Power quality harmonics and accuracy april 2013

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Power quality harmonics and accuracy april 2013

  1. 1. April 2013Power Quality, Harmonics and Accuracy
  2. 2. Agenda What is Power Quality Improving Power Quality Power Quality in SATEC products Accuracy Standards
  3. 3. What is Power Quality? Definitions of the quality of the supplied voltage (what about the current?) Usually referred in negative contexts – power quality problems Measurement– IEC 61000-4-7 Voltage Flicker– IEC 61000-4-15 Harmonic Measurement– IEC 61000-4-30 Measurement Accuracy (“Class A”, “Class S”)– IEC 62052/3-11, 22, 23 Energy Accuracy (“Class 0.2S”, “Class 0.5S”) Power Quality– BS:EN 50160: In use worldwide, in favor of the utilities, voltage only,statistical standard– IEEE 519 and IEEE 1159: American standards, practical point of view– GOST 13019: Russian standard, very comprehensive– G5/4: British standard for Harmonics (also current)– Customized: Allows the user to select the best of all, including faultrecording, waveform capture and more
  4. 4. FrequencyVoltage VariationsVoltage FlickerVoltage DipPower Quality Parameters
  5. 5. InterruptionsTemporary OvervoltageTransientsPower Quality Parameters
  6. 6. UnbalanceHarmonicsInterharmonicsPower Quality Parameters
  7. 7. Harmonics+ =5)5sin()sin()(xxxf 5)5sin()(xxf )sin()( xxf 
  8. 8. IEEE1159-EN50160 LevelsIEEE 1159 EN50160No. Categories Typical SpectralContentTypical Duration Typical VoltageMagnitudeShort Duration VariationsInstantaneous7 Sag 0.5-30 Cycles 0.1-0.9 pu <1 sec8 Swell 0.5-30 Cycles 1.1-1.8 pu NoMomentary9 Interruption 0.5 Cycles-3s <0.1 pu <1 sec10 Sag 30 Cycles-3s 0.1-0.9 pu No11 Swell 30 Cycles-3s 1.1-1.4 pu NoTemporary12 Interruption 3 s-1 min <0.1 pu No13 Sag 3 s-1 min 0.1-0.9 pu No14 Swell 3 s-1 min 1.1-1.2 pu NoLong Duration Variations15 Interruption, Sustained >1 min 0.0 pu Yes16 Undervoltages >1 min 0.8-0.9 pu Yes 10 min17 Overvoltages >1 min 1.1-1.2 pu Yes 10 min
  9. 9. THD-Total Harmonic DistortionIN, VN – Individual Harmonics of order N(%).....(THD(I)(%).....(THD(V)IIIIVVVVnn122322122322)100)100
  10. 10. ITDD-I max. demand-–THD IIEEETDDTDD - Total Demand Distortion(%))100max22322IIIIdemandn.....(TDD(I)
  11. 11. K-Factornhh hIK 122factor
  12. 12. Agenda What is Power Quality Improving Power Quality Power Quality in SATEC products Accuracy Standards
  13. 13. Should we Care about Power Quality?Comprehensive Research in Europe in 1400 sites at 8 countries reports that20% experience the following: Computer lockouts (20%) Light flickering (22%) Electronic card failures (18%) Power Factor correction system failures (17%) Failures in high load switching (16%) Neutral conductor overheating (12%) Unexpected breaker operation (11%) Power meters inaccurate readings (6%)And of course excess losses and downtime
  14. 14. Causes and SolutionsPQ Problem Major Sources SolutionsFrequency The UtilityVoltage variations Load changingSync. loads,Fast PF correctionVoltage flickerLoad changing, mainlyweldingFast PF correctionVoltage dipMotor and other loadstartupsMotor starters, VFD,Fast PF correctionInterruptions The UtilityOvervoltage Over PF compensation Fast PF correctionTransients Connections, Switching Controlled switchesUnbalanceUnbalanced loads,transformer phase shiftBalance the loadsHarmonics Non linear loads, resonanceActive/passive filtration,detuned capacitors,Improved VFD operation
  15. 15. Agenda What is Power Quality Improving Power Quality Power Quality in SATEC products Accuracy Standards
  16. 16. RS232/422/485, Profibus, TCP/IP,Dialup modem, GPRS, RF, USBModbus RTU, ASCII, DNP3.0, Modbus/TCP,DNP3/TCP, Profibus, IEC 61850, IEC 60870ETC2002COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIALMulti-Tenant SubmeteringPower MeasurementEnergy Efficiency & Cost AllocationEnergy Management & BillingAsset ManagementC192PFBFM136 PM172 PM174/5 EM720 EM920 ezPACPASPM130 PLUSLANExpertPower™Server (Pro Edition)The Full Range of Electricity Management Solutions for Every ApplicationEM132/3SubstationAutomationUTILITIES & RENEWABLEALLPower Quality AnalysisFault RecordingRevenue MeteringSmart Grid & Demand ResponsePM135InternetExpertPower™ Server(Service Edition)PM180
  17. 17.  Built in analysis to international power quality standardssuch as EN50160, IEEE1159, G5/4 and GOST Automatic alerts for preventive maintenance From simple compliance chart to sophisticated expertanalysis screens
  18. 18. EN 50160 Summary Report
  19. 19. List of EventsEventNo. Date Time Value DurationFrequency Variations 67 1809 19/07/2006 17:10.9 48.44 16:3 mVoltage Dips 122 1986 19/07/2006 14:39.2 69,180 890.0 msLong interruption 1 1979 24/12/2006 25:55.9 3,778 5:10 hrsTransient Overvoltage 133 2263 15/03/2007 55:18.3 180,131 .6 msTransient Undervoltage 142 2024 02/01/2007 46:43.8 143,127 .6 msTHD 3 1998 24/12/2006 12:16.9 0.73 24:43 minIndividual Harmonic H5 9 2271 31/03/2007 28:28.9 2.2 2:16 hrsIndividual HarmonicH15 2 1984 24/12/2006 13:01.6 0.6 19:60 minIndividual HarmonicH17 2 1986 24/12/2006 13:01.6 1.14 23:59 minIndividual HarmonicH19 3 1987 24/12/2006 12:16.9 1.39 24:43 minIndividual HarmonicH23 3 1992 24/12/2006 12:16.9 1.11 24:43 minIndividual HarmonicH25 3 1994 24/12/2006 12:16.9 1.17 24:43 minIndividual Harmonic H4 3 1980 24/12/2006 12:16.9 1.97 24:43 minTotal 493CategoryNo. ofEventsWorst Case
  20. 20. EN50160 Compliance Trends
  21. 21. ITI (CBEMA) Curve
  22. 22. Deep Analysis of a Dip
  23. 23. TDD at 22kV
  24. 24. High Individual Harmonics
  25. 25. Agenda What is Power Quality Improving Power Quality Power Quality in SATEC products Accuracy Standards
  26. 26. Full Scale (FS) vs. Reading FS Full Scale, error in percents from the maximumrating Example:Meter with 0.5% FS accuracy connected to 1000Atransformer, the error is 5A. In 500A load the accuracyis 1% (5/500) Reading = Error from the measured value In the above example, the 0.5% error will be also in lowload, which means 2.5A only
  27. 27. Accuracy vs. Standard Various measurement conditions– Load– Harmonics– Power Factor– Frequency– and more… Various ambient conditions– Temperature– EMC (the device and the accuracy)– Humidity– and more… Tests by independent lab Accuracy stability over time(SATEC is approved for 8 years)
  28. 28. Power Factor and Cos  DPF = Displacement Power Factor (Cos φ) TPF = True Power Factor (incl. harmonics)Conclusion – practically there is no unity Power Factor.21 iTHDDPFTPF
  29. 29. Meter Class 0.5 AccuracyIEC 62053-11
  30. 30. CT Class 0.5 AccuracyIEC 60044-1Power Factor 0.92 0.50Error of 45 minutes 0.015% 0.52% 1.14%
  31. 31. PowerMeterCTPhaseShiftSystemAccuracy1.58%System Accuracy)()()()( 222zUyUxUzyxU 
  32. 32. Meter Class 0.5S AccuracyIEC 62053-22
  33. 33. Power Factor 0.92 0.50Error of 30 minutes 0.004% 0.34% 0.76%CT Class 0.5S AccuracyIEC 60044-1
  34. 34. PowerMeterCTPhaseShiftSystemAccuracy1. %System Accuracy
  35. 35. HACS – High Accuracy Current Sensors SATEC devices hasnumerous amplitude andphase calibration points
  36. 36. PowerMeterCT -IncludedPhaseshift -IncludedSystemAccuracy%System Accuracy
  37. 37. ComparisonClass 0.5 Class 0.5SClass 0.5Swith HACSes(or direct connection)Power Meter Accuracy 0.8 0.6 0.6CT Accuracy 0.75 0.5 IncludedPhase Shift 1.14 0.76 IncludedSystem Accuracy 1.58 1.09 0.6
  38. 38. Accuracy is for Engineers,Money is for Decision Makers 1000 kVA transformer 80% load 0.90 Power Factor 0.15 US$/kWh The difference between0.6% to 1.58% equals toUS$ 9,272 each year
  39. 39. Accuracy Standard PyramidClass AClass SClass 0.2SClass 0.5SClass 0.5Class 1Class 2%Readings%FS (Full Scale)No stated accuracy---IEC-Min. AcceptableNot included:Class B – meaninglessClass 0.1, 0.2 – only for CTs
  40. 40. SATECEmpowering the Smart Gridwww.satec-global.com

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