IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4b - Chris Eaglin

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4b - Chris Eaglin

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IHA Congress 2011 - Session 4b - Chris Eaglin

  1. 1. Water Use and Consumption for Hydropower<br />Presenter: Chris Eaglin<br />Work performed by: Dr Guy Pegram, Chris Eaglin and Kate Laing<br />June 2011<br />
  2. 2. Energy and water use<br />Hydropower and water use<br />Water Footprint Methodology<br />Contents of Presentation<br />
  3. 3. ENERGY AND WATER USE<br />
  4. 4. International consensus is that water scarcity will increase globally in next 20 to 30 years, <br />with profound social and political implications.<br />Water is fundamental to the food an energy sectors.<br />Scarcity drives a need for awareness of the consumption of water and optimising productive efficiency.<br />Energy and Water Use<br />
  5. 5. Water and Energy Relationship<br />Water for Energy<br />Energy for Water<br />Source: WEC 2010<br />
  6. 6. There have been a lot of attention on the concept of the consumption of water in the production of energy. <br />Water scarcity and drive for optimized use has led to various estimations of the amount of water use per GJ output<br />In thinking about this, there are several considerations:<br />Generation capacity<br />Energy supply chain<br />Attribution of losses.<br />Energy and Water Use<br />
  7. 7. A Conceptual Framework<br />Water<br />Downstream<br />Storage<br />
  8. 8. Water use in different energy generation technologies has been has been investigated in great detail. The analyses have examined:<br />Coal<br />Natural Gas<br />Biofuels and biomass<br />Wind and Solar<br />The same cannot be said of hydropower (the majority of these studies generally refer to work performed by Gleick 1994). <br />We are proposing a conceptual framework to expand upon analyses of water use in energy generation. <br />This should provide a common matrix for comparing water use in all energygeneration.<br />Literature Review of Energy and Water Use<br />
  9. 9. Literature Review of Energy and Water Use<br />Coal fired generation (estimates from Gleick 1994) Consumptive use is 0.8-2.1 m3/MWh (energy conversion only) varies by tech. <br />Natural gas (according to WEC 2010 report)<br />Estimates vary by technology, however gas fired technologies use approximately 0.7 – 3.7m3/MWh (energy conversion)<br />Wind and solar (Gleick 1994)<br />These technologies are generally considered to be the lowest water consumption users (save solar thermal) in terms of water consumption use.<br />Biofuels and biomass (according to UNESCO-IHE 2008 report)<br />Estimations of biomass energy water requirements vary widely based on location and fuel type.<br />
  10. 10. HYDROPOWER AND WATER USE<br />
  11. 11. From the literature review there are three key issues to consider: <br />There have been limited studies on hydropower<br />Measuring hydropower water usage must take into account multiple uses of dams<br />Downstream impact must be included as with other generation technologies<br />Hydro Power and Water Use<br />
  12. 12. Key issues that require clarification and debate:<br />A set of definitions for hydropower and water usage.<br />An appropriate and relevant methodology. <br />A broad selection of dedicated studies that reflect different aspects of hydropower stations.<br />Contributing to the Literature<br />
  13. 13. WATER USE METHODOLOGIES<br />
  14. 14. Considerations for definitions<br />Consumption<br />Water use<br />Water loss (net versus gross loss)<br />Supply chain impacts<br />Downstream impacts<br />Water Footprint<br />
  15. 15. Methodology issues<br />All metrics look at water used over energy generated<br />For hydropower this number is reservoir evaporation<br /> Three primary methods<br />Gross evaporation/energy generated<br />(Gross reservoir evaporation – previous environment evaporation)/energy generated<br />(Gross reservoir evaporation – precipitation)/energy generated<br />Important to treat hydropower water use like other technologies by input/output including supply chain<br />
  16. 16. Comparison of Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Hydrological and climate drivers
  17. 17. Structure of the hydropower system
  18. 18. Uses of hydropower scheme
  19. 19. Nature of hydropower in the national electric grid. </li></li></ul><li>Thank You<br />

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