Memoir of Mighty Mao: The Journal of Xiao Bei
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    Memoir of Mighty Mao: The Journal of Xiao Bei Memoir of Mighty Mao: The Journal of Xiao Bei Presentation Transcript

    • Memoir of Mighty Mao: The Journal of Xiao BeiBy Haylie Woo 8-1Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Our town after the drastic floodFather working in the ‘Backyard Steel’campaignPicture of me and my friends in the nurseryWednesday, May 15, 13
    • July 24, 1959Picking  up  my  doll  soaked  with  the  muddy  water,  I  noticed  that  everything  was  ruined  since  the  harsh  9lood  from  last  night.  Last  night’s  rain  trampled  down  like  giant  tears  from  the  sky  crying  out  for  sincere.  Mother,  Father  and  I  escaped  to  the  top  of  the  roof,  cuddled  around  with  a  thick  cotton  blanket,  trembling.  We  were  an  ordinary  family  living  in  Shunyi.  Everything  we  wished,  everything  that  Mother  and  Father  had  worked  for  all  those  years  were  now  drowned  under  the  ruthless  9lood.  Glancing  at  the  hot  innocent  sun,  I  closed  my  eyes  and  9lashed  back  to  the  time  when  everything  was  perfect.  “Xiao  Bei!”  It  was  the  morning  of  a  warm  spring  day.  The  breakfast  was  ready  and  Father  read  the  newspaper  for  us  while  we  were  eating.  He  said  that  to  develop  our  Chinese  economy,  it  is  necessary  for  peasants  to  join  the  higher-­‐stage  cooperatives  to  make  further  process  of  the  Five-­‐Year  Plan.  Although  I  couldn’t  understand  clearly,  but  by  reading  off  Father’s  anxious  face,  I  noticed  that  it  wasnt  bene9icial  for  us.  Everything  was  under  the  communist  use,  and  Mother  seemed  to  be  concerned  about  the  food  shortages.  I  was  so  annoyed  by  how  Communist  Party  stole  my  parents  from  me  by  making  them  to  work  all  day  long.   Since  the  disagreements  of  my  neighbors  were  getting  severe,  Mao  generously  encouraged  us  to  have  an  argument  by  starting  ‘The  Hundred  Flowers’.  I  still  remember  that  day  walking  through  the  crowd  with  Father,  watching  people  complaining  about  the  harsh  labor  they  have  to  complete  in  a  day.  I  thought  Mao  would  provide  some  solutions,  but  soon  the  Hundred  Flower  withered  and  people  were  banned  to  have  a  free  speech.  Since  my  parents  seemed  to  be  understandable  of  the  purpose  of  Mao  planning  the  Great  Leap  Forward,  our  family  was  positive  about  the  reorganization  of  the  people  into  communes.  Father  explained  that  living  in  the  industrialized  country  with  developed  agriculture  is  the  only  dream  of  people.  Everybody  in  our  village,  including  my  family,  gave  up  our  land  and  animals  to  the  communist  party.  For  several  days,  I  couldn’t  meet  Mother  and  Father  during  the  day.  They  had  to  eat  their  lunch  in  the  communal  eating  halls  to  be  not  distracted.Although  I  couldn’t  see  my  parents  and  spend  time  with  them  for  several  months,  by  looking  at  the  posters,  slogans,  and  newspaper  articles  posted  on  the  streets,  I  could  see  the  possibilities  of  China  becoming  the  world’s  most  industrialized  country.  Mother  always  hummed  the  melody  of  the  revolutionary  music  playing  from  the  loudspeakers  every  morning,  working  hard  with  full  of  enthusiasm.     After  few  weeks,  several  backyard  steel  furnaces  were  set  up  in  our  village.  I  still  remember  that  tall  gray  buildings  puking  out  the  black  smoke.  According  to  Mother,  Father  transposed  to  the  ‘Backyard  Steel’  campaign  to  make  tons  of  steel  to  become  more  industrialized  country.  However,  I  noticed  that  our  family  was  suffering  through  the  famine,  and  one  night,  Father  came  home  with  frown  on  his  face  complaining  that  he  is  tired  of  working  in  the  ‘Backyard  Steel’  campaign,  because  he  had  lack  of  time  for  rest  and  sleep.  Even  though  the  Great  Leap  Forward  has  9inally  ended  now,  the  famine  took  in  our  village  as  everybody  was  working  in  industrial  products.  Every  day  coming  back  from  the  nursery,  I  think,  what  shall  I  eat  for  dinner?  Some  sorts  of  seeds  were  the  only  food  we  had.  I  even  saw  my  neighbors  chewing  the  earth.  The  only  thing  that  Father  said  we  could  do  is  waiting  for  our  great  leader,  Mao,  to  solve  this  problem.  Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Posters and slogans are everywhere!Me and my fellow companionscriticizing Professor WangWe, the Red Guards, proudly raising up‘The Little Red Book’ in Tiananmen SquareWednesday, May 15, 13
    • June 29, 1966                            “Long  live,  Chairman  Mao!”  Every  day,  my  life  seemed  to  be  getting  better.  It  is  my  fellow  companions  and  my  duty  to  destroy  the  Four  Olds  and  criticize  the  people  who  are  known  as  “reactionary”.  For  me,  anyone  without  the  ‘Little  Red  Book’,  the  book  9illed  up  with  the  most  intelligent  and  knowledgeable  words  of  our  remarkable  leader  Mao,  would  be  known  as  the  rightists  and  should  be  overthrown.  Ever  since  the  Three  Bitter  Years,  the  hope  of  living  happily  in  the  industrialized  country  with  Mother  and  Father  seemed  as  impossible  follow  by  the  straight  three  years  of  famine.  Despite  the  fact  that  Mao  has  the  responsibility  of  the  Great  Leap  Forward,  all  of  us  disagreed  of  accusing  him,  which  soon  Liu  Shaoqi  took  over  the  post  of  head  of  State.  Even  though  the  communes  were  reduced  while  we  had  back  our  own  land  and  Mother  could  cooked  me  my  favorite  dish,  man  tao,  again,  both  of  my  parents  and  I  hate  Liu  who  seemed  as  going  against  Mao,  my  only  great  revolutionary  hero.  After  I  moved  to  Beijing  for  a  better  career,  the  new  society  was  waiting  for  me.  Everybody  was  talking  about  Mao  and  recited  his  messages.  Posters  and  slogans  were  ubiquitous;  they  were  hanging  down  the  streets  and  on  the  walls.  After  few  weeks  of  school,  I  had  noticed  that  some  of  my  classmates  aren’t  appearing  during  the  school  day.  Then  one  day  in  the  beginning  of  the  history  class,  my  friend  Wang  Hong  suddenly  started  to  swear  and  yell  at  the  professor  while  ripping  off  our  textbook  History  and  Culture  of  China  in  front  of  him.  She  ran  out  the  class  immediately.  Soon  I  noticed  that  Wang  Hong  was  also  one  of  the  Red  Guards,  and  she  encouraged  me  to  join  her  and  become  one  of  the  Red  Guards.  After  seeing  the  Beijing  University  created  Red  Guards  to  assist  Mao  because  of  a  young  teacher  who  wrote  dazibao  to  go  against  the  school  administrators  and  professors,  I  thought  it  is  meaningful  to  support  Mao  and  his  idea  of  smashing  the  Four  Olds  for  better  future.  Wang  Hong  became  my  best  friend.Now  everyone  is  required  to  have  at  least  one  copy  of  the  “Little  Red  Book”.  One  day  we  saw  Professor  Wang  walking  down  the  street  without  the  “Little  Red  Book.”  We  immediately  hold  on  to  him  and  punched  his  face  while  throwing  rocks.  Even  though  he  explained  that  he  couldn’t  bring  the  “Little  Red  Book”  because  he  doesn’t  have  a  pocket  in  his  shirt,  we  didn’t  trust  him.  Why  would  we?  We  put  dunce  cap,  a  cone,  over  his  head  and  cut  his  hair  to  teach  him  a  lesson  that  this  was  what  he  would  pay  for  as  being  a  reactionary.  He  crawled  up  to  me  and  cried  out  for  mercy.  But  there’s  no  such  a  thing  call  mercy  to  me  as  he  was  being  reactionary.  I  kicked  his  stomach  off  my  way.  What  a  ruthless  man,  I  thought.Now,  almost  every  week  we  proudly  held  up  our  Little  Red  Book  in  the  air  at  the  Tiananmen  Square  and  chanted  out  the  slogan.  Our  phenomenal  leader  Mao  also  applauded  to  our  “right  to  rebel”  and  motivated  us  to  continue  with  our  cheer.  It  is  my  dream  to  touch  Mao’s  hand  for  once.  But  indeed,  he  never  really  appeared  in  person  in  the  public,  which  made  me  a  bit  upset.  The  PLA,  People’s  Liberation  Army,  thankfully  provided  us  some  food,  khaki  uniforms  and  some  transportation  fee  to  appear  in  the  rallies.  Everything  that  Mao  says  is  always  correct.  He  is  our  only  respective  and  liberal  leader  in  China.Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Poster advertising the ‘Down to theCountryside’ movementPhoto taken when Wang Hong and Iwas in ShunyiWednesday, May 15, 13
    • December 8, 1970                            The  cold  wind  punched  me  on  my  face.  The  weather  was  getting  colder  as  I  came  back  from  the  countryside,  Shunyi.  It  has  been  one  week  after  Wang  Hong  and  I  were  free  from  having  a  “re-­‐education”  down  from  the  countryside.  I  was  lucky  that  I  could  ride  on  the  truck;  there  were  lots  of  other  people  came  back  to  Beijing  by  walking  for  few  days.  The  9irst  news  that  I  read  from  the  news  article  after  I  came  back  from  Shunyi  was  that  the  Lin  Biao  is  promoted  to  vice  chairman  of  the  CCP  while  he  was  known  as  Mao’s  successor  and  comrade-­‐in-­‐arms.  The  city  I  saw  from  last  two  years  seemed  to  be  stronger  by  the  reconstructions  of  the  efforts  of  PLA.  I  was  so  glad  to  see  Mao  regaining  his  power  again.  All  those  years  working  in  Haituo  Mountain  just  planted  some  unexpected  and  horrifying  memories  in  the  head.  I  still  can’t  resist  the  memory  when  Wang  Hong  and  I  had  been  taken  to  the  countryside  by  Mao’s  commandment.  Although  I  learned  some  new  technologies  on  agriculture  and  industrial  during  two  years  in  countryside,  but  the  shocking  vision  I  had  was  not  right  as  I  expected.  Two  years  ago,  when  my  peaceful  Red  Guards  and  I  were  marching  down  the  street  singing  the  revolutionary  song  while  looking  for  any  reactionaries,  suddenly  PLA  blocked  our  way  and  seized  us  from  being  Red  Guards  and  ordered  us  to  go  back  to  our  home.  One  of  the  soldiers  explained  that  despite  the  fact  that  we  created  a  lot  of  devastating  masses  by  imprisoning  and  torturing  the  people,  our  great  leader  Mao  commanded  us  to  9inalize  this.  Then  few  days  later,  Wang  Hong  and  I  were  sent  to  Haituo  mountain,  which  located  somewhere  in  the  countryside  in  Shunyi,  where  once  I  had  lived.  We  were  ordered  to  learn  some  manual  labor  and  be  “reeducated”  by  rural  peasants.  Since  it  was  the  order  from  Mao,  I  followed  and  respected  his  words  while  uncertain  with  what  is  the  real  reason.     When  Wang  Hong  and  I  9inally  arrived  in  Haituo  Mountain,  the  vision  that  I  believed  for  was  disillusioned.  There  were  absolutely  no  greens  growing  in  the  vast  of  the  land.  The  soil  was  all  cracked  up  as  if  there  was  an  earthquake.  Were  all  the  hopes  I  were  dreaming  for  were  just  an  imagination?  I  thought  everything  would  be  perfect  with  a  start  of  a  new  generation.  The  Four  Olds  are  destroyed  and  our  lives  seemed  to  be  getting  better  as  the  time  passes.  But  the  reality  in  the  countryside  was  horrible.  What  was  really  happening  in  the  countryside  while  I  was  living  happily  and  comfortably  in  Beijing?  People  I  saw  in  Haituo  Mountain  were  just  like  some  zombies  living  in  the  hell.  I  was  shocked  for  few  days  that  I  couldn’t  even  work  properly.     Every  day  Wang  Hong  and  I  worked  in  the  farm,  learning  how  to  plant  seeds  and  organize  the  dirt  while  plunk  out  the  weeds.  We  felt  fortunate  that  at  least  we  didn’t  have  to  work  in  “the  little  coal  mine,”  where  all  the  boys  were  being  naked  while  mining  the  coal.Coming  back  to  Beijing  after  the  ‘Down  to  the  Countryside’  movement,  I  felt  like  I  realized  something  that  I  should  never  know.  It  gave  me  a  huge  confusion  on  the  purpose  of  destroying  the  Four  Olds  and  welcoming  a  new  generation.  Was  Mao  already  knew  what  was  going  on  in  the  countryside?  Is  there  a  hidden  reason  that  Mao  wanted  to  hide?  Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Poster created by CCP to criticize Lin Biao Workers of the Printing House criticizingConfucius on the blackboardWednesday, May 15, 13
    • October 16, 1974In  the  morning  of  an  autumn  day,  the  open  air  swirled  around  my  face,  clean  and  fresh.  As  usual,  I  walked  out  to  the  front  door  and  picked  up  the  newspaper.  It  has  been  few  weeks  after  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  Campaign  has  ended.  I  have  heard  some  news  about  Lin  Biao  and  his  death  for  several  months,  but  no  one  really  cared  about  the  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  campaign  since  we  have  seen  a  lot  of  campaigns  come  and  go.  It’s  just  useless,  I  think.  But  hearing  of  his  death  made  me  suspicious  by  the  fact  that  the  person  who  was  known  as  Mao’s  supporter  as  well  as  companion  tried  to  overcome  Mao’s  power.  When  I  9irst  heard  the  rumor  from  Wang  Hong  that  Mao  denied  Lin  Biao’s  requested  promotions  for  several  times  as  tensions  grew  between  the  two,  I  could  predict  that  poisonous  branches  were  between  Mao  and  Lin  Biao  which  would  lead  the  power  of  Lin  Biao  would  dwindle  and  crashes  like  a  weak  branch  from  enormous  tree.  But  like  a  miracle,  my  prediction  came  true.  When  I  was  eating  jiao  zi  with  Wang  Hong  in  a  Chinese  restaurant,  the  announcer  from  the  radio  spoke  out  that  Lin  biao  and  his  family  died  in  plane  crashes  over  Mongolia  while  9lying  to  the  Soviet  Union,  and  that  the  Chinese  government  found  out  that  Lin  attempted  a  coup  d’etat  in  the  beginning  of  the  September  to  assassinate  Mao.  He  repeated  several  times  as  if  he  was  sure  with  Lin’s  betrayal.  At  9irst,  both  Wang  Hong  and  I  were  full  of  anger  and  felt  treacherous  from  Lin.  How  could  he  attempted  to  kill  Mao?  Wang  Hong’s  face  turned  red  as  a  tomato  and  shouted  out  that  she  has  no  understanding  of  Lin.  She  wondered  why  the  person  who  was  once  Mao’s  best  student  as  well  as  supporter  would  betray  him.  The  news  of  Lin  Biao’s  betrayal  and  his  death  spread  all  across  China,  which  made  his  reputation  to  be  completely  down  to  the  bottom.  I  thought  he  deserved  it.However,  when  Da  Wei  told  me  that  Jiang  Qing  created  the  “Criticize  Lin  Biao”  campaign  and  addition  with  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  campaign  to  blame  all  the  mistakes  of  the  Cultural  Revolution  as  Lin’s  fault,  I  changed  my  mind.  I  thought  it  was  kind  of  strange  to  blame  Lin  for  every  mistake  in  the  Cultural  Revolution,  and  in  my  opinion,  he  didn’t  caused  any  problems  that  were  against  Mao.  Wasn’t  Lin  Biao  was  the  one  who  created  ‘The  Little  Red  Book’  and  always  lead  me  to  have  a  dream  of  living  in  a  new  generation?  Besides  Mao,  actually  Lin  was  my  true  hero  who  gave  trust  to  me.  I  still  remember  the  time  when  he  was  making  a  speech  leading  us  one  step  closer  to  the  Cultural  Revolution.  I  really  wonder  if  Lin  should  receive  all  the  blame  of  the  mistakes  of  the  Cultural  Revolution  by  being  supportive  and  helpful  to  Mao.  Then  I  suddenly  thought  that  maybe  Jiang  Qing  would  have  kill  Lin  who  seemed  to  overcome  Mao’s  power.  All  those  years  the  campaign  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  was  on  the  news  and  the  radio  everyday,  no  one,  including  myself,  really  care  about  this  campaign  because  there  was  often  other  campaigns  criticizing  the  innocent  people.  Also  I  actually  have  loose  the  trust  and  became  suspicious  to  Mao  since  I  never  thought  he  would  be  supportive  to  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  campaign.Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Poster emphasizing the Gang of FourPicture of Tiananmen Incident. People arecommemorating the death of Zhou EnlaiWang Hong and me crying for Mao’s deathWednesday, May 15, 13
    • October 7, 1976It  was  a  clear  morning;  the  blue  and  white  mixture  of  paint  swirled  carefully  together  high  up  in  the  sky.  I  breathed  the  chilly  air  in  through  my  nose  and  exhaled  through  my  dry  lips.  The  yesterday’s  memory  of  watching  the  Gang  of  Four  being  arrested  by  Hua  Gofeng,  the  new  Chairman  of  CCP,  was  just  a  bit  getting  on  my  nerves  because  I  am  suspicious  with  all  the  power  of  Mao  and  the  true  face  of  him.  I  have  a  doubt  on  the  reason  accusing  the  Gang  of  Four  with  a  possibilities  that  they  might  be  the  scapegoat  of  having  blame  on  all  the  failure  of  the  Cultural  Revolution  after  the  breakdown  of  the  “Criticize  Lin  Biao,  Criticize  Confucius”  campaign.  According  to  Da  Wei,  the  Gang  of  Four,  including  Jiang  Qing,  Zhang  Chunqiao,  Yao  Wenyuan,  and  Wang  Hongwen,  were  the  four  leaders  assisting  Mao  that  often  delivered  messages  of  him  while  constantly  gaining  the  power.  He  told  me  that  the  government  pointed  out  that  they  were  the  ones  that  made  us  to  suffer  while  loosing  our  leaders,  Mao  and  Zhou.  However,  in  my  perspective,  I  think  the  Gang  of  Four  never  committed  any  crimes  that  made  us  to  suffer  more  drastically  during  the  Cultural  Revolution.  Then  why  did  they  get  all  the  blame  of  the  mistakes  results  from  the  Cultural  Revolution?  Wang  Hong  guessed  that  maybe  the  arresting  of  the  Gang  of  Four  was  a  way  for  Mao  to  keep  his  “god  Tigure  image”  to  us,  to  indicate  that  he  is  innocent  with  any  disasters  happened  during  the  Cultural  Revolution.  If  that  were  true,  it  shows  that  Mao  wasn’t  blameless  for  all  of  the  misfortune.Jogging  around  the  Tiananmen  Square  with  Wang  Hong  every  morning,  the  memories  of  the  Tiananmen  Incident  9lashed  back  in  my  mind.  It  was  a  warm  spring  day  when  Zhou  Enlai,  the  most  respective  advocate  of  modernization,  died  with  cancer.  Glancing  at  the  Tiananmen  Square  reminds  me  of  myself  with  Wang  Hong  being  one  of  the  attendees  crying  out  for  Zhou’s  regrettable  death.  Everybody,  were  mourning  and  sobbing  by  his  death  since  he  was  the  moderate  leader  who  had  protected  us  for  well  being.  We  all  commemorate  in  the  memorial  for  his  death  quietly.  Meanwhile,  all  of  us  carefully  requested  for  “more  openness  in  government,  an  end  to  dictatorship,  and  a  return  to  the  true  spirit  of  Marxism-­‐  Leninism”.  But  there  was  a  small  riot  when  Jiang  Qing  and  her  assistance  attempted  to  con9iscate  the  memorial.  I  still  remember  myself  criticizing  Jiang  Qing  during  the  Tiananmen  Incident;  why  does  she  want  to  stop  us  from  requesting  for  a  better  life?My  trust  on  the  revolution  policy  for  ten  years  has  just  broken  into  pieces  after  the  end  of  the  Cultural  Revolution,  which  is  after  the  death  of  our  great  leader,  Mao.  Last  month,  the  Lord  of  the  people  died  after  a  year  of  hospitalizing.  Mao’s  death  was  like  a  tragic  for  me.  Even  though  my  trust  on  Mao  has  been  withered  since  the  ‘Down  to  the  Countryside’  movement,  because  of  his  power  was  so  powerful  and  trustable,  the  death  of  him  was  unbelievable  shocking  news  in  my  life.  In  whatever  reasons,  I  am  so  glad  that  the  Cultural  Revolution  has  been  9inally  marked  the  end  peacefully.  Even  though  the  dream  of  living  in  a  new  generation  seemed  to  not  been  successful,  for  ten  years  being  involved  in  the  Cultural  Revolution,  I  learned  a  lot  of  lessons.  Also,  the  memories  of  mighty  Mao  would  be  everlasting  deep  under  my  heart.  Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • Bibliography"舞笛." (-引用)从大跃进到三年自然灾害(W123.转载). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Vintage Everyday." : Vintage Photographs of Pre-Revolution China, 1870-1946. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."I Was A Teenage Red Guard." New Internationalist All Posts RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Madam Miaow Says." UK Chinese Parliamentary Candidates General Election Hustings. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Whats In A Name? JCPenney And The Dunce Cap - The Rumpus.net." The Rumpusnet Whats in a Name JCPenney and The Dunce CapComments. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Exhibition of Everyday Items Illustrates Changes in Chinese Daily Life (with Photos)."Exhibition of Everyday Items Illustrates Changes inChinese Daily Life (with Photos). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Up to the Mountains, down to the Villages (1968)." Up to the Mountains, down to the Villages (1968). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Vintage Propaganda and Ad Posters of the 1970s (Page 15)." Vintage Propaganda and Ad Posters of the 1970s (Page 15). N.p., n.d. Web. 14May 2013."Lin Piao Is a Devout Disciple of Confucius." Lin Piao Is a Devout Disciple of Confucius. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Mao Zedong." Mao Zedong. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Black and White Cat." › No More Heroes. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013.Brooman, Josh. "China under Communist Rule." Longman 20th Century History Series: China since1900. Harlow: Longman, 1988. 27-41. Print.Francis, Gregory, and Stephanie Lamb. Chinas Cultural Revolution. Standfor, CA: Stanford Program onInternational and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE), 2005. Print.Wednesday, May 15, 13
    • BibliographyJiang, Ji-Li. Red Scarf Girl. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.Li, Zhensheng. Red-Color News Soldier. Phaidon. 2003. Print.Wood, John, and Andrew McManus. "Chapter 12: The Peoples Republic of China 1949-1957" and "Chapter 13: Maos Rule in China." China:Revolutionary Leadership. New Zealand: MacMillan, 1998: 75-79 and 82-88. Print."Three Chinese Leaders: Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, and Deng Xiaoping | Asia for Educators | Columbia University." Three Chinese Leaders:Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, and Deng Xiaoping | Asia for Educators | Columbia University. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013."Timeline of China | Tiananmen Incident | Event View." Timeline of China | Tiananmen Incident | Event View. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013.Wednesday, May 15, 13