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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao
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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao

IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Y N Apparao Presentation Transcript

  • Session on Hydro Power in the 21st Century:
    The Rise of Emerging Markets
    15.30- 17.00 Hrs
    Thursday 16th June, 2011
    Sustainable HYDRO POWER Development in India
    IHA WORLD CONGRESS
    Advancing Sustainable Hydro Power
    14- 17th June, 2011, Iguassu, Brazil
  • Water is energy
    Two Great Energy Synonyms
    Hydrogen and Oxygen
    Human Body 70% Water
    Earths’ Surface 70% Water
    2
  • Massive gravitating influx of surface water(47,000 billion cubic meters per annum)-unleashed by the hydrological cycle has enormous potential for energy generation
    Water Containing Energy
    Every drop of circulating water above mean sea level has potential energy
    inherent in it by virtue of its position.
    The energy
    of waterways can be
    converted into useful
    ‘ kilowatts’ to energize
    the Nations !
    3
    View slide
  • Sustainable Hydro Power Represents
    Non - Consumptive , Non - Radioactive, Non - Polluting
    Use Of Water Resources
    Towards
    Inflation Free , “Highest Density” Renewable Energy Development
    With
    Most Mature Technology, Highest Prime Moving Efficiency,
    Spectacular Operational Flexibility, Reliability & Efficiency of
    Power System
    And
    Multifarious Benefits Such as Flood-Mitigation, Drinking Water Supply,
    Ground Water Recharge, Irrigation, Navigation And Tourism
    4
    View slide
    • Irrigation
    • Flood Control
    • Social Forestry
    • Frequency of
    drought reduced
    Positive Impacts of Hydro Power Projects
    • Economic returns
    • Multiplier effect of Electricity on Economy
    • Growth & export of cash crops
    Economic
    • Water Supply
    • Community health
    • Benefits of electricity: comforts, literacy
    • Check on migration from villages
    Social
    • Tourism
    • Employment
    • Improved food production
    • Agro-units
    Sustainable Development
    • Fisheries
    • Mass afforestation leading to forest products
    Ecological
    • Ground Water Recharge
    • Lake shore environment & Improved micro climate
    • Silt Control
    • Water liking birds
    • Improved ecology
    5
  • India at a Glance
    6
  • Hydro Potential in India
    7
  • Power Scenario in India- Installed Capacity
    **Renewable Energy Sources(RES) include SHP, BG, BP, U&I and Wind Energy
    SHP= Small Hydro Project , BG= Biomass Gasifier, BP= Biomass Power, U & I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy
    8
  • Power Scenario in India- Deficit
    • India has a total Installed generation capacity of approx. 1,73,626 MW of which about 65.0% is Thermal, 21.6% is Hydro, 10.6% is RES (MNRE) and 2.8% is Nuclear.
    • Gap between the demand and supply of electricity in last 4 years is varies between 8.5% to 11.06%.
    9
    Source: Ministry of Power and CEA
  • Power Scenario in India- Rising Power Demand
    Per Capita Consumption – A Comparision
    • India per capita power consumption is 612 kWh which is much lower than the world average of 3937 kWh.
    • Power generated is insufficient to meet the increasing demand.
    Per Capita Electricity Requirement
    * based on GDP growth projection of 8% (bn kWh)
    10
    Source: 1. CIA World Factbook 2008
    2. Integrated Energy Policy, Planning Commission, GoI
  • Power Scenario in India- Energy Supply Gap
    Energy – Requirement Vs Availability
    8.5 % Shortage
    Peaking Demand – Supply Gap
    10.3 % Shortage
    11
    Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
  • GOI- 50000 MW Hydropower Development Initiative
    Objectives:
    • Power for All By 2012
    • To Meet The Demand Supply Gap
    • To Expedite The Hydro Power Development
    • To Improve The Thermal/Hydro Power Ratio
    • To Encourage Private and Public Sector Participation
    • Policy Liberalization
    • Creation Of Power Utilities in Central Sector
    12
  • Power to all by 2012
    The Ministry of Power has set a goal - Mission 2012: Power for All.
    A comprehensive Blueprint for Power Sector development has been prepared encompassing an integrated strategy for the sector development with following objectives:
    - Sufficient Power to Achieve GDP Growth Rate of 8% - Reliable of Power - Quality Power - Optimum Power Cost - Commercial Viability of Power Industry - Power for All
    13
  • Strategies to Achieve the Objectives
    Power Generation Strategy-focus on low cost generation, optimization of capacity utilization, controlling the input cost, optimization of fuel mix, Technology up gradation and utilization of Non Conventional energy sources.
    Transmission Strategy- focus on development of National Grid including Interstate connections, Technology upgradation & optimization of transmission cost.
    Distribution strategy to achieve Distribution Reforms with focus on System up gradation, loss reduction, theft control, consumer service orientation, quality power supply commercialization, Decentralized distributed generation and supply for rural areas.
    Regulation Strategy aimed at protecting Consumer interests and making the sector commercially viable. Financing Strategy to generate resources for required growth of the power sector.
    Conservation Strategy to optimize the utilization of electricity with focus on Demand Side management, Load management and Technology upgradationto provide energy efficient equipment / gadgets.
    Communication Strategy for political consensus with media support to enhance the genera; public awareness.
    14
  • Need of Action for More Energy from Less Water
    2 m Φ
    Size
    300 m
    10 m
    2 MW
    100 MW
    P = 9.81 Q H ɳ (KW)
    15
  • Pumped Storage Scheme with Reversible Pump-Turbines- 90,000 MW
    16
  • Tidal Power- 10,000 MW
    17
  • Small Hydro on the Renewable Energy Matrix- 20,000 MW
    Highest Density Renewable
    Seasonal but not Intermittent like Wind, Solar and Tidal
    Non- Consumptive Use of a Naturally Recycled Resource Unlike Biomass
    Carbon footprint superior to others in the total energy chain (Solar PV=55, Wind=20 against Small Hydro=5.6 in gC/kWh)
    Most Mature Technology
    Highest ‘ Prime – Moving’ Efficiency
    Highest Operational Flexibility
    Peaking Support
    Capacity Factors Superior to Wind & Solar
    18
  • Hydro : Thermal Mix – The Right Choice
    The Power Sector seems to have lost its ‘sense of proportion’ down the line. .From a Hydro: Thermal Mix of 45:55 during the late 60’s, it has today landed to a mind - boggling proportion of 25:75
    25:75 Rs. 3.50 per KWHR
    75:25 Rs. 2. 00 per KWHR
    The country could have eliminated the peaking power shortages totally underthe same MW installed & under the same investment, had we gone for a …
    Thermal
    Hydro
    Judicious
    Mix
    19
  • Hydro: Thermal Mix
    DESIRABLE 40:60
    EXISTING 25:75
    • Accelerated Exhaustion of Fixed Inventory 0f Fossil Fuel
    • Environmental Pollution
    • Frequent Load Shedding
    • Fluctuations in Voltage and Frequency
    • Backing Down of Thermal Leading to Their Low PLF & Efficiency
    • Constrained Load Carrying Capacity of Grid
    • Poor Grid Economy
    Undesirable Hydro : Thermal Mix reflects a poor ‘Techno- Economic-Operational-Environmental’ ethos of Power Supply Systems
    20
  • Hydro- A Technical Compulsion of Steady Power Supply System
    21
  • Anticipated Climate Change Damages in India
    • 38% Drop in Per Capita Water Availability by 2050
    • 50 Million People will be Displaced in Coasts of India
    • 17% Decrease in Wheat Yields
    • 400,000 Square Kilometres of Glaciers Would Melt by 2030 ?
    • Vector Borne Deceases Like Dengue and Malaria Would Raise
    • 25% of Flora And Fauna Would be Extinct by 2030
    (IPCC Report released in April 2007)
    Factoring Climate Change
    22
  • Environmental Aspects
    • Terms of Reference approval from Environment & Forests.
    • Public Hearing meeting with Project Affected Families.
    • Preparation of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Management Plan (EMP)
    • Environmental Clearance.
    • Forest Clearance & Wildlife Clearance
    • Compliance Report
    23
  • Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR)
    • Corporates are to spend 2 to 5% of their profit for the Local Area Development,
    • Provide resources exclusively for the purposes of social development of the Project Area,
    • Conduct Social Responsibility programs in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the circumstances and expectations of various communities that form a part of society.
    • Work closely with Central, State and Local authorities / instrumentalities and opinion-leaders in pursuing its Social Responsibility Policy.
    • Make social investments, including through reputed public and professionally organized charitable organizations.
    • Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy to be followed by developers.
    24
  • World Trend in Hydro Development over 10 yrs..
    …..led by Asia
    25
  • Rate of Hydro Development and GDP Growth
    26
  • Case Study of Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow of Hydro Power Development in India
    Yesterday (Completed) 1500 MW NathpaJhakri HE Project
    (Himachal Pradesh),
    Today (Under Construction) 1200 MW Teesta Stage III HE Project (Sikkim),
    Tomorrow (Future Project ) 1750 MW Demwe Lower HE Project
    (Arunachal Pradesh)
    In
    India
    27
  • 1500 MW NathpaJhakri HE Project (Himachal Pradesh)
  • POWER
    HOUSE
    COMPLEX
    (CONTRACT 3.0)
    CONTRACT 2.2
    (Total Length : 11,332 M)
    NathpaJhakri– General Layout
    HRT VI FACE
    RATTANPUR
    2301 m
    MANGLAD
    2526 m
    DAM. INTAKE &
    DESILTING
    6475 m
    COMPLEX
    SHOLDING
    (CONTRACT 1.0)
    NUGALSARI
    NH-22
    SATLUJ RIVER
    888 m
    4008 m
    4791 m
    6375 m
    WADHAL
    NATHPA
    CONTRACT 2.1
    (Total Length : 16,062 M)
    29
  • NathpaJhakri– Generation Details
    30
  • 1200 MW Teesta Stage- III HE Project (Sikkim)
  • Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Salient Features
    Dam
    (60 m high CFRD)
    EL – 1590 m
    Salient Features
    Catchment area 2,787sq km
    Snow fall catchment 1,953 sq km
    Avg annual rainfall 1,218 mm
    Design discharge 175 cumecs
    Spillway Design Flood 7, 000 cumecs
    Design Energy 5,183 MU
    Project Cost Rs. 5,705 Crores
    Surge shaft
    (150 m high, 15m dia.)
    EL 1506 m
    River
    Head race tunnel
    (13.816 km long, 7.5 m dia.)
    Desiltingcomplex
    2 x Pressure shafts
    ((652 m Vertical and
    530 m Inclined each)
    Maximum discharge per shaft: 87.5 cumecs
    Maximum velocity: 6.963 m/sec
    Transmission line(400 kV, 205 km)
    Machine hall
    (6 x 200 MW,Pelton wheel type)
    EL 768.0 m
    Transformer hall
    Tail race tunnel
    (1.0 km long, 8m dia.)
    River
    Not to Scale
    32
  • Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Milestones
    20 km of Tunneling and 50% of HRT Excavation completed, River diverted
    31 KM of Tunneling completed 11.7 km of HRT excavation Completed
    Nov,
    2010
    Jan ‘10
    Apr ‘09
    10 km of Cumulative Tunneling
    Start of Civil Work
    Jan’ 08
    Forest Clearance
    Nov '07
    Aug’07
    Financial Closure
    Award of EPC Contract
    April’07
    Environment Clearance from MOE&F
    Aug’06
    July’ 06
    ICB Notification for EPC
    PPA signed with PTC
    July’06
    Feb’05
    Letter of Intent
    33
  • Teesta Stage-III HE Project – Uniqueness
    • Second Largest Project in terms of Installed Capacity in the country and the largest in Private Sector at the time of award.
    • One of the best studied projects in the country with over 30 of hydrological data available.
    • All clearances received in record time. Fastest Hydro Project in the country to move to the Construction phase from the date of award.
    • Project employs second ever CFRD Dam built in the country.
    • Project contains 13.824 Km long Head Race Tunnel, the excavation of which completed in Record time of 30 Months. The Works effectively commenced from Jan 2009.
    • Advanced and Special non – conventional tunneling techniques like Pre-grouting has been made an integral part of the tunneling cycle, which in turn improved the tunneling excavation rate. Till date over 34 Km of Tunneling completed in the project (99%) of the total tunneling estimated for the Project) in a record time of 42 Months from the start of Civil Works in Jan 2008
    • The Surge Shaft and the Pressure Shafts are being excavated by Shaft Sinking method for the First time in a Hydro Project in the Country.
    34
  • 1750 MW Demwe Lower HE Project (Arunachal Pradesh)
  • Demwe Lower HEP– Salient Features
    Dam of 163.12 m height from Deepest Foundation Level
    Power intake - 160 m long
    Surface Power House on right bank about 650 m downstream of Dam axis.
    Pooling Point
    Switchyard
    River
    River
    Tail Race Tunnel (open channel, 165 m wide and 130 m long)
    5 Nos Pressure shaft of 10 m dia.
    36
  • Demwe Lower HEP– Status
    • Concurrence accorded by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) .
    • Clearance received from Ministry of Defence.
    • “In-Principle” Mega Power Status issued obtained from Ministry of Power (MOP)
    • “Grant of Connectivity” received from PGCIL.
    • Environmental Clearance accorded by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).
    • Memorandum of Understanding signed with PTC India Ltd for purchase of power.
    • EPC contract has been awarded to M/s SEW- ABIR Consortium through an ICB route
    • 100% of the Debt has been tied-up with FIs/Banks
    37
  • Energy Security ?
    With the present rate of consumption, world is left with approx.
    • 200 years of coal
    • 75 years of nuclear resources
    • 50 years of gas and
    • 25 years of oil respectively;
    While Conventional Hydro & other New Renewable like Small Hydro, Wind Solar & Biomass are perpetual sources of energy as sustainable options with least carbon footprints.
    Global Energy Scenario
    Today
    Fossil fuels - 85 %
    Nuclear - 4 %
    Hydro - 9 %
    New Renewable - 2 %
    38
  • Water Provides Perpetual ‘Energy Security’ for Sustainable Development
    Hydro is –
    -Socio-Economic
    -Technical
    -Operational
    -Carbon Neutralizing
    -Compulsion
    Hydro Provides Energy Security even during Peaking Hours
    39
  • For Energy Security @ 24x7
    With Best Reflection In All Dimensions
    Let Us Accept “Hydro” As The Divine Power And As Our First Choice
    &
    Bring It Back To The Centre Stage of Power Development
    World Will Never Ever Regret
    &
    Coming Generations Will Remember US
    For Our Thoughtfulness
    40
  • Thank You!!