Medical emergencies

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  • . Fresh water will cause the nematocysts to continue to release their toxin.
  • to remove any adherent nematocysts.
  • Medical emergencies

    1. 1.  Planes of the body Anterior  Posterior  Superior  Inferior  Medial  Lateral  Superficial  Deep  Internal  External  Proximal  Distal 
    2. 2.  Directional Terms
    3. 3.  Movement terms Flexion  Extension  Abduction  Adduction  External Rotation  Internal Rotation  Pronation  Supination  Lateral flexion  Rotation  Dorsiflexion  Plantarflexion  Inversion  Eversion 
    4. 4.  Anatomic Position Anatomical Position  Supine  Prone  Sidelying  Trendelenburg  Reverse trendelenburg  sitting 
    5. 5.    The human skeleton is a strong, flexible framework of 206 bones that supports the body and protects internal organs. In addition, the bones of the skeleton store calcium, a mineral essential for the activity of nerve and muscle cells. The soft core of bone, the bone marrow, is where red blood cells, certain white blood cells, and blood platelets form.
    6. 6. 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    7. 7. Neck - Contains important structures - Cervical Vertebrae - Spinal Cord - Esophagus - Trachea or Windpipe - NAV ( vagus, carotid, jugular )
    8. 8. - 2nd Major Body Cavity - Peritoneum - Organs of Digestion and Excretion - Boundary – Best described by QUADRANTS
    9. 9. - Costal Arch (6th – 10th Ribs) - Umbilicus (4th Lumbar) - Iliac Crest (5th Lumbar) - Symphysis Pubis
    10. 10. - Bony Ring (2 pelvic bones, 1 sacrum) - Pelvic Bones (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis) - Contents (Urinary Bladder, Reproductive Organs, Rectum)
    11. 11.   the provision of initial care for an illness or injury usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed
    12. 12.  OBJECTIVES:  Preserve life  Prevent further harm  Promote recovery
    13. 13.  • RESPONSIBILITIES Bridge the gap between the victim and the physician • Ensure his own safety, that of the victim’s, and of bystanders • Gain access to the victim • Determine threats to the victim’s life
    14. 14. • RESPONSIBILITIES Call for more medical assistance as needed • Provide emergency care to the victim • Assist Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and other personnel when they arrive • Remember all assessments and care given to the victim 
    15. 15.  CHARACTERISTICS Gentle Empathetic  Resourceful Respectful  Observant Dedicated  Tactful Creative 
    16. 16. • • • • • • • Name, age, sex Chief complain A-B-C Vital Signs History Physical Examination: how? Further History
    17. 17.  Obtain the patient’s name.  Note the age, gender, and race.  Look for identification if the patient is unconscious.
    18. 18.    The major sign and/or symptom reported by the patient Symptoms – Problems or feelings a patient reports Signs – Conditions that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled, or measured
    19. 19.    S—Signs and Symptoms – What signs and symptoms occurred at onset? A—Allergies – Is the patient allergic to medications, foods, or other? M—Medications – What medications is the patient taking?
    20. 20.  P—Pertinent past history  Does the patient have any medical history? L—Last oral intake  When did the patient last eat or drink? E—Events leading to injury or illness – – – What events led to this incident?
    21. 21.    O—Onset – When did the problem first start? P—Provoking factors – What creates or makes the problem worse? Q—Quality of pain – Description of the pain
    22. 22.    R—Radiation of pain or discomfort – Does the pain radiate anywhere? S—Severity – Intensity of pain on 1-to-10 scale T—Time – How long has the patient had this problem?
    23. 23.  Key signs used to evaluate a patient’s condition  First set is known as baseline vitals.  Repeated vital signs compared to the baseline
    24. 24.  Vital signs always include: – Respirations – Pulse – Blood pressure
    25. 25.  Other key indicators include: –Skin temperature and condition in adults –Capillary refill time in children –Pupils –Level of consciousness
    26. 26.    Rate – Number of breaths in 30 seconds 2 Quality – Character of breathing Rhythm – Regular or irregular    Effort – Normal or labored Noisy respiration – Normal, stridor, wheezing, snoring, gurgling Depth – Shallow or deep
    27. 27. Adults 12 to 20 breaths/min Children 15 to 30 breaths/min Infants 25 to 50 breaths/min
    28. 28.     Evaluates the effectiveness of oxygenation Probe is placed on finger or earlobe. Pulse oximetry is a tool. Does not replace good patient assessment
    29. 29.  Rate  Number of beats in 30 seconds Strength  Bounding, strong, or weak (thready) Regularity – – – Regular or irregular 2
    30. 30. Adults 60 to 100 beats/min Children 70 to 150 beats/min Infants 100 to 160 beats/min
    31. 31.  Color  Pink, pale, blue, red, or yellow Temperature  Warm, hot, or cool Moisture – – – Dry, moist, or wet
    32. 32.   Evaluates the ability of the circulatory system to restore blood to the capillary system (perfusion) Tested by depressing the patient’s fingertip and looking for return of blood
    33. 33.   Blood pressure is a vital sign. A drop in blood pressure may indicate: Loss of blood – Loss of vascular tone – Cardiac pumping problem –  Blood pressure should be measured in all patients older than 3 years.
    34. 34.     Diastolic – Pressure during relaxing phase of the heart’s cycle Systolic – Pressure during contraction Measured as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) Recorded as systolic/diastolic
    35. 35.     Place cuff on patient’s arm. Palpate brachial artery and place stethoscope. Inflate cuff until you no longer hear pulse sounds. Continue pumping to increase pressure by an additional 20 mm Hg.
    36. 36.   Note the systolic and diastolic pressures as you let air escape slowly. As soon as pulse sounds stop, open the valve and release the air quickly.
    37. 37.      Secure cuff. Locate radial pulse. Inflate to 200 mm Hg. Release air until pulse is felt. Method only obtains systolic pressure.
    38. 38. Age Range Adults 90 to 140 mm Hg (systolic) 80 to 110 mm Hg (systolic) 50 to 95(systolic) Children (1 to 8 years) Infants (newborn to 1 year)
    39. 39. A – Alert V – Responsive to Verbal stimulus P – Responsive to Pain U – Unresponsive
    40. 40.      Fixed with no reaction to light Dilate with light and constrict without light React sluggishly Unequal in size Unequal with light or when light is removed
    41. 41.  P - Pupils  E - Equal  A - And  R - Round  R - Regular in size  L - React to Light
    42. 42.  Reassess stable patients every 15 minutes.  Reassess unstable patients every 5 minutes.
    43. 43. • Chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated • Requires the heart to work
    44. 44.          Roll up the patient’s loose sleeve. The patient should be sitting up if possible, and the arm should be relaxed. Wrap the inflatable cuff around the arm, above the bend of the arm. Place the ear pieces of the stethoscope in your ears. Place the round side of the stethoscope underneath the cuff. It should be placed over the spot where you can feel the brachial artery pulse. Ensure that the air valve on the bulb is closed tight. Inflate the cuff to about 180 mm Hg. Stop inflating and let the cuff begin deflation. You will need to turn the air valve to let the air make its way out of the cuff. Listen for a sound as the pressure drops. The first sound you hear will be the measurement for the systolic blood pressure (when the artery is opening). Make a note of this measurement either by writing it down or committing it to memory. Note where the measurement on the sphygmomanometer is when the last sound you hear takes place. This will be the diastolic blood pressure measurement.
    45. 45. • • • • • • Headache Lightheadedness Vertigo Tinnitus Altered vision Fainting episodes
    46. 46. • Let the patient rest • Give emergency medications • Monitor patient
    47. 47. • HEART • • • is a muscular organ found directly under the breastbone Weighs between 6 and 11 ounces Pumps about 2,000 gallons worth of blood through your body everyday
    48. 48. • HEART Using rhythmic contractions, it circulates blood through veins and arteries which supplies tissues with oxygenated blood • Activated by its own electrical system • Requires oxygen to work properly •
    49. 49. • HEART ATTACK • Blood supply to the heart or part of the heart is cut off partially or completely decreasing the amount of oxygen delivered to the heart muscle….this leads to the death of the heart muscle
    50. 50. • Risk Factors Age Sex DM High BP Dyslipedemia/ hypercholesterolemia • Tobacco smoking including 2nd hand smokers • • • • •
    51. 51. • Risk Factors • Short term exposures to air pollution such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide • Family history of ischemic heart disease • Obesity • Lack of physical activity
    52. 52.  BMI= kg of bw/(ht in meter)²   = lbs / (ht in inches) * 703
    53. 53. BMI Classification < 18.5 underweight 18.5–24.9 normal weight 25.0–29.9 overweight 30.0–34.9 class I obesity 35.0–39.9 class II obesity ≥ 40.0 class III obesit
    54. 54. • Risk Factors • • • • Psychosocial Factors Alcohol Use of OCP Hyperhomocystenemia
    55. 55. • Signs and Symptoms  Chest pain or discomfort  Upper body discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or upper part of the stomach  Shortness of breath  Nausea  Vomiting  Light-headedness  Breaking out in a cold sweat
    56. 56. • What to do • Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm • Loosen any tight clothing • Help the person take his medication (if there’s any) • If the person is unconscious and unresponsive your local emergency number, then begin CPR
    57. 57. • broad term that is used to describe discomfort when breathing, and the feeling that you cannot draw a breath
    58. 58.         a faster breathing rate wheezing blue fingernails and/or mouth pale or gray complexion head sweat flaring nostrils Chest pain Cough
    59. 59. Newborn and infant Up to 6 month old 30-60 breaths/ min Infants 6 to 12 months old 24-30 breaths/min Toddlers and children 1 to 5 years old 20-30 breaths/min Children 6 to 12 years 12-20 breaths/min Adult >12 12-20 breaths/ min
    60. 60.        Chest moving in an unusual way as the person breathes Confusion Lightheadedness Weakness Sleepiness Fever Gurgling
    61. 61.       Check A-B-C Loosen any tight clothing Help use prescribed medication Continue monitoring patient DO NOT assume that the person's condition is improving if you can no longer hear wheezing If there are open wounds in the neck or chest, they must be closed immediately
    62. 62.  known as excessive breathing, causes a reduction of carbon dioxide concentration (below normal) of the blood
    63. 63.          Tense feeling Dizziness Fast or deep breathing Tingling in fingers and hands Stiffness or cramps in fingers and hands Tightness around the mouth Cold hands or feet Palpitations in the chest Anxiety
    64. 64.    Keep the patient calm Move patient in a quiet room 7-11 breathing
    65. 65.    any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C) in practice: temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C) A fever is any body temperature elevation over 100 °F (37.8 °C)
    66. 66.    Temperature in the anus (rectum/rectal) is at or over 37.5–38.3 °C (99.5–100.9 °F) Temperature in the mouth (oral) is at or over 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) Temperature under the arm (axillary) or in the ear (otic) is at or over 37.2 °C (99.0 °F)
    67. 67.  What to do?     Tepid sponge bath Paracetamol Ibuprofen Increase water intake
    68. 68. • caused by: • Inflammation • distention of an organ • loss of the blood supply to an organ • contraction of the intestinal muscles • hyper-sensitivity to normal intestinal activities
    69. 69. • • • • • • • • Food poisoning Cramps Stomach flu Gas Indigestion Constipation Food allergies Lactose intolerance
    70. 70. • Let patient lie down and rest • Give clear fluids • Eat smaller portion meal • Use heating pads • Keep container nearby in case the person vomits
    71. 71. • Condition that leads to frequent, loose or watery stools
    72. 72. • • • • Prevent dehydration by drinking lots of clear liquid BRAT diet DO NOT take anti-diarrheal medications DO NOT give spicy, greasy or fatty food
    73. 73. • • • • Prevent dehydration by drinking lots of clear liquid BRAT diet DO NOT take anti-diarrheal medications DO NOT give spicy, greasy or fatty food
    74. 74. • forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose
    75. 75. • Causes Food intolerance Allergy Hypertension Increase intracranial pressure • other • • • •
    76. 76.    Have the person drink small amounts of water, sports drinks, or clear liquids Don't give the person solid food until vomiting has stopped When the person can tolerate food, try small amounts of the BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast
    77. 77. • A state of collapse and failure of the heart and blood vessels to deliver enough blood to the body tissues to meet their needs
    78. 78. • Sweaty with cool clammy skin • Pale • Weak and rapid pulse • Marked thirst • Bluish discoloration of the skin
    79. 79. • • • • Assist victims to lie down Elevate feet higher than the heart Turn head to one side Assess A-B-C
    80. 80. • A change in behavior or consciousness that takes place when the electrical activity of the brain becomes irregular
    81. 81. • Head injury • Infection of the nervous system • Stroke, heat stroke • Poisoning, drug overdose • Low blood sugar
    82. 82. • Provide a safe environment • DO NOT attempt to hold down or restrain a convulsing victim • Support victim’s head • Sponge bath if has fever • Loosen tight clothing • Roll the patient to side after seizure episode
    83. 83.   Is the loss of brain function that results when part of the blood flow to the brain is suddenly cut off This can be caused by a blood clot or by a ruptured blood in the brain
    84. 84. • Numbness, tingling, paralysis on one side of the body • Speech problems • Dizziness • Confusion • Nausea or vomiting • Decreased level of sensorium
    85. 85. • • • • • THINK F.A.S.T.!!! Facial asymmetry Arm weakness Speech difficulties Time is Critical
    86. 86. • common sudden illness characterized by a partial or complete loss of consciousness • caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain
    87. 87. • • • • Shock-like signals: Cool, pale or moist skin Nausea Numbness or tingling in the finger and toes
    88. 88. • • • • Lie down victim Elevate legs Loosen tight clothing Check A-B-C
    89. 89. • Poison • any substance ( solid, liquid or gas) that causes illness or death when introduced into the body or into the skin surface
    90. 90. Abdominal pain or cramps Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Presence of oral burns, odors or stains • Drowsiness or loss of consciousness • • • • •
    91. 91. • WHO is the victim, Age and weight • WHAT was swallowed • HOW MUCH was swallowed • HOW did it happened • WHEN did it happened
    92. 92. • DO NOT induce vomiting • DO NOT give anything by mouth • Save and bring poison container • Bring the patient to the nearest hospital • Contact a poison control center  NCR Poison Control Center  Emergency hotline numbers: 928-0611 loc 707  Direct line/Fax: 921-1212  Mobile: 0922-8106595
    93. 93.  INHALED POISONS  Are gaseous substances that enter through inhalation and cause toxicity
    94. 94. • • • • • • Difficulty of breathing Cyanosis Dizziness Headache Seizure Unresponsive
    95. 95. • Remove patient from toxic environment • Keep airway open • Monitor A-B-C
    96. 96. • Carbon Monoxide • No taste • No scent • No color
    97. 97. Sleepy and drowsy Headache Dizziness Nausea and Vomiting • Fatigue • Flu-like symptoms • • • •
    98. 98. • Poison may enter the body through the skin
    99. 99. • Redness, rash, and/or blisters on the skin • Burns • Itching, skin irritation • Presence of liquid or powder in the skin
    100. 100. • Remove victims clothing • Blot the poison from the skin using a dry piece of clothe. DO NOT rub • If powder, brush it off • Wash with running water • Monitor victim
    101. 101. • poisons may also enter the body through a break in the skin caused by a bite, sting or syringe
    102. 102. • • • • • • Pain Allergic reactions Infections Swelling Serious Illness Even Death
    103. 103. • The stinger may be present in the bite site
    104. 104. • Remove the stinger by gently scraping the skin surface with a knife • DO NOT pinch the stinger to remove it • Wash with water • Apply cold compress
    105. 105. • • • • • Pain Allergic reaction Swelling Infection Venom paralysis and death
    106. 106. • • • • • Bite mark Swelling Pain Nausea and vomiting Difficulty in breathing and swallowing
    107. 107.  WHAT TO DO?     Wash wound with soap and water Antiseptic may be used Apply cold compress Bring victim to nearest hospital
    108. 108.  MARINE ANIMALS Most marine animals will not deliberately attack unless you disturb them  Painful  Rarely fatal  Allergic reations 
    109. 109.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS    Site of contact on the skin has a rash with pinpoint bleeding Burning pain Swelling
    110. 110.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Nausea and vomiting  Muscle cramping  Diarrhea and muscle paralysis  Allergic reaction 
    111. 111.  WHAT TO DO?  Jellyfish sting: irrigate/soak the affected area with vinegar for at least 10 minutes
    112. 112.  WHAT TO DO?    Jellyfish sting: If you do not have vinegar available, rinse in sea water,70% isopropyl alcohol, or Safe Sea Jellyfish After Sting® DO NOT use fresh water DO NOT rub the area
    113. 113.  WHAT TO DO?  Jellyfish sting:  Remove tentacles with a stick or a pair of tweezers  Apply shaving cream or a paste of baking soda to the area  Shave the area with a razor or credit card  reapply vinegar or alcohol
    114. 114.  WHAT TO DO?  Jellyfish sting:  Eye stings: rinse with a commercial saline solution like Artifical Tears  dab the skin around the eyes with a towel that has been soaked in vinegar  Do not place vinegar directly in the eyes
    115. 115.  WHAT TO DO?  Jellyfish sting:  Mouth stings- treat with 1/4 strength vinegar.  Mix ¼ cup of vinegar with ¾ cup of water. Gargle and spit out the solution.  DO NOT drink or swallow the solution.
    116. 116.  WHAT TO DO?  Jellyfish sting:  May give over the counter pain reliever  Monitor victim’s condition  Bring patient in nearest hospital
    117. 117.  WHAT TO DO?  Stingray sting:  Immerse irrigate the affected area with hot water (as hot as can be tolerated) for at least 20 min or for as long as pain persists
    118. 118.  WHAT TO DO?  Stingray sting:  Wash the wound with soap and water  Cover the wound  Immediately bring the victim to the nearest Hospital/poison control center
    119. 119.  REMEMBER!!!  Identifying the type/species of snake can greatly help the hospital medical personnel choose the appropriate treatment to give
    120. 120. COMPARISON VENOMOUS SNAKE e.g. cobra NON-VENOMOUS SNAKE e.g. python Cortina ,side-winding Semi-cortina, curving Semi- triangular Oblong Rectangular Circular SKIN Rough Smooth PUPIL Vertical, slit-like Round MANNER OF ATTACK Non-constrictor Constrictor BITE MARK Fang Marks: 2 punctures U-shaped row of marks MOVEMENT SHAPE OF HEAD BODY GIRTH
    121. 121.  WHAT TO DO? Clean the area of the bite with soap and water  Have the victim lying down quietly and comfortably  Immediately bring the victim to the nearest hospital/ animal bite center 
    122. 122.  WHAT TO DO?     DO NOT suck the wound to remove the venom DO NOT apply tourniquet DO NOT apply a cold compress DO NOT incise the bitten area
    123. 123.  WHAT TO DO? Apply pressure immobilization bandage  40 and 70 mm Hg : UE  55 and 70 mm Hg: LE  Pressure is sufficient if the bandage is comfortably tight and snug but allows a finger to be slipped under it 
    124. 124.  LAND ANIMAL BITE  Can result to:  Damaged tissue  Infection  Tetanus  rabies
    125. 125.  WHAT TO DO? Wash the area of the bite with soap and water for 30 minutes  Avoid scrubbing, which can bruise the tissue  Control the bleeding  Cover the wound with sterile or clean dressing 
    126. 126.  WHAT TO DO?  Immediately bring the victim to the nearest hospital/animal bite center
    127. 127.  Rinse eyes exposed to toxic substances immediately with a copious amount of water unless a specific antidote is available
    128. 128.  ALCOHOL INTOXICATION A state by which alcohol levels ingested exceed that of a persons tolerance  This produces physiological changes that manifest as mental and physical impairements 
    129. 129.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Odor of alcohol on the      victim’s breath or clothing Unsteady, staggering walking Slurred speech, unable to carry conversation Nausea and vomiting Flushed face seizure
    130. 130.  WHAT TO DO FOR A RESPONSIVE PERSON      Provide emotional support Look for any injuries Protect person from hurting himself If the person becomes violent, leave, call the police Call for emergency medical assistance
    131. 131.  WHAT TO DO FOR AN UNRESPONSIVE PERSON?        Call for emergency medical assistance immediately Make sure airway is clear and that person in breathing DO NOT give anything by mouth Place person in side – lying position Assume there is spinal injury if there are signs of injury Regulate the person’s body heat Bring the person to the nearest hospital
    132. 132.  HEAT EXPOSURE Heat cramps  Heat exhaustion  Heat stroke 
    133. 133.  HEAT CRAMPS  Are painful tightening of the muscles that occur after prolonged use, as in vigorous exercise
    134. 134.  WHAT TO DO WITH HEAT CRAMPS?      Move the patient away from the potential source of heat Have them rest Drink plenty of water Stretch the tightened muscle Loosen tight clothing
    135. 135.  HEAT EXHAUSTION The most common serious emergency caused by heat  Causes:   Heat exposure  Stress  Fatigue
    136. 136.  HEAT EXHAUSTION  Signs and symptoms  Excessive sweating  Pale, moist, cool skin  Dry tongue and thirst  Dizziness or faintness  Irritability  Confusion
    137. 137.  HEAT EXHAUSTION  Signs and symptoms  Weakness  Nausea  Vomiting  Headache  Rapid pulse  Normal or slightly elevated body temperature
    138. 138.  WHAT TO DO WITH HEAT EXHAUSTION The most important step is to COOL the victim  remove any excessive layers of clothing, especially around head and neck  move the victim to a cooler environment  lay the victim down flat and elevate his legs 
    139. 139.  WHAT TO DO WITH HEAT EXHAUSTION Fan the victim or place cool wet cloths on his skin  Give victim water to drink  DO NOT give alcoholic, caffeinated or carbonated drinks 
    140. 140.  HEAT STOKE Happens when the body is exposed to more heat than it can handle  Temperature may reach 41ᵒC 
    141. 141.  HEAT STOKE  Signs and symptoms  Striking change in the victims behavior  Loss of consciousness  Flushed, hot and dry skin  Pulse and breathing are rapid and weak
    142. 142.  WHAT TO DO WITH HEAT STOKE Call for emergency medical assistance ASAP  Move the victim to coolest possible place  Remove as much of the victims clothing as possible  Place the victim in comfortable position 
    143. 143.  WHAT TO DO WITH HEAT STOKE Apply cool packs to the victim’s neck, groin and armpits  Cover the victim with cold wet towel or sheets or spray the victim with cool water  Bring the victim to the hospital as fast as possible 
    144. 144.  HYPOTHERMIA  Happens when the core temperature of the body falls below 35ᵒC
    145. 145.  WHAT TO DO WITH HYPOTHERMIA      Remove the victim from the cold environment If the feet are injured, DO NOT allow the victim to walk Remove any wet clothing from the victim Place dry blankets over and under the victim DO NOT massage the victims limbs
    146. 146.  WHAT TO DO WITH HYPOTHERMIA     Handle the victim gently to avoid causing pain or further injury to the skin DO NOT allow the victim to eat or take coffee, tea, cola, or tobacco Give warm fluids for conscious victim Bring patient to nearest hospital
    147. 147.  HYPERGLYCEMIA   Level of glucose is above normal Caused by:  overeating without taking medications for diabetes regularly
    148. 148.  HYPERGLYCEMIA  Signs and symptoms  warm and dry skin  intense thirst  Vomiting  rapid deep breathing  sweet fruity odor of breath  Normal, Rapid and full pulse  restless heading to coma
    149. 149.  HYPOGLYCEMIA   Level of glucose is below normal Caused by:  missing meals  being overly active physically  taking too much diabetes medication
    150. 150.  HYPOGLYCEMIA  Signs and symptoms  pale and moist skin  intense hunger  normal rapid breathing  rapid weak pulse  irritable, confused with seizure or coma
    151. 151.  WHAT TO DO     Call for emergency medical assistance ASAP For conscious victim with hypoglycemia, give candy or juice drinks If victim is unconscious, assess CAB’s and manage accordingly Bring the victim to the hospital ASAP
    152. 152.  ALLERGY  Is an over reaction of the body’s protective mechanisms to unwanted substances
    153. 153.  TRIGGERING FACTORS Insect bites and stings  Medications  Plants  Food  chemicals 
    154. 154.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Sneezing or an itchy runny nose  Flushing with itching, tingling or burning sensation in the skin  Skin hives  Tightness of the chest or throat  hoarseness 
    155. 155.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Wheezing  Respiration becomes rapid, labored and noisy  Increased pulse rate  Pale skin and dizziness  Loss of consciousness 
    156. 156.  WHAT TO DO Remove the potential source of allergen  Call for emergency medical assistance  Assist the person in taking his anti-allergy medications  Have the patient rest until medical help arrives  Assess the patient CABs and treat correspondingly 
    157. 157.  WHAT TO DO   Use anaphylaxis kit The kit contains a dose of epinephrine (0.3mg / 0.15mg) that can be injected into the body to counteract the anaphylactic reaction
    158. 158.  CAUSES Nose picking  Traumatic injury  High blood pressure  Infections  Vitamin deficiency  Use of medications 
    159. 159.  WHAT TO DO Calm the patient  Patient should sit with the upper part of the body tilted forward and the mouth open  Pinch the soft parts of the nose together between the thumb and index finger 
    160. 160.  WHAT TO DO Hold the nose pinched for at least 8 to 10 minutes  Apply ice to the base of the nose  Seek medical help 
    161. 161.   A foreign body inside a child’s nose can be present for a period of time without the parent being aware of the problem. Potential to dislodge and travel
    162. 162.  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS     Difficulty in breathing Feeling of something inside the nose Fouls smelling or bloody nasal discharge Irritation or pain in the nose
    163. 163.  WHAT TO DO   Have the victim blow out of the nose gently to try to free the object If visible, try to grasp it with tweezer
    164. 164.  WHAT TO DO DO NOT probe the nose with cotton swab  DO NOT try to inhale the object  DO NOT try to remove an object that is not visible 
    165. 165.  WHAT TO DO May remove object if visible using a tweezer  Tilt head to the side  If insect, put few drops of baby oil or mineral oil  If button battery, urgent removal is required 
    166. 166.  LAGUNDI (Scientific name: Vitex negundo) – Gamot sa ubo, sipon, lagnat, at hika
    167. 167.  YERBA BUENA (Scientific name: Clinopodium douglasii)· - Gamot sa pananakit ng katawan, ubo, sipon, hilo, at pangangati
    168. 168.  SAMBONG (Scientific name: Blumea balsamifera) – Gamot sa high blood (hypertension) bilang isang pampaihi o diuretic; nakakalusaw ng mga bato sa bato.
    169. 169.  TSAANG GUBAT (Scientific name: Carmona retusa) – Gamot sa sakit ng tiyan o pagtatae (gastroenteritis) at pangmumog para maiwasan ang mga cavites o pamumulok ng ngipin.
    170. 170.  NIYOG-NIYOGAN (Scientific name: Quiscalis indica) – Gamot sa bulate sa tiyan
    171. 171.  AKAPULKO (Scientific name:· Cassia alata) – Panlaban sa mga fungal infection sa balat gaya ng an-an, buni, alipunga.
    172. 172.  ULASIMANG-BATO (Scientific name: Peperonia pellucida) – Ginhawa sa rayuma o arthritis at gout
    173. 173.  BAWANG (Scientific name: Alium sativum) – Pampababa ng kolesterol (cholesterol-lowering agent)
    174. 174.  AMPALAYA (Scientific name: Momordica charantia) – Pampababa ng asukal sa dugo sa mga may diabetes (Lowers blood sugar levels)
    175. 175.  BAYABAS (Scientific name: Psidium guajava) – Gamot sa pagtatae (antidiarrheal) at panghugas ng katawan na nakakaalis ng mikrobyo (antiseptic)

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