IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Kuang Shangfu

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Kuang Shangfu

IHA Congress 2011 - Session 8c - Kuang Shangfu

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  • 1. Sustainable Hydropower Developmentin China: Challenges and Solutions Dr. KUANG Shangfu President China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research 2011 IHA WORLD CONGRESS 14-17 June 2011 1 ADVANCING SUSTAINABLE HYDROPOWER Iguassu, Brazil
  • 2. CONTENTS1. Overview of Hydropower Development in China2. Hydropower Strategies3. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions4. Conclusions
  • 3. 1 Overview of Hydropower 1. Overview of Hydropower Development in China Development in China 2. Hydropower Strategies 3. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions 4. Conclusions
  • 4. Overview of Hydropower ResourcesGW Hydropower Potential TWh Annual Hydropower Generation 7800 694 6.08700 6600 542 5500 402 4400 3 2.47300 2 1.75200100 1 0 0 Gross Technically Economically Gross Technically Economically theoretical feasible feasible theoretical feasible feasible• Potential: No.1 of the world
  • 5. Development of Hydropower GW Hydropower Installed Capacity of China 250 213.4 196.79 200 171.52 145.26 150 128.57 100 77 50 34.58 0 1910 … 1990 … 2000 … 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Shilongba China’s first Hydropower StationThe Shilongba Statio,1910 Three Gorges
  • 6. Dams in China Three Gorges Gravity Dam Ertan Arch Dam H=183 m, P = 22.5 GW H=240 m, P=3,300 MW Xiaolangdi Clay Core Rockfill Dam Longtan RCC Dam H=157 m, P=1,800 MW H=216.5 m, P=5,400 MW
  • 7. Small Hydro Small hydro (< 50 MW) Installed capacity Power generation Technically feasible 128 GW 530 TWh End of 2010 58 GW 200 TWh 70000 Installed capacity (MW) 60000 58000 50000 40000 30000 24852 20000 13180 10000 3.6 227 1019 1930 0 1950 1962 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • 8. Contributions of Small Hydro• Electrification level• Economic development• Life standard & production capacity Small hydro• Emergency power supply hydropower National• Ecological benefits generation territory 30% 50% Counties Population 22% 33%
  • 9. Hydropower Development Degree Technically feasible 90% 84% 82% 80% 80% 73% 70% 65% 60% 50% 43% 39% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Japan US France Germany Canada Brazil China» Potential in China: large
  • 10. 1. Overview of Hydropower Development in China2 Hydropower Strategies 2. Hydropower Strategies 3. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions 4. Conclusions
  • 11. Strategic Significance of Hydropower in China • To adapt to climate change • To safeguard energy safety • To reduce poverty • To support social, economic development
  • 12. To Adapt to Climate Change China’s Energy Structure Hydro 7% Nuclear & others 2% Non-fossil 9% Fossil 91%Copenhagen Commitment: by 2020,•Non-fossil energy: up to 15% Coal 76% Oil 11%•Carbon emission: down 40-45% Natural gas 4%than 2005 Fossil Non-fossil
  • 13. To Safeguard Energy Safety China’s Power Structure• Proportion of thermal Wind Nuclear 2% 1% power: too large (74%)• Increase hydropower: Hydro inevitable choice to adjust 23% power structure Thermal 74%
  • 14. To Reduce Poverty• China’s hydropower resources concentrate in western less-developed regions• Hydropower: boost economy, reduce poverty
  • 15. To Support Social, Economic DevelopmentIndustrialization Development Stage of Hollis B. Chenery Per-capita GDP ($) Economic Development Stage 300-600 Primary Products Stage 600-1200 Initial Stage 1200-2400 Middle Stage Industrialization Stage 2400-4500 Advanced Stage 4500-7200 Early Stage Developed Economic Stage 7200-10800 Higher Stage• China GDP per capita: $ 4,371• Population under poverty line: 150m (< $1.2/d/p)China needs hydropower to support social and economic development
  • 16. Strategy of Hydropower Development• To actively develop hydropower on the premise of ecological protection• Goals: – Total hydropower: 380 GW by 2020 – Including conventional hydropower: > 330 GW
  • 17. 1. Overview of Hydropower Development in China 2. Hydropower Strategies3 Challenges of Sustainability; 3. Challenges of Solutions Sustainability; Solutions 4. Conclusions
  • 18. Challenges of Sustainability; SolutionsChallenges:  Environmental protection  Resettlement  Dam safety  Laws and regulations  Hydropower price
  • 19. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions Environmental protectionChange of water regime Planning and layoutHabitat CompensationFish pass Management system 1 2 Slope vegetation (Three Gorges) 1 Fish breeding, releasing 2 Stratified intake (Nuozhadu) 3 3 4 Transplantation of rare 4 plants (Jinghong)
  • 20. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions ResettlementLife of relocated people Laws and regulationsLocal economic Compensationdevelopment Investment New Countryside campaign
  • 21. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions Dam safetyMostly built in 1950s- 70s Reservoirs repaired & reinforced (in 10 yrs: 7,356)Danger removal andreinforcement Reservoirs to be repaired & reinforcedSafety monitoring (in next 5 yrs: 41,000)Emergency response Research, management, monitoring (guaranteeInformatization and system, emergencymodernization response, warning…)
  • 22. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions Laws and regulationsProperty of hydroenergy Central government’sresources No. 1 Document in 2011Benefit sharing One of 4 goals: to establish institutions andWhole-process monitoring systems for scientific& management development of water resources……
  • 23. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions Hydropower priceLower than thermal Market-oriented pricingpower mechanismCovering up advantagesof hydropower On-grid power prices (CNY)1.2 1.09 10.80.6 0.56 0.4250.4 0.35 0.210.2 0 Hydro Thermal Nuclear Wind Solar
  • 24. Scientific and Technological SupportResearch institutes: IWHR + National Research Center on Sustainable Hydropower Development + … Resources General planning; cascade development utilization planning Ecological EIA; ecological mitigation & compensation safety Engineering Engineering technologies; automatic safety monitoring; emergency response Regional economy; social coordination & Economic development; development institution, mechanism, management, poli cy
  • 25. 1. Overview of Hydropower Development in China 2. Hydropower Strategies 3. Challenges of Sustainability; Solutions4 4. Conclusions Conclusions
  • 26. ConclusionsAdapt to Safeguard Reduce Supportclimate energy poverty social, economic development change safetyStrategic choice: to actively develop hydropower on the premise of ecological protection Diverse and complex challenges ahead International cooperation, exchange Sustainable Economic Sci. & tech. hydropower development progress development