Significantly, females employ more language learning strategies
than males as reported by studies. (e.g. Goh & Kwah, 1997;
Green & Oxford, 1995; Gu 2002).
It is also reported that gender difference causes different
strategies to be utilized.
A study by Hong-Nam and Leavell (2006) found that females use
Social and Metacognitive strategies the most and Memory
strategies the least. Meanwhile male prefered Metacognitive
and Compensation strategies the most and Affective strategies
However, this contradicted with the study conducted by
Tran, 1988 and Wharton, 2000, which revealed that learners
used varied strategies and most of them are males
compared to females. This shows that males are more likely
to employ a diversity of strategies than females.
Motivation plays a great role which prompts learner to use
more strategies than less motivated learner (Oxford and Nyikos
According to Gardner (1985), attitudes and motivation are the
primary sources contributing to individual language learning.
Motivation is divided into two. First, an instrumental
orientation which is described as when students have a
personal reason that they want to achieve such as for the sake
of career or to pass an exam.
Second, integrative orientation which is when the learner
really want to be part of the culture of the language (Gardner,
Apart from that, Pintrich and Schunk (2002) stated that
motivation involves all activities in the classroom, affecting
learning of new behaviors and the performance of earlier
Generally, motivation is the reason why learners choose to
use strategy and are keen to continue and maintain the usage.
The experience of studying the language can also affect the options
of strategies used by learners.
Studies conducted by Purdie and Oliver, 1999 found that the longer a
bilingual learner stays where the target language is used, the more
proficient the learner is in the language compared to those who
stayed for a short period of time or not at all.
This is also supported by Opper, Teichler, and Carlson’s (1990) which
reported that studying abroad in countries such as Europe and The
United States influence the learners’ thoughts and learning styles.
Therefore, learners with experience of studying the language are
more inclined to have vast of strategies use.
Fields of study is uncommonly investigated as a factor that
influences language learning strategy use.
However, it is related slightly to the learner’s choice of strategy
use according to the findings by Intaraprasert (2003).
Peacock and Ho (2003) had also investigated the use of language
learning for students with different fields of study- building,
business, computing, engineering, English, math, primary
education, and science in a university in Hong Kong.
Their study highlighted a evaluation of strategy use across those
disciplines and also an investigation of the relationships with
Nonetheless, there are little significant proofs showing any
influence of this variable on learners’ choice of language
learning strategy use.
Higher levels of language proficiency has also been reported to
be one of the contributing factors that influence the frequency
of strategy use.
Studies to rate the relationship between the two were done by
several researchers- Sheorey, 1999; Torut, 1994; Intaraprasert,
2000; Oxford and Nyikos, 1989; Green and Oxford, 1995;
The findings revealed that major distinctions exist between the
students' self-apprehended English proficiency level and the
usage of language learning strategies as a whole.
Needless to say the higher the level of language proficiency, the
higher the usage of language learning strategies. This statement
is supported by Oxford, and Nyikos, 1989; Green and Oxford,
1995; Wharton, 2000.