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  2. 2. Lead March 2012 | Volume 26, Number 3 38 Risk by the Numbers No one can see thePatricia Galloway,PhD, PMP, Pegasus- future. But quantita-Global Holdings tive risk managementInc., Cle Elum, can help make it aWashington, USA little clearer. By Sandra A. Swanson
  3. 3. Features MARCH 2012 | VOLUME 26, NUMBER 3 30 Who’sdata into the handsCloud? party Putting Guarding the of a third can save money, but the projects raise a host of security concerns. Here’s what every organization needs to know. By Sarah Fister Gale 44 Perception vs. Reality familiar? “It’s just a little tweak.” Sound Here’s some advice on breaching the disconnect between a stakeholder’s perception and how things really stand. By Michelle Bowles Jackson 48 Massits mainframe becomes obsolete, a When Migration city must instigate a program to move its departmental IT systems to a new server. By Peter Fretty 56 Six QuestionsJobAsk Before You Take the to Even in today’s improving labor market, it’s tempting to jump at any job offer. But while a steady paycheck is an honorable goal, it shouldn’t come at the cost of job satisfaction, a healthy career trajectory or a comfortable corporate culture. By Cindy Waxer 48 60 Timecase studies reveal the winning Four Tamers strategies project professionals used to combat time constraints—especially as circumstances changed. By Lisa Tomcko30 44 56 60
  4. 4. 11 also March 2012 | VOLUMe 26, NUMBeR 3 Making project ManageMent indispensable for business results.® thE PulSE 8 Emerging Markets Ready for Takeoff Developing nations see airport project boom alSO In thIS ISSuE15 11 More Projects, Freezes Persist 7 Feedback IT spending increase doesn’t Revisiting earned value necessarily mean more jobs management 13 East Africa Looks for VOICES 18 Metrics Strength in Numbers Stats on the CIO agenda, Five nations hope partnership 20 Peer to Peer online shopping and clean will bring economic success Leadership Without Authority technology Pat Weaver, PMI-SP, PMP and 14 Chicago Rail Project Puts a Roberto Guandique 66 Help Desk Lot on the Line The Rise of VoIP High-profile revamp aims to 23 From the Top By Peter Fretty update transit route Regular Checkups Teresa Knudson, PMP, Mayo 68 Marketplace 15 Sensing Bridge Problems Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Books that cover the Before It’s Too Late USA “bagel metaphor” and20 Projects seek to curb project management offices infrastructure disasters 26 Project Perspectives Can This Project Be Saved? 71 Directory of Services 16 Little Green Schoolhouses Project management U.S. schools ramp up 28 In the Trenches resources sustainability measures Unclear on the Concept By Grace Willis, PMP 72 Closing Credit Japan’s 40-year nuclear cleanup COlumnIStS 24 Trend Watch Leadership Counsel By Roberto Toledo, MBA, PMP, Contributing Editor24 25 What’s at Stake The Gantt You Might Not Know By Lynda Bourne, DPM, PMP DOWNLOAD THE PM NETWORK APP and read the magazine on your iPad, iPhone or iPod Touch.28
  5. 5. NETwORk THE PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Publication & MeMbershiP PM Network (ISSN 1040-8754) is published monthly by the Project Management Institute. PM Network is printed in the USA by Quad Graphics, Sussex, wisconsin. Periodical postage paidPMI Staff contrIbutIng edItorS at Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 and at additional mailing offices. Canadian agreement #40030957. Postmaster: Send address changes to PM Network, 14 Campus Boulevard, New-Vice President, Brand Management Alfonso Bucero, PMP, Bucero PM Con- town Square, PA 19073-3299 USA. Phone +1 610 356 4600, fax +1 610 482 9971.Lesley Bakker; sulting The mission of PM Network is to facilitate the exchange of information among professionals in the field of project and program management, provide them with practical tools and techniques,Publisher Sheilina Somani, PMP, Positively and serve as a forum for discussion of emerging trends and issues. All articles in PM Network areDonn Greenberg; the views of the authors and are not necessarily those of PMI. Project Management Subscription rate for members is US$42/year and is included in the annual dues. PMI isEditor in Chief Roberto Toledo, MBA, PMP, Alpha PM a nonprofit professional organization dedicated to advancing the state of the art of project management. Membership in PMI is open to all at an annual dues of US$119. 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  6. 6. FeedbackEVM, Revisited FacebookI am writing in response to Roger Kent’s comments in the Feedback section of the can a project manager become theJanuary edition (page 6). I am amazed that a PMI publication would print—even next ceo?in a Feedback column—something that demonstrates such a basic misunder-standing of professional project management. A better question is: How is a CEO not a project manager? Mr. Kent seems to believe that understanding “percent complete” is somehow —Jefferson Nicholsonunobtainable. Professionals believe that knowing what has been completed ona project, in terms of tangible deliverables, and expressed as a percentage of I feel that being a project manager is a great path toplanned completion to date, is critical. executive leadership. As a project manager, you’re Mr. Kent fails to understand that if these numbers are made up, he has bigger exposed to many different challenges and varying tech-problems than a nologies, and you are typically a master communicatorfailure to apply and problem solver. Marry that with some strategic The notion that EVM only worksearned value man- thinking, and you are on your way. in the context of “very large,agement (EVM). structured projects that last —Rick RoeLikewise, tasks that over a year and spend more thanare “95 percent US$1 million” is nonsensical. join the discussion atcomplete…for a time” are not making any progress while expending money. It doesn’t takeEVM to understand this, though EVM techniques will tend to highlight these is-sues before they are uncorrectable. Voices on Project ManageMent blog Finally, the notion that EVM only works in the context of “very large, struc-tured projects that last over a year and spend more than US$1 million” is nonsen- //Poll//sical. EVM works for any project that has a budget, can associate that budget with to what degree haveactual work, has a way to measure the work accomplished and compare it with you noticed increasedplanned accomplishments, and captures actual cost. These are the basis of having schedule compression on projects at youra credible project plan and a credible project management method. organization? —Saul Ackovitz, PMP, Reston, Virginia, USA Extensive 43.5% We want to hear from you. Send letters to Some 43.5% Opinions expressed in Feedback are not necessarily those of PM Network. Not at all 13%
  7. 7. thePul US$3.1 120 million US$150 billionThe amount Brazil budgeted to rebuild its The number of annual passengers the Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, will be able to billion The amount slotted for airport airport infrastructure to prepare for the handle when it’s completed in 2017 projects in developing markets 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics 8 PM NETWORK March 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  8. 8. se EmErging markEts rEady for takEoff high-flying economies in emerging markets mean an influx of people coming and going—further tax- ing an already inadequate airport infrastructure. Governments from Vietnam to Saudi arabia to Kenya are respond- ing with a fleet of megaprojects to revamp ailing airports or start new ones from scratch. roughly US$150 billion is slotted for airport infrastructure and expansion proj- ects in developing regions, accord- ing to arabian reach. Nearly one-third of that money is being spent in booming Middle East markets. That lineup includes the luxurious US$10 billion al Mak- toum International airport inIMagE cOuRTEsy Of fOsTER + PaRTNERs Queen Alia International Airport, Amman, Jordan March 2012 PM NETWORK 9
  9. 9. thePulse Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which will be able to handle 12 million Up iN The air tonnes of annual cargo capacity and 120 million passengers upon A sampling of airport completion in 2017. In neighboring Qatar, New Doha International megaprojects around the Airport is due to open later this year in the capital; it’s billed as the globe: first global project designed with the new Airbus A380 in mind. King abdul aziz Struggling for a return to normalcy after years of war, Iraq international, Jeddah, recently announced it will build a new airport in Mansuriya, with Saudi Arabia project planners working under the protection of Iraqi security al Maktoum forces, according to Karbala also plans to seek international airport, The NighT bids later this year for an airport capable of handling 5 million pas- Dubai, United Arab Emirates ShifT sengers a year. New Doha international Almost all airport revamp Not all teams face such extreme conditions, of course. But emerg- airport, Doha, Qatar projects have to take place ing markets often present daunting project environments plagued without disrupting day-to-day Daxing international operations. by a lack of project management expertise and woefully inadequate airport, Beijing, China Global engineering giant infrastructures. At the same time, teams are under extreme time Bechtel is currently manag- pressures to accommodate growing airport traffic. Dubai international ing an expansion project airport (Concourse 3), at McCarran Airport in Las In response to a 15 percent jump in air traffic at Amman, Jor- Dubai, United Arab Emirates Vegas, Nevada, USA. To avoid dan’s Queen Alia International Airport, the government launched interfering with the airport’s a major expansion project. The renovated airport will feature a 500,000 annual flights—and associated stream of baggage high-tech roof consisting of photovoltaic canopies that harness sun- light, providing renewable energy and natural ventilation. Slated for tractors, passengers and air- line employees—the project completion later in 2012, a new US$600 million terminal should be Although team must juggle construc- tion equipment, materials and able to handle 12 million passengers a year, nearly three times the 56 percent up to 2,000 workers. In response to this chal- current capacity. of U.S. com- lenge, Bechtel shifted some China’s four largest airports—including Hong Kong’s—each saw passenger traffic increase by at least 10 percent, according to panies plan of the construction activities to the early-morning hours, Airports Council International. To accommodate that influx, the to increase when the flight schedule was Chinese government is building Daxing International Airport near tech spending, less aggressive. “Obviously, there is always Beijing. Scheduled for completion in 2017, the nine-runway facility workers can a potential cost impact associated with nighttime will have a capacity of 200 million, staking its claim as the busi- est airport in the world. The new project would also relieve some expect average working,” says Don Wright, of the pressure on the Beijing Capital International Airport. The raises of just Bechtel’s project manager on the Las Vegas expansion. “We facility is currently over capacity despite construction three years 2.8 percent. try to reduce nighttime work ago of Terminal 3—which by itself is 17 percent larger than London, Source: InformationWeek’s Outlook 2012, as much as possible, and we England’s Heathrow Airport. and Computer Economics’ 2012 IT Salary would always advise contrac- Report tors if overtime was expected or required so they could plan Will Brazil Be Ready? accordingly. Often, the con- The 2008 Summer Olympics provided some of the impetus for struction costs for overtime Beijing’s Terminal 3, and preparation for the 2014 World Cup and were significantly less than the costs of disrupting pas- 2016 Olympics is putting host Brazil in a similar spot. Hundreds of sengers and airlines during thousands of visitors are expected to descend for each event, putting daytime hours.” more strain on an overburdened airport infrastructure. So far, the US$3.1 billion revamp has had a bumpy flight. In early 2011, the Brazilian Audit Court criticized government officials for missing deadlines, not controlling costs and lacking transparency. Even soccer legend Pele, an ambassador to the World Cup, piled on, saying “Brazil is not ready.” An upgrade of the Viracopos-Campinas Airport near São Paulo suffered a significant schedule setback after project planners failed to obtain necessary environmental licenses. 10 PM NETWORK MaRch 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  10. 10. Delays in the bidding process also hampered how to schedule, given the rigid deadlines andconstruction work at northeastern Brazil’s busiest booming traffic. “Brazil has a short timeframeairport, in Salvador. to deliver significant capacity and efficiency Experienced multinational partners are look- upgrades to their airport infrastructure,” she to help, drawing on their earlier experiences Because the government requires consor-with similar ventures. ICN Gateway, a network of tia tendering for concessions at the airportsAustralian construction companies and suppliers, in Guarulhos, Campinas and Brasilia to haveis looking to fill that role in Brazil—again with at least one team member with experience inthe Olympics as a common thread. The company operation of airports with more than 5 millionis going in armed with experience preparing the passengers per year, most Brazilian consor-country’s infrastructure for the Sydney Olympics tia will need a global partner in their team,in 2000 and Melbourne’s 2006 Commonwealth Ms. Costa-Wong says. Likewise, she saysGames. multinationals hoping to get a foot in the door To land any large airport contract, companies in Brazil will benefit from partnering with localneed to prove their project management exper- firms.tise, says Candida Costa-Wong, ICN’s interna- If emerging markets can manage the myriadtional business capability adviser in Melbourne, challenges that airport projects pose, the sky’s theVictoria, Australia. Companies also must know limit. —Louis La Plante IT Job ouTlook: More Projects, Freezes Persist U.S. companies plan to launch more IT projects in 2012—but that doesn’t necessarily mean a jump in job openings or salaries. Even as a talent war rages in Silicon Valley, career prospects remain sluggish overall. Infor- mationWeek’s Outlook 2012 report found that 56 percent of the 605 U.S.-based tech profes- sionals surveyed planned increased tech spend- ing, and three-quarters reported heightened demand for new IT projects. However, the survey also found that hiring freezes will persist for nearly one-third of companies, and 36 per- cent said they’ll only fill openings for existing positions. The survey posits that outsourcing, virtualization and cloud computing are allow- ing companies to get by with smaller staffs. Overall IT compensation also remains flat, according to a tracking survey by Janco March 2012 PM NETWORK 11
  11. 11. thePulse Different Skills, Different Fates Not all IT project professionals computing skills will have no and oil and gas sectors—are are mired in a soft job market. trouble finding work. struggling to fill roles, he says. “In the IT world, there are IT project managers frus- “The ideal mix is someone always skill shortages in the trated with the U.S. market who is bilingual with a project growth technologies, and may also want to look beyond management background and many IT organizations have no their home borders. knowledge of finance or engi- choice but to pay up for those “Many clients come to us neering,” Mr. Shanahan says. skills or turn to service provid- who are developing projects In Brazil, IT project man- ers for in-demand expertise— worldwide, and they’re looking agers who speak English, and pay a premium,” according for project managers who can Portuguese and Spanish can to Computer Economics’ 2012 run big integrated projects,” virtually write their own tick- IT Salary Report. says Keric Shanahan, Experis, ets, he says. “It’s taking 60 to predicts that Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 90 days to fill many of these IT professionals with .Net, Companies in Brazil and high-tech roles, and the more mobile application develop- India—particularly in the specific the request, the longer ment, virtualization and cloud finance, mining and metals, it takes.” Associates and The experience should find opportunities. Proj- total mean compensation for IT professionals ect management ranked number five on IT across North America increased only 0.81 per- recruitment website’s list of priority cent last year to US$78,229 from US$77,604 skills to hire for 2012, for example. “The best at the beginning of 2011. And even that came IT project managers looking to build their opportunities with a major caveat: The bump only put com- marketability should focus on honing their require pensation back to January 2008 levels. business analytic skills and demonstrating people who Overall, 2012 doesn’t look all that promis- ing on the salary front. Computer Economics’ the strategic value they’ll bring to a project, says Keric Shanahan, PMP, director of global can wear 2012 IT Salary Report revealed that the aver- project management at Experis, an engineer- that business age pay raise for U.S. IT workers will be a less- ing, IT and finance resourcing firm in Atlanta, hat and not than-dazzling 2.8 percent, with little variance Georgia, USA. only run a for experience or position. “The best opportunities,” he says, “require Despite the mediocre market, project people who can wear that business hat and not project, but professionals with the right combination only run a project, but justify the requirements justify the of technical skills and project management that go into it.” —Sarah Fister Gale requirements that go Down and Out into it.” IT employment in the United States remains flat. EmploymEnT (in Thousands) —Keric Shanahan, PMP, Experis, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 3,200 3,000 2,800 2,600 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 u.s. naTional novEmbEr EmploymEnT for iT by yEar Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics/Janco Associates 12 PM NETWORK March 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  12. 12. East Africa Looks for Uganda Kenya Strength in Numbers Rwanda Burundi More than three decades after its first attempt Not everyone is quite so bull- Tanzania Indian Ocean fizzled, the East African Community (EAC) is ish on the prospects of the EAC once again positioning itself as an economic pow- becoming a new project hot spot— erhouse in Africa. By combining forces, Kenya, especially within the hoped-for schedule. Rwanda, Tanzania, Burundi and Uganda aim to The EAC leadership’s timeline for pull in investment to support and sustain eco- regional integration is highly unrealistic, says nomic growth—and projects—across the region. Mark Bohlund, senior economist, Sub-Saharan The EAC was first founded in 1967, but dis- Africa at IHS Global Insight, London, England. banded 10 years later due to intense political “The East African Common Market Protocol is infighting. It was revived in 2000, and in recent nowhere near implemented, and when the leader- years, the consortium has seen steady economic ship set those targets, they took little notice of their growth. Combined real GDP increased 5.9 percent ability to meet them,” he explains. in 2010, compared to a 4.9 percent global rate. The European Union took close to 50 years to In 2012, the World Bank predicts EAC econo- achieve similar results, he says, “and they had supe- mies will expand between 5 and 7.6 percent, with rior capacity during that time.” Rwanda and Tanzania leading the pack. The EAC region is also under renewed pres- That kind of growth is a powerful step toward sure to deal with rising security issues, including the EAC’s goal of establishing a common currency piracy, cyber crime, terrorism, human trafficking Traffic this year and forming a political federation in 2015. A single currency—patterned after the euro— and money laundering. Beatrice Kiraso, EAC deputy secretary general in charge of politi- Jams Stall could ease regional companies’ concerns about cal federation, has said she’s worried that the Growth? exchange rates and spur project activity. threats, if left unaddressed, could greatly under- Whether project investors come or not could depend on The group has already opened up borders of all mine regional integration. the ability of East Africa Com- member states for labor and capital, and has a cus- There are also economic realities to contend munity countries to address toms union, common market, legislative assembly, with. Burundi remains one of the world’s poor- their abysmal infrastructure. Investments in infrastructure bank and court. There are even calls to let South est nations, still recovering from the wounds of a in Sub-Saharan Africa have Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo decade-long civil war. averaged about US$10 billion join the bloc. Still, Mr. Bohlund says the nation has made per year, which is only half of what is needed to support As things stand, the efforts have sparked a progress in improving its business environment sustained economic growth, jump in intraregional trade from US$1.8 billion over the past year; the World Bank ranked it eighth according to the World Bank in 2005 to US$2.7 billion in 2008, according to a on its 2012 list of the top business reformers. Group. report in Financial Times. “The EAC is the fastest- Rwanda, too, has made tremendous strides Port and transportation network projects could make growing of all the Africa regional economic com- in improving its business landscape. The World or break the community’s munities,” Donald Deya, CEO of the Pan African Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index ranked the future, argues IHS Global Lawyers Union, told the U.K. financial newspaper. country 45th in 2012, taking into account 10 cat- Insight’s Mark Bohlund. Projects such as the mas- The potential for even more growth is signifi- egories, including ease of securing construction sive retrofit of the dilapidated cant: The EAC nations have more than 133 million permits, access to electricity, credit availability and Kenya-Uganda railways by people, with a combined GDP of US$80 billion. protection for investors. the Rift Valley Railways con- sortium must be completed “We want to make business easier for the “This makes Rwanda attractive for foreign for the region to sustain any business community and to also make life easier investors in spite of its small size and lack of economic growth, he says. “If for East Africans,” Owora Richard Othieno, head natural resources,” Mr. Bohlund says. “Many com- they are successful with these of the EAC’s Department of Corporate Com- panies can use Rwanda as a base for project opera- kinds of projects, it should have large implications for munication and Public Affairs, told Public Radio tions due to its superior business environment.” the cost of doing business in International. Kenya, on the other hand, ranked 109th, falling this region.” March 2012 PM NETWORK 13PMN0312 1-17.indd 13 2/22/12 11:46 AM
  13. 13. thePulse three positions from the year before. But its advanced economy, size, location and in neighboring countries. “Tanzania is afraid thriving private sector give it many distinct advantages over its peers, Mr. Bohlund Kenyans will buy up its land, and Uganda fears says. Its strong banking sector and prime location on the Indian Ocean make it the Kenyans will take all their skilled labor jobs,” Mr. business and transportation hub for the entire region. “If you want to go to East Bohlund says. Africa, the easiest way is to go through Kenya,” he notes. Yet part of the bloc’s power is based on making Kenya may in fact be too strong. Its advanced economy could create tension the most of each member’s individual strengths. among other members, particularly when it brings its own citizens to run projects Both Tanzania and Uganda, for example, have huge oil deposits, making them attractive destina- tions for mining and energy projects. In January, Real GDP Growth Rates Tanzania announced that it had begun working on strategies to prepare the economy to better Partner State 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 accommodate natural gas investments. The gov- Burundi 0.9 5.5 3.6 4.5 3.5 3.9 ernment is planning a major project to construct Tanzania 7.4 6.7 7.1 7.4 6.0 7.0 a gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay in Mtwara to Dar Uganda 10.0 7.0 8.1 10.4 3.9 5.6 es Salaam to be operational by the end of 2012, Kenya 5.7 6.1 7.0 1.7 2.6 5.6 according to Daily Monitor. Rwanda 7.2 6.5 7.9 11.2 6.1 7.5 EAST AFRICA 6.2 6.4 6.7 7.0 4.4 5.9 They may have joined forces, but each nation is wisely carving out its own niche. Source: Partner States Note: Rates for Uganda were computed using GDP in local currency —Sarah Fister Gale RIDERS Chicago GOAL: Complete the project without alienating commuters Rail Project CHALLENGE: The team has already exceeded the federally required efforts to inform the public during the planning and early construction stages. Follow- Puts a Lot ing the model of a decade-long CTA project to reno- vate the Brown Line completed in 2009, the Red Line team holds frequent community meetings. On the Line “Input from public stakeholders—community leaders, elected officials, residents and transit riders—can inform decisions about project scope, scheduling and phasing,” says CTA spokeswoman. Every weekday, more than 250,000 rail Catherine A. Hosinski. commuters ride the Red Line that connects the north and south sides of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Running 24 hours a day, seven days a week, it’s the city’s busiest line. Given that kind of traffic, the Chicago Transit Author- ity (CTA) decided to launch a US$1 billion mega makeover that covers track replace- TRACK ment, station upgrades and power system GOAL: Replace dilapidated tracks over the approximately enhancements. Now the agency just needs 10-mile (16-kilometer) stretch between 18th and 95th streets to eliminate so-called “slow zones” where trains to figure out how to do all that within bud- must operate at 15 miles (24 kilometers) per hour, instead get, on schedule—and with minimal disrup- of the optimal 55 (89) tion to the city’s stakeholders. CHALLENGE: The Red Line travels through residential and business areas, restricting the times that crews can labor on the project. And because the line runs at grade on the median of a major expressway, work must be scheduled within space limitations and coordinated with the state transportation department that oversees the expressway. 14 PM NETWORK MARCH 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  14. 14. SENSING BRIDGE loads, weather, and other issues that cause damage or deterioration.” The issue is figuring out which bridges are fine and which ones PROBLEMS BEFORE need repair. Making the wrong choice could lead to sudden closure of a criti- IT’S TOO LATE cal transportation link—or worse, a collapse. In 2007, the eight-lane Interstate 35 bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Min- nesota, USA, collapsed during evening rush hour, killing 13 people Cash-strapped U.S. municipalities are playing a dangerous game and injuring 145. It was the fifth-busiest bridge in the state, and was with aging bridge infrastructure, often postponing maintenance proj- out of commission for more than a year. ects until absolutely necessary. But they now have a new weapon: Using sensors can help municipalities better manage risk and align high-tech tracking sensors that can better pinpoint those bridges in maintenance funds with the bridges in the greatest need of repair. need of immediate renovation. “Traditional metrics rely on visual inspections,” Dr. Sanayei says, “Using these sensors, we can increase safety, reduce risk and save but that information should be complemented with sensors placed millions of dollars annually by focusing investments on those bridges around the structure to track strains and stresses associated with that require fixing,” says Masoud Sanayei, PhD, a professor in the everyday usage that cannot be easily found with visual inspections. department of civil and environmental engineering at Tufts Univer- Dr. Sanayei and his team are completing a pilot project to test the sity in Medford, Massachusetts, USA. technology on a bridge in Barre, Massachusetts. With support from “Just because a bridge is old doesn’t mean it will collapse,” he the National Science Foundation, the team installed more than 200 explains. “It depends on how well it’s been built and maintained, traffic sensors on the span. The data collected will then be compared to a STATIONS GOAL: Revamp aging and sometimes run- down stations, including adding elevators and rehabbing the platform and mezzanine at the 69-year-old Clark and Division stop CHALLENGE: The work could entail multiple and simultaneous speed restrictions, single- track operations and temporary track closures— all while the station stays operational. That means the project team must develop not only service plans that reflect the multiple construc- tion projects, but also new service contingency plans for any unplanned interruptions, says Ms. Hosinski.IMAGES COURTESY OF WIKIPEDIA SUBWAY GOAL: Upgrade the ventilation system on the underground portion of the Red Line that runs through downtown CHALLENGE: The bulk of Chicago tourists visit sometime during May through October—and most of them congregate downtown. Those additional passengers require the project team to schedule accordingly and communicate any changes. MARCH 2012 PM NETWORK 15
  15. 15. thePulse them is fairly small, whereas if the problem is left undiscovered it can lead to more costly problems.” Dr. Kalantari founded his company, Resen- sys—a startup funded by the University of Mary- land—to commercialize a technology that uses wireless sensors installed on bridges to track strain, IMaGE cOuRTEsy Of WIKIPEdIa vibration, tilt, temperature and other conditions. The devices transmit data to servers using cellular networks so bridge conditions can be tracked in real time. A central computer analyzes the data and instantly warns officials of possible trouble. In February, Dr. Kalantari wrapped up a pilot The Interstate 35 Mississippi River bridge after the 1 August 2007 collapse project, with support from the Maryland State Highway Administration, that used more than a baseline of what a healthy bridge looks like. dozen sensors to monitor conditions and measure Being able to more accurately assess risk and select bridge maintenance projects is structural parameters of highway bridges. After vital in a country where one in four bridges were deemed either structurally deficient 18 months of tracking results and conducting or functionally obsolete by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The organization follow-up evaluations, the project demonstrated called for a US$17 billion annual investment in 2009 (the last year for which figures are that every time the sensors detected an issue, the available), yet only US$10.5 billion is spent annually on bridge construction and main- location and scope of the problem detected were tenance projects. accurate. Sensors could help make the most of those limited funds. U.S. President Barack Obama has made a “The most up-front benefit of the technology is the cost savings in maintenance vigorous appeal for additional infrastructure projects,” says Mehdi Kalantari, PhD, research scientist at the University of Maryland spending, but the sensors could be another way to in College Park, Maryland, USA. “If you can discover issues early enough, the cost to fix bridge the gap. —Sarah Fister Gale Little Green Schoolhouses The next generation of U.S. students won’t just learn about in Wallingford, Connecticut, USA. The 31,325-square- sustainability—they’ll live it every day in the classroom. foot (2,910-square-meter) alumni-funded structure Schools across the country are looking to launch thousands targets LEED platinum status, and includes labs, of projects to retrofit or completely rebuild facilities in the adjacent greenhouses and 14 dorm rooms. Designed coming years. by Robert A.M. Stern Architects, the building will be “It’s a big goal, but it’s also a tremendous opportu- powered by a 250-kilowatt photovoltaic array, a nity to transform the entire design and construction roof-mounted solar water-heating system, a geother- Educational industry for schools, as well as the schools themselves,” mal heat pump, a water-recycling system and waste facilities says Rachel Gutter, director of the U.S. Green Building vegetable oil. have a higher Council (USGBC) Center for Green Schools, Washing- Slated to be operational by the 2012-2013 school year, percentage of ton, D.C., USA. the center will be home to roughly 20 students in a com- Progress has been steady. As of 2011, 2,292 schools from petition to maintain a net-zero environment. Students LEED-certified kindergarten through 12th grade had either registered or will not only be able to track their usage via a building green space become certified through the USGBC LEED (Leadership in dashboard, but on their smartphones as well, according to than any Energy and Environmental Design) program. That number Fast Company magazine. other was nearly double among universities, with 1,370 buildings Of course, not every school can line up project fund- market certified and another 2,982 registered. ing from generous alumni—so the up-front cost of new sector. One of the most ambitious is a US$20 million proj- construction or retrofits can be a tough sell to schools ect at Choate Rosemary Hall, an upscale prep school on a tight budget. However, Ms. Gutter says most 16 PM NETWORK March 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  16. 16. [metrics] The laTesT sTaTisTics, surveys and sTudiesInsIde the CIO’s AgendAWhere they’re spendIngmore than half of CIos said their project investments would include: As mostwIndows 7 server networK-Based dAtA CIOs aremIgrAtIOn vIrtualIzatIon seCurIty proteCtIon direct reports to38%of CIos were plannIng tolaunCh data Center Con- of those, 67 perCent Intend to adopt server vIrtualIza- the CEO or have a seat at thesolIdatIon projeCts In 2012 tIon. executive table, the25% salary of those, 55 perCent are Imple- mentIng software and com-saId they’ll IntroduCeCloud ComputIng as a servICe (saas). pensation needs to be in source: techtarget. results based on a survey of 2,642 global It professionals and business analysts published in january. line withthe BOttOm LIne [that of]US$144,000 the average base salary of senior It executives in 2011 the busi- ness line leaders The portion of reporting IT executives who took on The portion of IT executives at that new roles in 2011 in pursuit who reported a decrease in level. 45% of greater compensation 17% compensation in 2011 —daniel m. ryan, CIo, City of Battle Creek, michigan, usa source: CIo/It strategy media group. results based on a survey of more than 1,700 global It executives and professionals conducted in november 2011.18 pm networK March 2012
  17. 17. taken to the the CryStal Ball CleanerS 49% the portion of executives in developing mar- US$8.99 billion The global spending on clean kets who expected the global economy to get tech investments in 2011, a worse in the first six months of 2012 13 percent jump over 2010 39% the portion of executives in developing mar- kets who expected their own economies to get worse in the first six months of 2012 Source: Economic Conditions Snapshot, McKinsey Quarterly. Results based on a survey of 2,299 global executives across industries conducted in December 2011. The increase in clean tech investments in North AmericaCareer ConneCtionS + 30% - 92% of our U.K. program and project management practitioners have a LinkedIn account 30% The decrease in clean tech 55% of those had been approached investments about a job opportunity through the in Europe social media network in the 12 months and Israel prior to the surveySource: 2012 Arras People Programme and Project Management Census, Arras People. Results based on an ongoing survey of 1,000 U.K. project Source: Quarterly Investment Monitor Report,and program management practitioners who were actively looking for a new position in 2011. Cleantech GroupShopping networkSThe average number of consumer online purchases per person per month: 90 perCent netherlandS: 2.6 Of ChINESE FranCe: 2.6 ONlINE China: 8.4 USa: 5.2 Uk: 4.3 ShOPPERS USE SOCIAl MEDIA.“Today’s global retailers have a huge opportunity to enhance the mechanisms necessaryto keep up with shoppers who are demanding more customization in terms of deliveryand returns, product choice and number of channels from which to choose.” Source: Customers Take Control, PwC. Results based on a survey of 7,005 consumers across three continents published in December 2011. March 2012 PM NETWORK 19
  18. 18. Voice Can you be a true project leader if you don’t have the powerPeer to Peer embedded in an organizational hierarchy? Two project professionals discuss what it takes to be Leadership Without Authority Pat Weaver, PMI-SP, PMP: Some project managers are completely responsible for the on- time, on-budget performance of work—but many organizations refuse to give them any control over the people needed to do the work. The project manager is blamed for not achieving time and cost outcomes. This is a failure of organizational governance, which is the responsibility of executives, and it’s all too common. A project manager with brilliant leadership capabilities, managing 20 PM NETWORK March 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  19. 19. Pat Weaver, PMI-SP, PMP, is managing director of Mosaic Project Services pty Ltd., a project management training and con- sulting company in Melbourne, Australia. Roberto Guandique is an Atlanta, Georgia, USA-based partner at RTI (RealTech International Inc.), an IT consulting and training firm. and initiative. He or she does not need anybody to present the mantle of “authority.” Mr. Weaver: Leadership without management backup tends to create a mob on the rampage in one form or another. How- ever, far too many project managers rely on authority and have unhappy, unproductive workers in their team. The only way you become a true leader is if others decide to follow you. Your power, authority, position and management skills are largelyto make decisions or aren’t irrelevant. Mr. Guandique: Yes, Mr. Weaver, nobody becomes a leaderan effective leader. without followers. But the true leader does not want followers; he or she wants to teach others how to be leaders. When I teach our junior people, I am trying to teach them to become inde- pendent, to give them autonomy. What I am trying not to do upwards, can sometimes overcome these hurdles, but good is to have them depend on me to do what they are supposed to governance should be focused on removing those obstacles in do themselves. This might seem like a paradox, but I think that the first place. every leader wants that. Roberto Guandique: Neither authority nor position will make Mr. Weaver: Mr. Guandique, you’re correct—effective leader- you a leader. I see many professionals who, because they have ship is embedded in the motivations of the people who elect to been given authority by someone higher up, think they are lead- be your followers, and one of the key motivators is autonomy. ers. If that were the case, any fool with authority could be called Good followers and good team members are also good leaders in a leader. their own right or aspire to become good leaders. When I was new in my career, I thought you needed author- ity to be a leader, but not anymore. If a person needs authority Mr. Guandique: I have seen project managers who act domi- to lead, he or she is not a leader but a manager. A leader leads by neering in order to be in control. It’s sad—many of the more pure charisma, dedication, engagement, knowledge, experience experienced project managers are the ones who try to apply this March 2012 PM NETWORK 21