Surface anatomy of the brain

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  • 1. Surface anatomy of the brain Dr Hytham Nafady
  • 2. Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Limbic lobe Insular lobe
  • 3. Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere Frontal lobe Prefrontal cortex Motor area Pre-motor area Motor speech area Parietal lobe Primary sensory area Sensory association area Temporal lobe Auditory cortex Auditory association area Occipital lobe Visual cortex Visual association area Limbic lobe Emotion Memory Olfactory cortex Insular lobe Gustatory cortex
  • 4. CT anatomy of the lobes of cerebral hemisphere
  • 5. ANATOMY Inferior sections T
  • 6. ANATOMY Ventricular sections 3rd BG FH OH Body O P F
  • 7. Superior sections P F ANATOMY
  • 8. Lobar borders
  • 9. Surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere Lateral surface Medial surface Inferior surface
  • 10. Surface anatomy of the lateral surface
  • 11. Lateral surface of cerebral hemisphere
  • 12. Sylvian fissure
  • 13. Sylvian fissure
  • 14. Sylvian fissure Main stem Lateral sulcus Anterior horizontal ramus Anterior ascending ramus Posterior horizontal ramus Posterior ascending ramus Posterior descending ramus
  • 15. Frontal lobe
  • 16. Frontal lobe 3 sulci Precentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus 4 gyri Precentral gyrus Superior Frontal gyrus Middle Frontal gyrus Inferior Frontal gyrus
  • 17. Frontal lobe
  • 18. Superior frontal sulcus bifurcates to form superior precentral gyrus
  • 19. Inferior frontal sulcus bifurcates to form inferior precentral gyrus
  • 20. Superior frontal gyrus • Rectangular (Bar shaped) • Forms the upper most margin of the frontal lobe.
  • 21. Inferior frontal gyrus • Triangular gyrus (M shaped). Divided by the anterior horizontal ramus and anterior ascending ramus into 3 portions. 1. Pars orbitalis. 2. Pars triangularis. 3. Pars opercularis.
  • 22. Inferior frontal gyrus
  • 23. Inferior frontal gyrus
  • 24. Temporal lobe
  • 25. Temporal lobe 2 sulci Superior Temporal sulcus Inferior Temporal sulcus 3 gyri Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus
  • 26. Temporal lobe
  • 27. 31 Temporal Sulci • Parallel sulcusSuperior temporal sulcus • Not continuous sulcusInferior temporal sulcus
  • 28. 32 Temporal Sulci • Parallel sulcusSuperior temporal sulcus • Not continuous sulcusInferior temporal sulcus
  • 29. Superior temporal sulcus Termination: Angular sulcus (as it is straddled by the angular gyrus).
  • 30. Inferior temporal sulcus Termination: become continuous with the inferior occipital sulcus.
  • 31. Parietal lobe
  • 32. Superior marginal gyrus Agnular gyrus 2nd pareito- occipital arcus Pariteal lobe 2 sulci Post-central sulcus Intra-parietal (arcuate) sulcus gyri Post-central gyrus Superior parietal lobule Inferior Parietal lobule
  • 33. Post-central gyrus: • Merges with the pre-central gyrus below the central sulcus along the sub-central gyrus just above the sylvian fissure. • Merges with the pre-central gyrus above the central sulcus along the para-central lobule on the medial surface of the hemisphere. • The pre-central & post-central gyri form a continuous band of tissue around the central sulcus
  • 34. 48 Central, Postcentral and Precentral Sulci ascending band of the cingulate • Usually 2 parts (superior & inferior)Precentral sulcus •Usually continuous (no intersections) Central sulcus • Usually 2 parts (superior & inferior)Post-central sulcus
  • 35. 49 Central, Postcentral and Precentral Sulci ascending band of the cingulate • Motor stripPre-central gyrus • Somato-sensory stripPost-central gyrus
  • 36. Occipital lobe
  • 37. Occipital lobe 2 sulci Superior occipital sulcus Inferior occipital sulcus gyri Superior Occipital gyrus Middle Occipital gyrus Inferior Occipital gyrus
  • 38. Occipital sulci • Extension of intraprietal sulcus Superior occipital sulcus • Extension of inferior temporal sulcus Inferior occipital sulcus
  • 39. Insular lobe
  • 40. Insular lobe
  • 41. Sulci: Central sulcus. Short insular sulcus. Precentral sulcus. Gyri: Anterior insular lobule. Posterior insular lobule.
  • 42. Insular lobe sulci Central sulcus Short insular sulcus Precentral sulcus Post-central sulcus gyri Anterior insular lobule Posterior insular lobule
  • 43. • Anterior short insular gyrus. • Middle short insular gyrus. • Posterior short insular gyrus. Anterior insular lobule (Short insular gyri) • Anterior long insular gyrus. • Posterior long insular gyrus. Posterior insular lobule (Long insular gyri) Insular lobe
  • 44. Surface anatomy of the medial surface
  • 45. Sulci of the medial surface 1. Callosal sulcus. 2. Cingulate sulcus. 3. Rostral sulci. 4. Paracentral sulcus. 5. Subparietal sulcus. 6. Parieto-occipital sulcus. 7. Calcarine sulcus. 8. Anterior calcarine sulcus.
  • 46. Gyri of the medial surface Medial surface Limbic lobe Cingulate gyrus Subcallosal gyrus Frontal lobe Medial frontal gyrus Parietal lobe Paracentral lobule Precuneus Occipital lobe Cuneus Lingular
  • 47. Gyri of the medial surface Cingulate gyrus Subcallosal gyrus • medial surface of superior frontal gyrusMedial frontal gyrus • medial surface of pre-central & post-central gyriParacentral gyrus • medial surface of superior parietal lobulePre-cuneus • medial surface of superior occipital gyrusCuneus Lingular gyrus
  • 48. Cingulate Sulcus Divides cingulate gyrus from precuneus and paracentral lobule
  • 49. 67 Parieto-occipital Fissure and Calcarine Sulcus • Very deep • Y shaped on sagittal view. • X shaped on axial view. Parieto-occipital fissure • Contains visual area 1Calcarine sulcus
  • 50. 68 Parieto-occipital Fissure and Calcarine Sulcus • Lower visual field.Cuneus • Upper visual field.Lingual gyrus
  • 51. 70 Medial Frontal gyrus -medial surface of superior frontal gyrus
  • 52. Surface anatomy of the inferior surface
  • 53. Surface anatomy of the inferior surface Inferior surface Frontal lobe Temporo- occipital lobe
  • 54. Frontal lobe 2 sulci Olfactory sulcus H shaped orbital sulcus 5 gyri Gyrus rectus 4 orbital gyri
  • 55. Temporo-occipital lobe 3 sulci: 1. Lateral occipito-temporal sulcus. 2. Medial occipito-temporal sulcus (collateral sulcus). 3. Anterior calcarine sulcus. 4 gyri: 1. . 2. Lateral occipito-temporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus). 3. . 4. (limbic lobe).
  • 56. Temporo- occipital lobe sulci Lateral occipito-temporal sulcus medial occipito-temporal sulcus (collateral sulcus) Anterior calcarine sulcus gyri Inferior temporal gyrus Lateral occipito-temporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus) Medial occipito-temporal gyrus (lingual gyrus) Para-hippocampal gyrus
  • 57. Localization of the central sulcus and related gyri Axial plane Sagittal plane Hand knob Hook sign Gyral & cortical thickness. Inferior frontal gyrus Bracket sign Pars margianlis L sign
  • 58. Ω }
  • 59. M
  • 60. L sign • Superior frontal sulcus and precentral sulcus form an L.
  • 61. Localization of the transverse temporal gyrus (Heschl’s gyrus) Sagittal plane Supratemporal surface just lateral to the insula. Omega shaped. Coronal plane At the level of tent like convergence of the 2 fornices. Axial plane At the level of massa intermedia. Characteristic anterolateral course.
  • 62. Broca’s area • Motor speech area. • Area 44. • Pars orpecularis & pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in the dominant hemisphere. • Lesions of Broca’s area produce motor aphasia. • Auditory hallucinations are associated with increased metabolism in Broca’s area & its analogue in the non dominant hemisphere. Many women, but not men, have motor speech areas in the inferior frontal gyri bilaterally (Pugh et al. 1996; Shaywitz et al. 1995)
  • 63. Broca’s infarction • Acute infarct in the left inferior frontal gyrus in a patient with expressive aphasia.
  • 64. Dronker’s area • Precentral gyrus (posterior short gyrus) of the anterior lobule of the insula. • Lesions of Dronker’s area produce speech apraxia.
  • 65. Wernicke’s area • Sensory speech area. • Area 22. • Posterior part of superior temporal sulcus.
  • 66. Auditory association area • Angular gyrus