insulate molten metal in ladle, fuel cells and heat sinks for laptop computer MINOR USE AREAS BRIKE LINING/SHOES FOR HEAVY TRUCKS FOUNDRY FACING and LUBRICANTS PENCIL LEAD Zn-C BATTERIES ELECTRIC MOTOR BRUSHES GRAPHITE(CARBON) FIBERS/NANOTUBES Made from amourphous or fine flakes Substitute for asbestos Amourphous or fine flakes are used High temp. dry lubricant Powder graphite+clay Powdered fine flaked graphite Powder graphite Reinforced/antistatic/conductive plastics/ 45 concreates/rubbers
  • 46. Diamonds  Most diamonds are found in unique ultramafic igneous rocks called kimberlites.  Magma generated by partial melting of asthenosphere below 150 kilometres and then rises quickly to the surface, picking up diamonds from solid lithospheric mantle. Kimberlite Pipes and Diamonds 28 October 2013 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Nonmetallic Deposits 46

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