ThalassemiaThalassemia major Thalassemia minorHomozygossever formHeterozygosminor form
Pathogenesis of thalassemiaineffective erythropoiesis
C.PHemolytic anemia:Anemia.Jaundice.Hepatosplenomegally due to extramedullaryhemopoiesis.Rodent facies (prominent malar eminences &malalignement of the teeth) due to facial bonedeformity 2ry to bone marrow hyperplasia.
Bone marrow hyperplasiaLong bones:Diffuse osteoporosis,Medullary expansion,Cortical thinning,Coarse trabeculations (reactive sclerosis of the 2ry bonetrabeculae after destruction of the primary trabeculae), &Enlargement of the nutrient foramina.
Bone marrow hyperplasiaSkull:Widening of the diploic space.Thinning of the inner & outer table (complete resorption of the outertable may occur).Prominent 2ry trabeculae (hair on end appearance).The occipital bone is spared as it lacks hemopoietic bone marrow.
Facial bones:Hypopneumatization of the frontal, maxillary & sphenoidsinuses (which are filled with marrow containing bone).The ethmoid sinuses are spared.Prominent malar eminences.Anterior & medial displacement of the developing teeth.