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- 1. R: A statistical environment for hydrological analysis R: A statistical environment for hydrological analysis Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio and Bellin, Alberto Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio and Bellin, Alberto Dep. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy Dep. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, ItalyAbstract:EGU2010-13008Session: HS4.22/EOS13 e-mail: mauricio.zambrano@ing.unitn.it e-mail: mauricio.zambrano@ing.unitn.it May 05th , 2010 1) Introduction 4) Packages by thematic area: ● Hydrology: RHydro, HydroMe, hydrogeo, hydrosanity, The free software environment for statistical computing topmodel, wasim, hydroTSM, hydroGOF and graphics “R” has been developed and it is maintained by statistical programmers, with the ● Geostatistics: gstat, automap, geoR, fields, RandomFields support of an increasing community of users with many ● GIS: spgrass6, RSAGA, rgdal, mapproj, sp, maptools RpyGeo, different backgrounds, which allows access to both RGoogleMaps, RArcInfo well-established and experimental techniques. ● Flood frequency: POT, evd, nsRFA, extremes, lmomco ● Programming language interfaces: C, Fortran, Python, Perl, Hydrological modelling practitioners spent large Java (JRI, JGR,...) amount of time in pre- and post-processing data and ● Wavelets: wavelets; wavethresh, wmtsa, Rwave results with traditional instruments. In this work “R” and ● High Performance Computing:snowfall, multicore, jit, nws, some of its packages are presented as powerful tools Rmpi, snow, taskPR to explore and extract patterns from raw information, to pre-process input data of hydrological models, and ● Optimization: DEoptim, optim post-processing its results. In particular, examples are ● Spreadsheets & DB: RPostgreSQL, RMySQL, RSQLite, taken from analyzing 30-years of daily data for a basin RNetCDF, RexcelInstaller, xlsReadWrite of 85000 km2, saving a large amount of time that could # Figure 2: hydroTSM::hydroplot; hydroTSM::sname2plot; ## Plotting the streamflows at station "Q093" ● Other statistical software ( e.g, S, SAS, SPSS, Stata, Systat, data(EbroQts) # Loading the streamflow dataset sname2plot(EbroQts, sname="Q093", dates=1, var.type="Flow") be better spent in doing analysis. Minitab): foreign # Figure 1: hydroTSM::matrixplot ● Bayesian statistics: BAS, BLR, ensembleBMA, evdbayes, # Matrix with the days with information per year in selected stations LearnBayes, ramps, spBayes,... info <- dwi(EbroQts[,61:110], out.unit="years", dates=EbroQts[,1]) ● Latex: xtable,pgfSweave # Plotting the previous matrix, with custom title matrixplot(info, main="Nº of Days with Information (1961-1990) n in ● Data Mining: Rweka, rattle, party, RandomForest, ... 2) Why an hydrologist should the Selected Streamgauges") invest time in trying R ? 5) At the end... : ● Many ready-to-use algorithms. "R" is a valuable environment to support undergraduate and ● Existing functions, graphics and packages can be graduate education in hydrology, since it is helpful to capture the easily adapted to particular needs. main features of large amount of data; it is a flexible and fully ● Write once, use many times. functional programming language, able to be interfaced to ● Large and active user community. existing Fortran and C code and well suited to the ever growing ● Documentation is available in several languages. demands of hydrological analysis; and finally because it is a ● Multi-platform (GNU/Linux, MacOS, Windows). promising environment for tackling most of the practical problems ● Open Source. that reality poses to the hydrological modeller. ● Free :) 6) Where to Start ? ● Hydrology in R (wiki) ● R reference card 3) hydroTSM and hydroGOF # Figure 3: hydroTSM::hydropairs hydropairs(EbroQts[,21:24], main="Correlations among Selected ● Graphics: http://addictedtor.free.fr/graphiques/ Daily Streamflow Stations") # Figure 4: hydroTSM::hydrokrige and hydroTSM::mspplot ● Quick R: http://www.statmethods.net/index.html hydroTSM is an R package with S3 functions devoted ● R-Spatial: http://r-spatial.sourceforge.net/gallery/ to management, analysis, interpolation and plot of ● CSRL: http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/drupal/node/100 hydrological time series, mainly oriented to provide ● Manuals: http://cran.r-project.org/manuals.html support to hydrological modelling tasks. ● Packages: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ ● Search engine: http://www.rseek.org/, R Site search hydroGOF is an R package with S3 functions providing both, numerical and graphical goodness-of-fit measures between observed and simulated time 7) References : series. ● Jones, O., R. Maillardet, A., Robinson. (2009). Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R. 472pp. Chapman & Hall/CRC. Boca Raton, FL. Both packages will be soon available on the R website. ● Spector, P. 2008. Data Manipulation with R. 154pp. Springer-Verlag, Contributions are particularly welcome. Carey, NC. ISBN 978-0-387-74730-9. ● Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R. Series: Use R. Bivand, Roger S., Pebesma, Edzer J., Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio. 2008. ISBN: 978-0-387- # Fig 5: hydroGOF:plotbands # Fig 6: hydroGOF:ggof 78170-9

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