Tran Trung Tuyen (Song Bung 4 HPMB)Takafumi Kadono (ADB)Song Bung 4 Hydropower Project Case StudyPresented at theIHA 2013 World Congress
.CASE STUDY FROM SONG BUNG 4HYDROPOWER PROJECT – VIET NAMKuching 23rd May, 2013Tran Trung Tuyen Takafumi KadonoSong Bung 4 HPMB Energy Specialist-ADB
A. INTRODUCTIONProject siteVu Gia-ThuBon BasinMapping of Project Location
Project General LayoutOverview LayoutRCC Dam 114mReservoirTunnel 3.2kmPowerhouse
Project Key Features and Time Schedule InstalledCapacity:156MWwith two Francis turbines78MW each. AnnualOutput: 586.25 GWH Reservoir: Surface Area15.8 km2; FSL 222.5m.Gross Vol:510,8 MCM Dam: RCC (about 800.000m3), 114m high, crestlength 345m, CVCDiversion Culvert 5mx9m. Headrace Tunnel: 3.2km,inner diameter: 7.2mConstruction Progress Commencement: June 2010 River Closure: Jan 2012 Impoundment: Aug 2014 Unit 1 Completion: 10/2014 Unit 2 Completion:12/2014Resettlement 4 Villages, 253 Householdand 1041 People Relocated. First Relocation: Oct 2012 Completion of all RelocatedSites: Quarter III 2013.
B. WORKING WITH AFFECTED PEOPLEMAPPING OF 4 RESETTLEMENT SITES
When we did: since 2006 following FSapproved by GoV, ADB provided TA andfielded Consultant for PPTA. Where we did: Project affected land,Reservoir, upstream and downstream. What we did: Conducting full surveyand consultation with AP to identifybest approach and to develop AP -included program. How we did: by applying bottom upmethod and by working togethertowards the same objectives througha transparent information and fullparticipatory by APsProject PreparationSurvey TeamOld Thon 2
Pre-Project Situation• Mainly dominance byCo Tu Ethnic Minority.• Limited Access andlivelihood activities• Low level of literacyand lack of health careand public facilities.• High incidence ofpoverty. Self demandand supply with limituse of cash.Traditional Guol House of CoTu EthnicTypical House made of Bamboo and Leaf
• Identify loss of landand asset for supportand compensation• Ensure AP rights onland resourcesallocation.• Prepare LivelihoodRestoration for APs• Provide trainings andguidance for APsrecapturing normallife and familiarizingwith change of life.Components in PreparationSlash&burn rotationOld SchoolHuntingPIB in Cotu
Institutional ArrangementADB , NGO, POEand ProvinceAuthorityPMB includingContractor andConsultantRMIU at DistrictLevelVRDG atVillages LevelAPs ,Communitymobilizer andfacilitatorAP supported by local CommunityMobilizer and local Facilitator takescore position in all relocation relatedactivitiesVDRG as a direct bridge with AP toparticipate actively in all stage ofimplementation.RMIU to review compliance onpolicy of compensation and support;provide support on administration.PMB from listening to andunderstanding about AP, develop acomprehensive and AP-basedresettlement plan.ADB, POE, NGO, independentConsultant... overseeing complianceand application.
Criterion Decree 197/2003 & LandLawADB PolicyConsultation Not specified. APs fully informed & consulted;participatory; public disclosure.Compensation for non-titled land and assetsNot compensated. Compensated at market value.Compensation foreconomic displacementNot compensated. Compensated for loss oflivelihood activities, access.Compensation value Based on residual cost. Based on replacement cost w/odeduction of salvaged materials;incl. taxes & fees.Support for significantimpactAP losing >30% ofagricultural land entitledto assistance for 3-6months .AP losing > 10% productiveland/asset entitled torestoration of income andlivelihood.Consideration forwomen & vulnerable.No specific provision butpoor APs are to besupported by PPC.Assistance for improvement;gender-responsiveMajor Policy Differences
Working with APs• Public Regular meetingsand Consultation forexplanation of project andAP entitlement• Encouraged and empowerAPs active participation.• Listened to AP expectationand put into design, planand implementation.• Defined necessary supportand livelihood restorationsuited to AP wish. AP voiced up opinionMeeting withAP in progress
Meeting with APs and Local CommunityWith local officerJoined Team at fieldAddressing AP concernDownstream Survey
APs Participation• Get AP involved into all process• Joint conduct of DMS, Selection ofResettlement Site, Sample of Layoutand House….• Public Consultation with AP’sparticipation.• Making own house and communityfacilities. Monitoring entire program.• APs shaped their expectedperspectives in a new life.
Entitlement MatrixItems at New RS For AreasHousing Plot andadjacent GardenHousehold 400-600m2Production Land HH 1.5 haPublic Wet Rice Field RelocatedSites11 haCommunity Agro -Forest Land for NTPHH 8 - 10 haConstruction ofhousing sizeHH 40 – 65 m2Kitchen, bath room,toilet…facilitiesHH 22 m2Public Facilities including access road, domesticwater & power supply, school, medial station,cultural house, wet rice irrigation, administrativezone as appropriate to all relocated sites.Compensated and Support made atreplacement cost by cash on the basis ofSupport Provided Training ProvidedCreate Job & change ofCareer, Poverty ReduceAgriculturalDevelopmentStabilizations of Live:food, protein, healthcare, fuel…Develop Rearing:domestic cattle&poultry, fisheriesAgriculture Production:Seedlings, fertilizer,pesticide, caring..Non-FarmingActivities: hair cut,carpenter, knittingStock Rearing: Pig, cow,chicken..Health Care, HIV,human trafficking,Reforestation forproduction and NTPsNutrient forChildren & WomanTechnical assistance,method of production,trading and commercialCapacity building,Literacy demolition,Monitoring worksOthers: Moving, grave,worshiping, visitingDriving, repairingmotorbike…
Finalization of REMDP• Comprehensive documentcovering various issues andaspects with incorporation ofAPs desires and concerns.• Supported by Gender ActionPlan; Social Management Plan• Updated and developedregularly along the time• JFPR as a plus focusing onvocational training, providingseedlings & livestock, capacitybuilding, health care , enhanceawareness to APs for new lifeREMDP
Implementation in progress• Conducting DMS andSelection of ResettlementSite with participation oflocal APs especially women.• Public Disclosure of MatrixDesign and Planning .• Gathering feedback andcomment for revision. Woman participates in DMS at fieldInventory Asset on LandPublic Disclosure at Village
• Selection of resettlementSite and Production land• Site clearance andMonitoring from APs• Access to forest for hunting,foods and NTP collection.Implementation in progressWoman participatesconstruction monitoringCombined Team in the forestNew RS underClearance
Implementation in progressDisclosure on compensation inparticipation of men and womenAP gathers up for consultationSeeking for Expected Resettled SitesReaching final agreement
• Compensation andSupport Payment.• Advising APs to putmonies at Bank for saving.• Both wife and husband’sname appears in all papersImplementation in progressWoman opensseparate bankaccountGet compensated in spousesPapers in the name of husband and wife
• Construction of PublicFacilities includinghealth care station,school, power supply,access road, domesticwater system…Implementation in progressSchool at new RSSchool under constructionHealth Center at new RSWeekly meeting in RS including VRDG,SB4, Contractor, ADB consultant
After RelocationIndividual house at newRSCommunity Hall for Public ActivitiesOverview to a village. • APs build their ownhouse and Guol houseunder their choice &traditional style.• Land Use Certificateunder name of spouse.
A new life beginsA view at New Resettlement SiteTraditional Guol and Community CourtTypicalnewhousebuilt byAPCollection of rattanVehicle accessible
Restoration After RelocationWet rice development TraditionalKnitting athomeFish PondHouse Gardening
Emerging of Challenges• Conflict of interest within family.• Abuse of Alcohol; Drivingmotorbike; Using modern homeappliances and facilities.• More vulnerable by socialimpacts from contacting withouter world.• Long term financial management• Maintaining traditional culture.• Stable restoration of livelihoodactivities.PMB is continuingwith APs forsustainabledevelopment byextending moreefforts on: Training AP towardsnew life and career. Providing furthersupports. Improving APsawareness andcapacity. Sharing knowledgeand benefit…
Respecting and maintaining locally social andcultural characteristic.Well preparation with design factoring muchtraditionally cultural settings and tailoring toAP’s expectation.Encouraging and Empowering APs to activelyparticipating throughout all stages.Applying bottom up approach and making APscore part of Project in a long run.High consensus from AP towards projectobjectives by Working with Affected People.C. LESSON LEARNED
Song Bung 4 HPP Land Acquisition andResettlement Process• Mobilizing and empowering APs from early stages;continuous involvement.• Meaningful consultation – not just ticking the box.– Selection of resettlement site– Design of resettlement site and own houses– Discussion on livelihood restoration activities– Bottom-up approach• Community mobilization & additional livelihoodrestoration support funded by Japan Fund forPoverty Reduction (JFPR)29
Song Bung 4 HPP Land Acquisition andResettlement Process30Old House Old House New House New Concrete House inA Vuong HPPOld Classroom New Classroom
Song Bung 4 HPP Land Acquisition andResettlement Process• Gender-responsive.– Women have been empowered to participate in consultation,resettlement site selection and planning, DMS, compensation payment– Half of VRDG members and extension workers are women– Female village extension workers– Livelihood restoration programs for women– Farm and non-farm skills training for women (para-vet, plumbing, etc.)– Improved maternal health care– Separate bank accounts for men and women• Application of ADB policies.• ADB staff dedicated to LAR.• Capacity building of PMB and local authorities.31
JFPR 9120-VIE:Livelihood Improvementof Vulnerable EthnicMinority Communities Affected by theSong Bung 4Hydropower Project in Quang NamProvinceJapan Fund for Poverty Reduction
Objective and Activities• Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction grant ($2 million) tocomplement income restoration and for social preparation.• Village Resettlement Development Group (2009)– Consisting of representatives of affected persons (44% women).– To develop awareness about entitlement, resettlement activities,grievance redress mechanism, plan & implement resettlement,design and implement livelihood programs.– Meet every 2 weeks and monthly.– Supported by JFPR Community Mobilizer.• Village Extension Worker– Community facilitator, village para-vet, agriculture, fishery, health.– All both man and woman.33
Objective and Activities• Training and awareness program– Health awareness, immunization, treatment of mosquito net, etc.– Traffic safety– HIV/AIDS and human trafficking– Water management, irrigation, plumbing, forest protection– Build awareness on use and maintenance of village infrastructure• Livelihood Activities - Diversification– Livestock (pig, chicken, duck, buffalo…)– Agriculture (home garden, wet rice, improve traditional uplandfarming…)– Fishery, agro-forestry, industrial trees– Non-farm income generating activities34
Safeguard Policy Statement (2009)• Effective on 20 Jan 2010• Consolidation of Previous Policies:– Environment Policy (2002)– Indigenous Peoples Policy (1998)– Involuntary Resettlement Policy (1995)• Ambiguities clarified• Consistent with WB and IFC’s approaches• Requirements tailored appropriately to different financingmodalities• Strengthened monitoring and supervision• Country Safeguard Systems (CSS)• Emphasis on capacity development in DMCs36
Safeguard Policy Statement (2009)• Overarching Objectives:– Avoid adverse impacts of projects on theenvironment and affected people, where possible;– Minimize, mitigate, and/or compensate for adverseproject impacts on the environment and affectedpeople when avoidance is not possible; and– Help borrowers/clients to strengthen their safeguardsystems and develop the capacity to manageenvironmental and social risks.37
Major Difference: Environmental SafeguardsPrevious SPSo Includes explicitrequirements on (i)environmentalassessment processo No equivalentrequirements on (ii)-(v), whileenvironmentalassessment reportsexamine these issuesin practice but often inan ad hoc mannerIncludes explicit policy principles andrequirements on:i. environmental assessment processii. biodiversity protection and naturalresources managementiii. pollution prevention and abatementiv. occupational and community healthand safetyv. physical cultural resources
Major Difference: Involuntary Resettlement SafeguardsPrevious SPSo The 1995 Policy doesnot clearly definepolicy scope andtriggersThe IR safeguards cover physicaldisplacements (relocation, loss of residentialland, or loss of shelter) and economicdisplacements (loss of land, assets, accessto assets, income sources and means oflivelihoods) as a result of (i) involuntaryacquisition of land, or (ii) involuntaryrestrictions on land use or on access to legallydesignated parks and protected areas.
Major Difference: Involuntary Resettlement SafeguardsPrevious SPSo No equivalentprovisionIf potential adverse economic, social, orenvironmental impacts from projectactivities other than land acquisition areidentified, they will be avoided, or at leastminimized, mitigated, or compensated for,through the environmental assessmentprocess.If these impacts are found to be significantlyadverse at any stage of the project, theborrower/client will be required to develop andimplement a management plan to restore thelivelihood of affected persons to at least pre-project levels or better.
Major Difference: Indigenous Peoples SafeguardsPrevious SPSo For projects involvingIndigenous Peoples,initiatives should beconceived, planned,and implemented, tothe maximum extentpossible, with theinformed consent ofaffected communities.However, no specificprovisions on how tooperationalize thisconcept.The borrower and ADB will ascertain theconsent of affected IP communities to thefollowing three types of project activities:o commercial development of the culturalresources and knowledge of IP;o physical displacement from traditional orcustomary lands; ando commercial development of naturalresources within customary lands underuse that would impact the livelihoods orthe cultural, ceremonial, or spiritual usesthat define the identity and community ofIP.
Major Difference: Indigenous Peoples SafeguardsPrevious SPSo No equivalentprovisiono The consent of affected IndigenousPeoples communities refers to a collectiveexpression by the affected IndigenousPeoples communities, through individualsand/or their recognized representatives, ofbroad community support for such projectactivities. Broad community supportmay exist even if some individuals orgroups object to the project activities.o ADB will assure that broad communitysupport is demonstrated. ADB will notfinance the project if such broad supportdoes not exist.
Collaboration with CSOCollaboration between ADB and CSO• Policy level• Country Partnership Strategy level• Project levelCollaboration indicated in:• Strategy 2020• Public Communications Policy• Accountability Mechanism• Safeguard Policy Statement, etc.44
Collaboration with CSORoles Performed by CSO• Policy design and review• Advocacy across a range of issues• Information provider• Consultation during project design• Beneficiaries and stakeholders• Co-financer• Technical expert and trainers• Implementing agency• Monitoring and evaluation45
CSO in Song Bung 4 HPP• Service provider for livelihood developmentunder JFPR 9120-VIE.• Independent monitoring.46Workshop organized by Vietnam Rivers Network
Basin SustainabilityVu Gia – Thu Bon River Basin
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PfES)• Benefit Sharing Mechanism supported through ADB TA4689-VIE; piloted in A Vuong HPP – same Vu Gia - ThuBon basin as Song Bung 4 HPP.• Suggested 2% of gross generation to finance BenefitSharing Fund for livelihood development.• Decree 99 on PFES approved 2010.• Hydropower plants pay VND20/kWh (¢0.1/kWh)• $26 million collected in 2012, but disbursement tohouseholds and monitoring challenging.• ADB TA 6422-REG promotes (i) “household groups” and(ii) GIS & remote sensing.48
Rapid Basin-wide Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Tool (RSAT)• Developed by ADB, MRC, WWF.• Assess hydropower sustainability issues in abasin wide, multiple project context.• Assessment by stakeholders.• Action orientated.• Multi-criteria gap analysis.• Scheduled for piloting in Vu Gia- Thu Bon river basin (July).(To be financed by Water Financing PartnershipFacility: WFPF)49
Hydropower Operation Rules• MoNRE tasked to prepare dry season operatingrules for hydropower reservoirs in the Vu Gia -Thu Bon river basin.• ADB providing support (financed by WFPF)• ADB also supporting study on minimum flowrequirements.50