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  • 1. Government of India Government of The Netherlands Hydrology Project Technical Assistance Inception Report September 1996 DHV Consultants BV & DELFT HYDRAULICS in association with HALCROW - TAHAL - CES - ORG - JPS
  • 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations 1 Introduction 1.1 The Project...............................................................................................................page 1 - 1 1.2 Role of the Consultants...........................................................................................page 1 - 2 1.3 Organisation of the Inception Report.....................................................................page 1 - 5 2 Hydrological Information Needs 2.1 Functions of the water system ................................................................................page 2 - 1 2.2 Priority settings, legislation and constraints...........................................................page 2 - 2 2.3 Hydrological Data User Groups.............................................................................page 2 - 4 2.4 Hydrological Information System..........................................................................page 2 - 5 3 Implementation issues 3.1 Institutional Strengthening.....................................................................................page 3 - 2 3.2 Surface Water and Hydrometeorology ..................................................................page 3 - 6 3.3 Ground Water..........................................................................................................page 3 - 8 3.4 Water Quality ........................................................................................................page 3 - 11 3.5 Data Base Management and Communication .....................................................page 3 - 14 3.6 Training Services...................................................................................................page 3 - 16 3.7 Project management support ................................................................................page 3 - 19 4 Project management support 4.1 The process approach applied in the Project .........................................................page 4 - 1 4.2 The Concept of Institutional Development............................................................page 4 - 1 4.3 The Annual Project Cycle.......................................................................................page 4 - 1 4.4 Organisation of the Technical Assistance..............................................................page 4 - 2 4.5 State Management Consultants ..............................................................................page 4 - 3 4.6 MIS for Monitoring Project Activities...................................................................page 4 - 4 5 Activities for the first year of the consultancy 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................page 5 - 1 5.2 General Support to Project Implementation ..........................................................page 5 - 2 5.3 Hydrology Information System..............................................................................page 5 - 6 5.4 Surface Water and Hydrometeorology ..................................................................page 5 - 8 5.5 Groundwater..........................................................................................................page 5 - 12 5.6 Water Quality ........................................................................................................page 5 - 17 5.7 Data base management and communication........................................................page 5 - 22 5.8 Training Services...................................................................................................page 5 - 34 5.9 Activity schedules.................................................................................................page 5 - 45 6 Staffing requirements of Consultancy Services to Hydrology Project 6.1 Inception Phase .......................................................................................................page 6 - 1 6.2 Proposed Staffing October 1996 - December 1997...............................................page 6 - 2 6.3 Staffing Schedules.................................................................................................page 6 - 16
  • 3. Annexes 1. The Hydrology Project .........................................................................................Annex 1 - 1 2. State and Agency Specific Issues.........................................................................Annex 2 - 1 3. Supplementary Training Information ..................................................................Annex 3 - 1
  • 4. Abbreviations AAS Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometre AE Assistant Engineer AEE Assistant Executive Engineer AHG Assistant Hydro-geologist ARG Autographic Rain Gauge ARO Asssistant Research Officer AWLR Automaatic Water Level Recorder CDO Central Design Office CE Chief Engineer CGWB Central Ground Water Board CRO Chief Research Officer CWC Central Water Commission CWPRS Central Water Power Research Station DBM Data Base Management DOICAD Department of Irrigation and Command Area Development EE Executive Engineer E-i-C Engineer-in-Chief FCS Full Climatic Station GC Gas Chromatograph GSDA Groundwater Survey & Development Agency GW Groundwater GWD Ground Water Directorate HDUG Hydrological Data User Group HG Hydro-geologist HIDAP Hydrological Institution Development Action Plan HIS Hydrological Information System HP Hydrology Project HTC Hydrology Training Committee IMD India Meteorological Department JE Junior Engineer MIS Management Information System MOWR Ministry Of Water Resources NCC National Coordination Committee NIH National Institute for Hydrology NLSC National Level Steering Committee PCS Project Coordination Secretariate RO Research Officer SAR Staff Appraisal Report SE Senior Engineer SGW State Ground Water department SHG Senior Hydro-geologist SLCC State Level Coordination Committee SMC State Management Consultant SRG Standard Rain Gauge SRO Senior Research Officer SSW State Surface Water department STO Senior Technical Officer SW Surface water SWDC State Water Data Centre WALMI Water And Land Management Institute WQ Water quality WRIC Water Resources Investigation Circle
  • 5. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 1: Introduction Page 1 - 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 The Project The Hydrology Project, as briefly described in Annex I, aims at developing comprehensive, easily accessed, and user-friendly databases covering all aspects of the hydrological cycle, including surface water and ground water in terms of quantity and quality and climatic measurements, particularly of rainfall. This would assist in the development of more reliable and spatially intensive data on the quantity and quality of water resources, and in making information available, from computerised data banks, for planning and management of water resources and other legitimate uses. This goal is to be achieved by improvement of institutional and organisational arrangements, technical capabilities, and physical facilities available for collection and processing and exchange of hydrological and hydro-meteorological data. The Project concerns many organisations, both at central and State level. The central agencies involved are the Central Water Commission (CWC), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), National Institute of Hydrology (NIH), Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), and the India Meteorological Department (IMD). At the State level, the relevant organisations are the Irrigation and Ground Water Departments in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. The World Bank, through the International Development Association, signed on 22 September 1995 a Development Credit Agreement and Project Agreement with the Government of India and the participating States to execute the Hydrology Project (Credit No. 2774-IN). The amount of the credit is 90.1 million Special Drawing Rights (USD 142 million equivalent). The total cost of the project is estimated at USD 162.4 million. The project is to be implemented in a period of six years (1995/96 to 2000/2001). The credit became effective on 20 December 1995. The World Bank's Staff Appraisal Report (14 July 1995) includes a Technical Assistance (TA) component to assist the Central and State agencies in the implementation of the Hydrology Project. The Governments of India and The Netherlands, in consultation with The World Bank, have agreed to finance this Technical Assistance under the bilateral Indo-Dutch programme through a grant equivalent to USD 17.38 million. The grant is of an untied nature and includes the remuneration for consultancy services and overseas training. The agreement with the Consultant was signed early July 1996. The contract for the execution of the required consultancy services under the TA component has been awarded to DHV Consultants BV of The Netherlands, which has established a joint venture with DELFT HYDRAULICS, also of The Netherlands. The joint venture will implement the Project in association with HALCROW (UK), TAHAL (Israel), and the following national consulting firms: JPS and Associates, ORG and CES. The technical assistance activities are divided among four task groups: Task Group I : General Coordination and Managerial Services Task Group II : Technical Services Task Group III : Institutional Development Task Group IV : Training Services
  • 6. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 1: Introduction Page 1 - 2 Task Groups I and III form the axis of the consultancy. These Task Groups assist the agencies in the overall management of the Hydrology Project, the implementation of HIDAPs (Hydrological Institutional Development Action Plans) and organisation of annual HDUG (Hydrological Data User Group) meetings. Task Groups II and IV are supportive to Task Groups I and III. The Consultant mobilised in May 1996, May 1 being the official starting date of the Consultancy. A temporary office has been established in now Delhi, awaiting the completion of the permanent office in the CSMRS building. During the Inception Phase about 20 consultants were mobilised, including some short-term experts and five of the State Management Consultants i.e. in Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Mobilisation for other States has since been completed. Short-term Consultants were mobilised to assist CWC and CGWB in the finalisation of specifications of equipment to be procured shortly, and to assist PCS in the preliminary design of a Management Information System (MIS) for project progress monitoring. 1.2 Role of the Consultant 1.2.1 General observations There are three distinct responsibilities related to implementation of the Hydrology Project. First, the responsibility for physical implementation -- the "investment part" of the project. This responsibility lies with the surface and groundwater organisations in the States and at the central level. These organisations are concerned with developing action plans, translating these into physical procurement plans, staffing plans, etc. and ultimately carrying out these plans. The second type of responsibility is for coordination of the activities undertaken by the different organisations. This responsibility lies with the National Level Coordination Committee (NLSC). For the management of day-to-day affairs, this Committee is supported by the Project Coordination Secretariat (PCS). Both the implementing organisations and the PCS are provided with the consultancy services described above. The responsibility of the Consultant is to provide technical assistance to the State and Central Organisations, regarding the translation of the broad outlines for investment, as laid out in the World Bank Staff Appraisal Report (SAR), into actual procurement plans, and to provide support to the PCS for general coordination and monitoring of progress on project implementation. This responsibility of the Consultant is one at arm's length, i.e. by commenting on activity and procurement plans, and advising PCS on possible action on these comments. The responsibility for the actual drawing up of plans, for intervention, etc. remains with the implementing and coordinating organisations of the Government of India, respectively.
  • 7. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 1: Introduction Page 1 - 3 1.2.2 Basic processes for project implementation Progress on project implementation can be measured at two levels, that of the inputs and that of the impact of the outputs. Aside from project impact, GOI and the World Bank focus on procurement and, as a measure thereof, on disbursement. Consequently, rightly or wrongly, the implementing organisations feel pressure to procure the items presented in the SAR. However, procurement is only possible with properly sanctioned budgets. In this regard, there are two distinct phases, budget preparation and budget implementation. Both phases involve specific procedures. Budget preparation is based on long, medium, and short term planning of activities, and prioritising these plans with those for other activities to be funded from a finite Government budget. While the budget for the Project activities is safeguarded in the Loan agreement with the World Bank, at the implementing agency level it is nevertheless necessary to include the activities in the budgeting process, as recovery from the loan is in the form of reimbursement of expenses. Furthermore, Project implementation is not only a matter of procurement; it also involves staffing, office facilities, etc. Many of these latter concerns must be taken into account in the planning process of which budgeting is essentially only one aspect. Budget implementation is the process by which allocated funds are actually spent for their intended purpose. Budgets are not released in their entirety to implementing organisations. Rather, this is generally done in phases, depending on approved actual fund requirements (sometimes based on "slices" of the total budget). For fund requirements to be approved, they must be in line with existing Government policies and regulations regarding recruitment, purchasing, etc. These, however, may not be in line with Project specifications and requirements. The intricacies of the procedures for budget preparation and implementation often delay progress on project implementation. As a result, felt pressure on the implementing organisations to procure, to train, to re-deploy, etc. further increases. Ultimately, this could create a situation in which actions are taken without critical review, only to be seen to act. While this may initially satisfy input requirements, the intended impact of the Project may eventually become diluted. 1.2.3 Approach to be taken by the Consultant The main role of the Consultant is in advising the implementing agencies to ensure that the Project achieves the desired impact. So it is the critical review in which the Consultant would be expected to play the major role. Notwithstanding, it is first necessary to relieve some of the pressure on the organisations. Hence, the Consultant will focus first on getting the Project off the ground, by working with the implementing organisations to pinpoint the obstacles in planning and plan implementation, and developing ways to overcome these obstacles. At a somewhat later stage, once the organisations have become comfortable with the Project and related procedures, the opportunity will be created to reflect more fundamentally on the Project objectives and how they can be achieved using a process approach. At that time, desired outputs and impacts will be identified more specifically, and it will be possible to develop progress indicators. The Consultant wishes to stress that this should be done in collaboration with the implementing organisations themselves, through a planning process aimed at developing understanding of and commitment to Project objectives. This may incorporate (elements of) logical framework analysis (LFA) and objective oriented project planning (OOPP).
  • 8. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 1: Introduction Page 1 - 4 As described, the ultimately intended role of the Consultants will be one of facilitation. In this manner, the existence of the Consultant will become a catalyst for progress by the individual participating organisations. Already today, the States have to various degrees advanced project implementation with regard to network design, procurement, building, staffing and training. However, the reality is that in the short term some of the organisations are still constrained in performing their role in the Project. Constraints were observed in (a) assessing and/or reviewing requirements, (b) adequate phasing of construction works, procurement, and staffing, (c) coordination among implementing organisations, (d) integrating planning of different components. Therefore, in certain cases the Consultant may have to take the initiative, for example in designing a management information system for monitoring of progress on the Project activities, in developing planning formats to be used by the States in the annual project cycle, in discussing the principles of the process approach and in developing guidelines for integrated HIDAPs. The Consultant proposes to take these initiatives in partnership with the implementing organisations, i.e. in close consultation and collaboration. This will assist the organisations to advance along the learning curve as rapidly as possible, making it possible for the Consultant to gradually concentrate more on facilitating the organisations' own activities under the Project, thus providing maximum potential for sustainability of the Project's impact. 1.2.4 Activities planned for the short term As the consultants cover a considerable number of professional disciplines, proper attention will be given to team building. Exchange of views within the team is to enhance consistency in the goals and approach of the team. Subsequently, the Consultant will assist the State teams to visualise possible/desirable ways of cooperation and conjunctive analysis and use of the hydrological data. First and foremost, during the coming year the Consultant will emphasise support to the States and the Central organisations to strengthen their project coordination and management. At the same time the Consultant will be able to investigate and analyse the constraints and opportunities with regard to State SW and GW integration and enhancing complementarity in the services of State and Central organisations. In the direct interaction with the States, the concept and objectives of institutional development shall be explored and clarified. In order to strengthen project management, an information system is being developed and introduced. State Management Consultants will support the State teams. Each State Level Coordination Committee will be requested and assisted to produce one combined action plan for 1997-1998. In November two parallel workshops will be organised for the States on how to prepare integrated plans, whereby activities of the different agencies will be coordinated and synchronised. At the end of January one workshop at the Central level will be held to finalise the HIDAP documents for the States and for the Central agencies.
  • 9. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 1: Introduction Page 1 - 5 1.3 Organisation of the Inception Report This introductory chapter presents the Project as it relates to the agreements, between the GOI and the donor organisations, and the role and approach proposed to be taken by the Consultant. In Chapter 2 a preliminary assessment is given of the hydrological data need, together with an outline of the proposed Hydrological Information System. A summary of issues related to implementing the Project is presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses Project Management Support to be provided by the Consultant, including the dedicated Management Information System being developed. Chapter 5 contains a description of the project activities in the first year, followed by the related first year staffing requirements for the Consultant’s team in Chapter 6. The annexes to this report provide additional details. Annex 1 presents in some detail the objectives and necessary inputs of the Project. A report on findings of the Consultant’s Identification Mission to the individual Project States and the central agencies is presented in Annex 2. Finally, because of the attention for short-term training activities, a presentation of proposed training programs is included in Annex 3.
  • 10. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 1 Chapter 2 Hydrological information needs The ultimate objective of the Hydrology Project is to develop a sustainable Hydrological Information System (HIS), which provides reliable data on surface water and ground water quantity and quality. Such HIS includes all components and activities from sensing hydrological and meteorological parameters to the dissemination of the data to the data users. The main components of a HIS are the monitoring network for collecting the data and the data centre where the data are stored, validated, processed and disseminated (Section 2.4). Efficiency requires that all activities in a HIS are well tuned to each other to provide the required data timely in proper form and at minimum cost. In the set up of a HIS the first question to be addressed is the type of information the system has to provide as this determines the layout of the observation network (parameters, network density, observation frequency, equipment) and the data availability in the database. The type of information to be provided requires an analysis of the (potential) hydrological data users (Section 2.3). Their data needs follow from their mandates in case of governmental organisations or objec- tives when dealing with NGOs and the private sector (Section 2.2). The required information may refer to historical data, when dealing with planning and design, but also to real-time data and forecasts of water quantity and water quality parameters in case of operational management of water resources/use systems. To identify potential users of the HIS the functions of the surface and groundwater systems have to be known (Section 2.1). 2.1 Functions of the water system The functions of the surface and groundwater systems in the Hydrology Project and the use of data include: Drinking water supply: data are required to assess the present and future availability covering quantity and reliability aspects of potable water fulfilling high quality standards and to design measures to improve the water quantity and quality; Industrial water supply: data are required to assess the present and future availability of process/cooling water fulfilling certain limited quality standards; Discharge of effluents: data are required to identify and monitor the type, quantum and concentration of pollutants in the effluents; Agriculture: data are required to assess the present and future water availability vis-à-vis water needs for crops; Irrigation: water quantity and quality data are required for the design and operation of irrigation schemes, spillways and reservoirs. Spillway design requires data on extreme rainfall and river flows, whereas the design of reservoirs calls for data on the historical river regime. For the operation of the system data on water demands, rainfall, river stages and flows (quantity and quality) in real-time and as forecasts are needed;
  • 11. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 2 Hydropower: data are required for the design and operation of micro, mini and macro- hydropower systems, often in combination with water use for irrigation and flood management measures. For the data requirements see under irrigation; Forestry: data are required on the variation of groundwater levels and on water quality; Fishery: data are required on water depth, flow velocities and water quality; Flood management: design includes e.g. embankments along rivers and canals, culverts and bridges to bypass floods under roads and railways. It requires data on temporal and spatial distribution of extreme rainfall, on discharge extremes and river stages; such data is needed to derive at return periods of extreme values to be encountered; Nature conservation: environmental protection: data are required on the natural river stage and flow regime, flow velocities, variation of groundwater levels, water quality and of effects on human life; Recreation data are required on water quality conditions, water levels and flow velocities; Navigation is not of much economic importance on the rivers under the Hydrology Project, for the present, but is mentioned here as a (potential future) surface water function for the sake of completeness. 2.2 Priority settings, legislation and constraints 2.2.1 National Water Policy Data needs of governmental agencies follow from their mandates embedded in legislation and water policies. The National Water Policy sets the following water allocation priorities: • Drinking water needs of human beings and animals are the first to charge on any available water; • Irrigation; • Hydro-power; • Navigation; • Industrial and other uses. The priorities may, however, be modified if considered necessary in particular regions with reference to area specific considerations.
  • 12. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 3 2.2.2 Constitutional and Legal Aspects of Water Resources Under the Indian Constitution, every State Government has the power to legislate in respect of water, and can exercise this power for the whole or any part of the state. The state's authority extends to all works for use and control of water within its jurisdiction. Thus, water and its development is primarily a state subject. The Union has the power under the Constitution to legislate through Parliament for the regulation and development of interstate river basins. Thus, the authority of the State Government over water can be exercised within such limitation as may be imposed by law by Parliament, but the Union - except with the State Governments concurrence - cannot acquire the rights of user or of constructing water development works within a state. Except with regard to a few specific projects (for example the Damodar Valley Development), Parliament has not considered it expedient to impose any general limitations on the development of interstate rivers and their basins. Parliament gave authority to the Central Government under the River Boards Act of 1956 to set up a River Board for any interstate river, but the Boards are entirely advisory and cannot restrict or control State Governments regarding water. The Constitution authorises Parliament to provide for the adjudication of any dispute between the riparian States regarding use of water in an interstate river or basin by law. Using this provision, Parliament passed the Interstate Water Disputes Act of 1956, which sets out the conditions under which a water dispute can arise, and authorises Central Government to refer any water dispute, which cannot be settled by interstate agreement, to a judicial tribunal for adjudication. In this respect, any of the riparian states can also ask GOI to set up a tribunal. The tribunal findings are regarded as final for a specified period of the award - typically about 50 years. Under the rights laid down by the Constitution, the power to legislate the control of groundwater development rests with the State Governments. The degree to which the states have exercised this power to date has been minimal. 2.2.3 Constraints As clearly documented in the SAR, the monitoring networks, equipment and practices and exchange of data is lacking and need strengthening and upgrading. The problems can largely be attributed to weaknesses in the institutional infrastructure within the agencies and between the agencies. The agencies are short of skilled staff, due to lack of training and frequent transfers in a weak-hydrological oriented environment; a career in surface water hydrology e.g. does not exist. This resulted in an overall neglect in maintenance of instruments and installation and lead to their dysfunctioning. Money was not available for replacements. Procurement procedures and disbursements of funds are often very lengthy, which frustrates timely implementation and reduces motivation and enthusiasm of the concerned staff. Standardisation of equipment, procedures and exchange of information are strongly hampered by the absence of an interagency communication culture.
  • 13. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 4 2.3 Hydrological Data User Groups (HDUG) During the Inception Phase the Mission met with the Hydrological Data User Groups (HDUG) in the various states to make a preliminary assessment of the hydrological data requirements. This information is an important input in the design of the observation networks and the databases and processing procedures. In most states the composition of the HDUG appeared to be very limited. Often the HDUGs comprised hardly more than the data providers. NGOs and private companies were usually not included. Therefore, a critical review is required of potential data users to be included in the HDUGs. Based on the functions of the surface and groundwater systems the following list of potential data users can be drawn up: Governmental Organisations • State Surface Water Department • Central Water Commission • State Ground Water Department • Central Ground Water Board • India Meteorological Department • Irrigation Departments • State Pollution Control Board • Water Supply and Sewerage Board • Geology and Mines Department • Urban Water Supply and Drainage Board • Public Health Department • Hydropower Corporations • Thermal Power Corporations • Industries and Commerce Department • Agricultural Department • Fisheries Department • Forestry Department • Development Authorities • Roads Department • Railways Department • Drought Monitoring Cell • Tourist Board • Universities • Remote Sensing Agencies • Ministry of Transport (for navigation) • Ministry of Environment and Forest Non-governmental organisations: • Chambers of Commerce • Water Users Associations • Farmers Development Agencies • Environmental Protection Organisations • Tourist Organisations
  • 14. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 5 Private Sector: • Industries: e.g. Paper Mills, Fibre Industries, Cotton Mills, • Engineering Consultants • Contractors The States have expressed a desire for assistance by the Consultant in the identification of information needs. Accordingly, the Consultant has been requested to prepare and appropriate draft questionnaire for consideration by the HDUG. Items to be addressed in the questionnaire include: • description of data user (name, sector, mandate, provided services, staffing and financing) • water system use (present and future) with respect to quantity, quality and responsibility • data use and requirements (parameters, type, required as forecasts, real time or historical data, frequency of availability, in what form, accuracy, consequences if not available, appreciation of present status of data supply). 2.4 Hydrological Information System (HIS) After the analysis of the hydrological data needs in view of considerations discussed in the preceding sections, the components of the Hydrological Information System can be developed and the activities specified. A Hydrological Information System, generally, comprises of the following components: • an observation network, to obtain the field data; • a data centre, to validate, process and disseminate the data; • communication systems to transfer the data from the field to the data centre and exchange data between databases, and provide information to data users. Basically, the HIS should provide information on water as a resource to technical administrators, data users, and the public. This information should aim at meeting a variety of purposes such as: • assessing total water resources; • to plan, to design, and to operate water projects; • to assess the impacts of such projects on the future economy and future environmental impact assessment. • the impact on urban hydrology and afforestation; • to provide information to the public against naturals or manmade hazards caused by excess or too little water.
  • 15. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 6 The HIS should be able to provide information on water as a source, its spatial and temporal distribution, its dependability, and finally its quality. With fast growing population and rapid urbanisation there is an ever increasing demand for water related information. The HIS has to be designed and observation network planning has to be done for quick start of the project. Later on modification can be carried out as per need of data users. Based on a first analysis of the information on data needs and of the number and type of data providers a provisional set up of the HIS has been made, which is presented below. The data collected by the state organisations will be stored in hydrological databases located at the State Data Centres. The data collected by the central organisations in the states will also be available in the hydrological databases at the district/circle/regional offices and the headquarters of the central organisations. A database therefore consists of: • a meta information system, which describes the availability of data in all databases, and • a state/organisation specific information system, containing the field and processed data of a particular state or central organisation State and central organisations will be linked with the general database in the Data Centre through Data Processing Centres (DPC). A DPC comprises a local database embedded in a dedicated surface/groundwater database management and processing system. Each state and central organisation will operate its own dedicated system to execute its data validation and processing activities. These dedicated systems communicate with the state database only for storage and retrieval of field and/or processed data. In this set up the HIS comprises the following components: Network component, (field offices and stations) including: • surface water quantity and quality network; • ground water quantity and quality network; • meteorological network. Data centres, comprising: • data collection and primary processing centres at the sub-divisional and divisional offices; • data processing centres (using dedicated software) at the state and central surface and ground water organisations and at the meteorological office in the State; • the state hydrological databases at the State Data Centre; • hydrological databases at the regional and national headquarters of the central organisations. Communication systems, to exchange data between: • sites and the (sub)-divisional offices; • (sub)-divisional offices and the data processing centres; • data processing centres and the state database; • databases of the states and of the central organisations. The hydrological data users will be accommodated in the state surface or groundwater data centres to communicate with the hydrological database, using the dedicated database management and processing systems available in those centres. These components and the communication between them are depicted in Fig. 2.1 below.
  • 16. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 7 Figure 2.1: Outline of the HIS
  • 17. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 2: Hydrological information needs Page 2 - 8 In the HIS the following activities take place: At the station: • sampling of hydrological, hydrogeological and hydro-meteorological parameters; • manual elaboration of flow velocity measurements; • analysis of water and sediment samples; • entry of data in registers and transfer of the registers and forms filled-in to the sub- divisional office. At the sub-divisional office: • collection and storage of field data ; • entry of field data in computer files; • recomputation of discharges from flow velocity measurements; • ground water levels from DWLRs; • primary validation of field data; • feed-back to the station in case of erroneous data; • transfer of data to the divisional office; • inspection and maintenance of sampling equipment at the stations; • station catalogue for each station. At the divisional office: • collection of computerised field data from the sub-divisional offices; • analysis of water quality samples and entry of the results in computer files; • transfer of field data to the surface or groundwater data centre; • administration and accounting. • validation of data At the data processing centre: • collection of the computerised field data from the divisional offices; • entry of field data in the local database; • transfer of field data to the state database; • retrieval of data from the state database for validation; • secondary validation, correction, completion and compilation of the field data; • transfer of the processed data, for which the organisation is responsible, to the state database; • preparation of yearbooks. At the state/regional (i.e. central) data centre: • management of the database; • updating of the data availability; • control of access by the state and central organisations; • control of access by HDUs; • communication with other data centres. The general layout of the HIS will be determined in a workshop in November 1996 and more details are provided in Chapter 5.
  • 18. State Data Centre Data Centre CWC/HQ DPC - CWC Res. Office Division Sub - Division Field Office and Stations SSW - DPC Division Sub - Division Field Office and Stations Field Office and Stations SGW - DPC Division Sub - Division Field Office and Stations DPC - CGWB Reg. Office Division Sub - Division Data Centre CGWB/HQ State IMD Office Field Offices
  • 19. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 1 Chapter 3 Implementation issues The development of an integrated Hydrological Information System as outlined in the previous Chapter involves a number of different elements and aspects. The individual system elements to be developed are the networks for generating primary data in (units of) the participating organisations dealing with surface water, groundwater, hydrometeorology, and water quality, together with the relevant data processing and validation systems. This entails a scientific review for total optimization and representative character of each network, to enable development of an overall HIS by integration through data exchange of independent systems in the different organisations. The individual data collection and processing systems will thus become deconcentrated elements in the HIS. Across these system elements there are three general aspects to be addressed in the Project. These are the institutional constraints faced by each implementing organisation in becoming an active participant in the HIS, questions regarding database management in and between the systems to allow integration through communication, and development of knowledge, aptitude, and practices of personnel (to be) assigned to the different organisations. The interrelation of these main Project activities is depicted in fig. 3.1 below. Institution Development Information System Development Human Resource Development Integrated and Interactive Hydrological Information System Fig. 3.1 Relation between main project activities S W Meteo G W W Q
  • 20. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 2 The identification Mission to the Project States has looked into the first issues to be dealt to be able to make progress on institution development, technical development and training. Among these issues, those that are State specific are summarised in Annex 2. This Chapter discusses issues of a general nature for each of the main project activities. 3.1 Institutional strengthening 3.1.1 General observations There are two levels of intervention to be considered: • organisation development to improve the internal structure and operations; • institutional development to improve inter-organisational coordination and cooperation. Organisation development The Project addresses organisational strengthening in terms of improving the infrastructure and facilities of the organisations involved and capacity enhancements to develop a reliable and sustainable information system. Basically, the agencies are supported with additional inputs, like buildings, equipment, vehicles, incremental staff, and an O&M budget. However, by themselves these inputs in individual organisations do not necessarily result in integration of the HIS. This integration must be achieved through adjustment in existing organization structure, positioning of Hydrology wing, reorganising and strengthening the communication links between various levels within and between organizations. Institutional development There is a need for institutional development in terms of improving the hydrological information system itself, i.e. the assessment of actual hydrological data user needs and the design of the data collection network accordingly. Apart from standardising hydrological data collection methods and developing uniform data formats, this involves clarification of each data producer's mandate in relation to other data producers (including e.g. Public Health Engineering, Water Supply and Sewerage Board, and the State Pollution Control Board) and which actual data needs exist among the data users. Only thereafter an adequate data collection network can be designed. Subsequently the required interaction and interlinkages between the various agencies can be worked out, particularly regarding coordination and cooperation: • between State organisations; • between State and central agencies; • between the States. Between State organisations. First, this involves joint design of an integrated network for surface water stations, groundwater stations, meteo-stations and water quality sampling sites. Second, cooperation could focus on administrative and financial procedures that might stand in the way of (a) using joint or adjoining offices, laboratories, data centres, libraries, (b) cross validation, joint analysis, studies and surveys, publications and training, (c) joint use of transport facilities or drilling equipment.
  • 21. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 3 Between State and central agencies. The complementarity of the State and Central agencies should be worked out in more detail, e.g. in terms of data requirements for macro and micro planning, respectively. This would enable adjustment and expansion of both data collection networks accordingly. Data needs analysis among hydrological data users should also make clear who is to produce the required data. Between the States. Policy making in Indian government follows three principles of authority applied side-by-side: central, concurrent, and state. Water affairs are strictly controlled by the states. This has made it very difficult to come to overall water resource allocation, whether at the National Level or per river basin/ catchment area/ watershed. The Hydrology Project emphasises standardising and integrating State information systems, and promoting interaction between the State networks and organisations. 3.1.2 Organisation A new, doubled or tripled network of observation wells or gauging stations with different frequencies of taking measurements and with computerised data recording, might require a different set-up of district offices with a revised staffing pattern and other transport requirements. In all States the SW and GW organisations consist basically of the same units, but are often structured and staffed differently. In most States the organisations have been brought under one Secretary and Engineer-in-Chief. However, sometimes surface and groundwater wings are headed by respectively a Chief Engineer and a Director, sometimes by two Superintending Engineers. Harmonisation of staff levels is suggested. Moreover, SW and GW organisations have traditionally different territorial boundaries and headquarters. It should be explored with the States to which extent these differing administrative structures can be harmonised. Combining divisional offices, labs and data centres could greatly improve operational as well as cost-efficiency. 3.1.3 Finance Release of funds. All States have committed to the Project and agreed to make budget allocations over the six years of the Project. However, only few States have actually approved and released the funds for 1996/1997. A special account for a Revolving Fund under the Bank Loan could be looked into. Such a Fund would provide working capital for expenditures for a limited period of time, and would be replenished through reimbursements from the Project account by the World Bank. However, despite the appealing nature of a revolving fund system, it must be noted that restructuring of state and/or national procedures for the benefit of a single project will be very difficult unless this benefit is recognised in a much broader context and it is agreed that it does not stand in the way of existing higher-level regulations for budgeting and project implementation. Irrespective of whether Revolving Funds can be established, the current procedures for budgeting, financial approvals and disbursements, etc. should be reviewed to eliminate existing procedural problems.
  • 22. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 4 Financial sustainability. An upgraded and expanded monitoring network, with additional staff, modern equipment, and an increased vehicle fleet is expensive. The project budget covers all capital investments and also the incremental O&M costs. However, this applies only for the duration of the Project. Once the Project is completed the States will have to bear the O&M cost themselves. For some States this seems to be a heavy burden for the recurrent budget. Project budgets. It has been observed that there is a rather wide variation in recurrent cost estimates among agencies (ranging from Rs 114 to 42 million for a six year period). 3.1.4 Staffing Staff motivation and quality. It is essential that initial postings are of well-qualified and motivated technical staff. Apart from the fact that this is required to get a completely new Water Hydrology Wing started, it will also attract other competent staff to join, which should create the momentum that is required. Since staffing will almost exclusively be done through redeployment, it should be avoided that other sections of the Irrigation Department or Public Works Department indiscriminately send their redundant and low-performing staff over to the new organisation for Hydrology. Having no background or training in Hydrology, they will require a basic skills training in combination with adequate on-the-job training. Redeployment. In most organisations the establishment ('sanctioned staff strength') is considerably higher than actual staffing level. Vacancies can only be filled through redeployment, other than in cases where exceptional expertise is required. Also additional or incremental staff requirements must be met through redeployment from the own Department. In most States the sanctioning of (additional) posts is still pending. The Consultant believes redeployment might take much longer than anticipated, because in most cases personnel to be redeployed have yet to be identified and accept the new posting. Personnel budgets and sustainability. Since there is no actual increase of Government staff in the Project, the provision for 'incremental' staff as budgeted in the SAR means that State Governments experience a temporary budget excess for staff salaries and allowances. This excess may be reallocated to other budget priorities by the States. This could become a problem if such alternative use of funds would not be limited to the duration of the Project. After all, upon completion of the Project all financial responsibility will return to the implementing organisations, at which time they have difficulty in making their presently existing budgets available again. It is recommended that this issue be taken up by the NLSC. Phasing of new postings. The Consultant recommends integrated planning of redeployment. Staff should only be transferred once the new duty station (data centre, lab, gauging station) is operational, the equipment is available or installed, and the staff can be given the necessary training. Laboratory and Data Centre staff. All the staff assigned to the labs will need thorough training. This also applies to the personnel for the data centre. As there will be for some staff a major change in their job, the hydrology organisation may require assistance in drawing up job descriptions, together with job specifications listing the qualifications of prospective staff. In line with anticipated gaps between these specifications and capabilities among staff expected to be redeployed, a preliminary identification of training needs must be made. Engineers, hydrologists and geologists. If incremental staff positions are to be filled through redeployment, e.g. of Irrigation Engineers to water quality laboratories and the computer data
  • 23. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 5 centre, the staff involved would not have the required background in chemistry or computer operations. Consequently, the Consultants foresee considerable training problems to achieve adequate operational standards. 3.1.5 Buildings State Water Data Centres, monitoring stations, laboratories. Plans have been submitted for approval by the W.B., which indicated that uniformity of buildings for State Water Data Centres is under study. Most States requested support from the Consultant to draw up a building plan, Terms of Reference and tender documents for the civil works to be executed. The Consultant will provide guidance to the States in this regard. 3.1.6 Procurement Procurement pressure. As the Hydrology Project has been underway for some time before commencement of the Consultant's activities, there is notable pressure to increase procurement targets for the short term. This practice is not feasible in some States where funds are yet to be released. Attaining targets is even more difficult due to unrelated general government decisions. For example, the ban on procurement of vehicles. However, the Consultant has learned that for replacement of old vehicles a special sanction can be requested from the Principal Secretary. 3.1.7 Hydrological Data Users Linking data users and providers. A general finding is that, where agencies have a particular need for hydrological or meteorological data, they usually cater for this need themselves. For example, in Kerala the SPCB has a network of sampling sites and laboratories, and the SEB has a comprehensive network of stations. As these data are crucial to the organisations' individual operations (planning and decision-making), they will collect, process and store the data strictly in accordance with their requirements in terms of formats, relevancy, quality and continuity. This shows the fundamental difficulty for implementing agencies to provide this type of high- quality data for use in an integrated system, i.e. one that meets said requirements for all users, when there exists no direct link to actual planning and decision-making on water resource use.
  • 24. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 6 3.2 Surface water and Hydrometeorology 3.2.1 Surface Water The SAR indicates improvement of existing observations systems as a primary activity for all the participating states and central organisations in peninsular India. This needs to entail not only improvement in the data collection infrastructure and avoidance of duplication between the states and CWC, but also a review of network planning so that the networks are adequate to meet the needs of basin water resources evaluation, support basin water planning and management and the design of the hydraulic infrastructure. Guidelines and national practices . The guidelines and national practices in the field of hydrometry is an area that is weak as reported in the SAR and as noticed during the Identification Mission. Often the sampling interval used for stage gauging, particularly at the sites located on smaller streams, is far too large to obtain a reliable picture of the river regime, particularly with respect to the extremes. From the day-time recordings it appeared in a number of cases that floods passed the stations in the night. In some states no observations are taken during Sundays and holidays, thus creating serious gaps in the records. Discharge measurements . In most states, particularly in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, discharge measurement is either sparingly done or not done at all. At high flows in all the states the use of non-standard floats is a common practice. Only in Maharashtra and Gujarat hydrometry is practised at some of the stations in a way to get reasonably accurate estimates. Even such hydrometry is by sectionalising 15 to 20 segments and taking velocities at 0.6 of the depth (0.6D). Taking velocity measurements at 0.2/0.8D or occasionally full velocity profiles to check the accuracy of practices has not been observed. Sediment measurements with depth integrated sampling is often not done in the stations visited by the Identification Mission. Sediment sampling for obtaining a representative sample is not well known or appreciated. Often samples are collected near the banks. Analysis procedures at site laboratories need a fresh look and review. Bed material sampling also needs a fresh look. Measuring of concentrations, coarse, medium, and fine fractions of suspended sediment and the use to which the same will be put is not clear and is not well known. Current practice fixes upstream and downstream gauges 100 meter away on either side of centre line gauges. Separating distance has to be appropriated considering the prevailing bed slopes and other phenomena such as wave celerity, backwater effect, etc. State and central coordination. To avoid duplication and ensure that monitoring networks take into consideration the local effects and the data needs, close interaction of IMD, CWC, and state surface water department was envisaged in SAR through SLCC (State Level Coordination Committees). Frequent meetings of the SLCC are not taking place and this aspect of interdepartmental technical coordination is also not reflected in the agenda of such meetings so far held. In the matter of choice of appropriate sites, in the absence of guidelines joint inspections would have provided needed technical inputs. Such technical interaction has also not taking place.
  • 25. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 7 Staffing and operational costs. Many states face the problem of staff deployment on one side, while they want to continue synoptic discharge measurements at every station. Some states have reported that discharge measurement is done more than once in a day in the flood season. Where a stable stage-discharge relationship is present, there is scope for continuing only stage readings and discard discharge observations synoptically. Such a selected approach can result in staff reduction and saving in operational costs. Some of the states are planning to have a number of FCS and AWS for sampling climate variables other than rainfall. Since the meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity and evaporation or sunshine data are more uniformly distributed, a dense network of FCS may not be cost effective. HDUG. In most states a state level HDUG have been formed but the membership needs considerable expansion to cover all users. The HDUG meetings have to be held more frequently, for the data generators and users to interact. Many of the hydrological data users whom the Mission had opportunity to interact with are unaware of their water data requirements, except for making very general statements of what work is being undertaken by them. It has been suggested that a suitable questionnaire will be made available by Consultants for use by a select group of the state, to individually interact with the users and finalise their replies to the questionnaire in order to define the user needs. Data validation is within the state and central organisations needs improvement. Basically only recalculation of velocity measurements is practised. Consistency checks, whether with neighbouring stations or with meteorological observations, are often not being carried out. The present lack of data validation is partly due to the absence of exchange of information between the state and central organisations. R & D. The SAR lists the following generic research and development items: • improvements to reservoir instrumentation and management; • reservoir sedimentation surveys; • monitoring of return flows; • improvements to real-time Water Resource Management, including improved telemetry systems; • flood forecasting studies. The tasks are to be identified and the approach needs to be specified for implementation and for monitoring. In states where sophisticated reservoir surveys are planned, no documentation was available specifying the concept, approach and work plan. In case of states proposing to study return flows, no documentation existed specifying the project, study area and control points, where measurements are needed. In states proposing real-time water management, no plan exists as to how the real-time system should function. In the case of telemetry systems operational plans, radio survey and frequency allotment from WPC of GOI are all not available. Studies are also needed for setting up forecasting systems and possible forecast lag times. The mission advised the states to involve some research institutions and frame the appropriate documentation. Sophisticated instruments included in the SAR, as can be made available under the project, and specifications and procurement thereof can however be monitored separately.
  • 26. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 8 3.2.2 Hydrometeorology Improvement of existing hydrometeorological observation networks for all the 8 participating States and Central organisation is an important activity under Hydrology Project. For achieving this target, a review of network planning is necessary jointly by IMD, States and Central organisations to avoid duplication and to give due representation to areas (sub-basins) where the network is sparse. Reliability of data . At present, the States have no definite information on the functioning of most of the rain gauges and Climate Stations. The reliability of data collected is to be established. Related to this, data of most of the rain gauge and climate stations maintained by the States are not accepted by IMD due to non-standard or defective instruments and bad exposure conditions. Additionally, data processing and tabulation procedures in many of the states could be improved. To help remedy this situation, the reliability of rainfall and climate data collected by the States is required to be established through joint inspections with IMD. States which have autographic meteorological instruments do not undertake the tabulation work. A close coordination between States and IMD is necessary so that useful data are collected, processed and stored under IMD’s technical control. Review of network planning . Several State and Central agencies are maintaining meteorological networks but there has been an incomplete review of network planning. The Consultant advised all the States to have joint discussions with IMD and CWC and review the rain gauge and climate networks, keeping in view the spatial and operational needs. Joint inspection and installation programmes should be carried out. Procurement process . The procurement process has been delayed in all the States, although IMD has already circulated the specifications of meteorological instruments. Procurement of instruments for which specifications have been circulated should be taken up as soon as possible. Due to the non-availability of incremental staff and vehicles, the initial planning of inspection and installation programmes could not be finalised. Untrained staff. Mostly untrained staff is manning the State rain gauge and climate stations. In addition, many of these staff are only part-time employees. Thus, most of the states have difficulties in deputing their field staff to the IMD training centres located outside their State on administrative grounds and language problems. IMD has been requested to depute their trainers to the states for giving basic training to field staff. Training of Supervisors, and Senior Officers is arranged at IMD training centres at Pune. Training of all staff could be planned in batches together with nodal agencies like IMD, CWC and CGWB, so that continuous and regular training programme becomes available to all states. 3.3 Ground Water 3.3.1 General The construction of computerised groundwater data bases and the establishment of integrated modern monitoring networks are major objectives of the HP. Successful implementation of these objectives will contribute significantly to improve water resources assessment and enhance optimal management. The computerised HIS as envisaged will provide up-to-date information as to the groundwater system and its reflection to natural fluctuating conditions, increased exploitation and associated water quality issues.
  • 27. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 9 It should be stressed that although quality issues under HP are dealt with under a separate heading, they form an integral part of the groundwater and the surface water issues and should be considered together. Basically, the water quality monitoring aims at differentiating between natural background conditions and anthropogenic interference effects. Since water quality reflects the hydrogeological flow regime, both groundwater levels and quality parameters should be monitored and analysed over integrated networks. All participating agencies share the view that such a system is urgently required to meet increasing groundwater demands and quality deterioration. This should pave the way for a smooth implementation of the HP objectives. The implementation procedures include conceptual as well as practical and technical issues, which together will guarantee the creation of the comprehensive and efficient HIS envisaged. The main procedures which may follow progressively and parallel when possible, include: • Identification of the data requirements of all state and national parties concerned with groundwater, including consumer organisations, monitoring, exploration and research institutions and management and decision makers entities; • Formulating standard procedures and layouts of data acquisition, storage .and retrieval for routine work; • Design and development of integrated automatically recorded water table monitoring networks, which is accompanied by water quality monitoring schemes; • Computerisation of historical GW data which include all the available information related to monitoring as well as production wells, aquifer parameters and quality data; • Design and operation of data bases and processing systems; • Training courses and on the job follow ups; • Research and development applied in pilot projects. 3.3.2 Present Situation Very little progress could be achieved during the year 1995-96 in all the participating States and Central Ground Water Board (Regional Offices) due to delay in obtaining Government sanctions for the necessary budget and staff requirements of the project. The program envisaged for 1995-96 has been readjusted in the programs for the years 1996-97 and 1997-98, so that all the physical works envisaged in the Project could be completed by the end of the year 1997-98. In case of the ground water sector of the project, the most important physical activity is the construction of purpose built observation tubewells (key wells) and as per the projected plans this work will be by and large completed during the years 1996-97 and 1997- 98.
  • 28. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 10 Procurement of equipment.. In all the States, the necessary preliminary actions related to the procurement of equipment and construction works have been taken up. Most of the States have prepared the draft tender documents for works and material/equipment required and have either submitted them or prepare them for approval. Coordination. Coordination between the State Ground Water Organisations and respective CGWB Regional Offices generally is good, except in Madhya Pradesh, where there is considerable scope for improvement. During the meetings of the Hydrology Data User Groups (HDUG) held during the visits of the Consultants to the participating States, it was noticed that the groundwater users are not well represented in the HDUG. Proper representation and intensified activities are necessary to ascertain the actual requirements of GW data users, authenticate the multi-use data collection procedures and standardise the GW data formats for storage and retrieval. In case of the Central Ground Water Board, action for procurement of all equipment required by its various regional offices under the Hydrology Project, rests with the Central Head Quarter Office. Similarly the Central Head Quarter Office is to finalise a model tender document for construction of observer tubewells by private contractual job, duly approved by the World Bank, and send it to all its regional offices. This model is to be followed by the regional offices for floating tenders for construction of observation tubewells. In all its regional offices, the incremental staff required for the Hydrology Project has been positioned, except for the staff required for the data centres and a few other personnel. Training. The mission identified the need for proper training to the staff involved in various activities under the HP, related to establishment and maintenance of the modernised groundwater observation well networks, Groundwater Information Systems and upgraded chemical laboratories. While framing the training programs, the different work culture and different practices prevalent in the States have to be taken into consideration. 3.3.3 Strengths, weaknesses and need for support Joint committee. All the State Groundwater Departments and the concerned Regional offices of the Central Ground Water Board have agreed on the establishment of a joint committee to coordinate site selection of “key wells”, on which Digital Water Level Recorders are to be installed. Committee activities should be documented by detailed location maps and documents with all pertinent details (location, depth, construction design, aquiferial unit to be monitored, etc.). This action is supposed to yield an overall integrated layout of the state and central monitoring networks which will reflect best the respective hydrogeological regime, without duplications and overlapping "key wells". All the states also agreed, in general, to synchronise the frequency of manual water level measurements in their respective network observation wells with the frequency exercised by the Central Ground Water Board. Computerised data bases. All the State GW Organisations and CGWB Regional Offices are generally weak in the development of computerised data bases. Karnataka and Maharashtra are somewhat more advanced in this regard and in Gujarat all the historical hydrogeological data have been computerised under an externally aided Water Resources Development & Management Project. All the states need immediate support for developing data bases. It is, therefore, necessary that a workshop on the design and operation of databases is organised by the Consultants, to provide necessary know-how and training to concerned officers of the state and central agencies. Continuous advice and support in the implementation and the initial operation stages should follow to ascertain the assimilation of proper computerised techniques
  • 29. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 11 and procedures. To start with, all participating agencies should be advised in computerising their historical hydrogeological data into common spread sheet and data-base software. Formats and procedures. Each of the agencies involved in the HP have different formats and procedures for monitoring, processing and presentation of data. The need for integrated data bases requires a coordinated approach to standardise their operations. Consultants support is required to review the present situation, advice on standard formats and procedures for data acquisition, processing and dissemination and conduct a workshop to discuss their modifications and adoption. Specifications. Specifications for all the hydrological equipment required under HP have been finalised and formally supplied to all the participant State Ground Water Organisations and the Regional Offices of the CGWB. Specific issues related to the implementation of the Hydrology project in each State, that emerged during the discussions with the officers of the State Ground Water Departments and the concerned Regional offices of the Central Ground Water Board are discussed in Annex 2. 3.4 Water Quality Existing situation.. Responsibilities with respect to monitoring and preserving water quality in the country appear in practice to be diffuse. This is particularly so with respect to surface water. With the country's economy and industrialisation experiencing rapid growth, and an ever increasing population pressure, water quality needs to be given much more priority than it currently receives. It is now widely recognised that rapid industrialisation and urbanisation processes as well as use of fertilisers and pesticides in agriculture contribute considerably to the deterioration of quality of precious water resources. Enhanced water quality monitoring should, therefore, be undertaken as a matter of urgency, to provide a firm basis for the planning of eventually required remedial measures. The existing pattern for water quality monitoring is a project oriented approach, where organisations with information needs are making their own measurements at the specific location(s) of concern to them. This approach does not contribute to long term understanding of water quality. Identification of mandates and objectives of water quality monitoring. In order to have an effective implementation of the Hydrology Project with respect to water quality monitoring, the mandates of the agencies involved must be defined. At present, the mandates of the central and state agencies participating in HP with respect to surface water and groundwater quality do not appear to be well defined, in particular at the state level. Additionally, documented mandates and objectives of the central organisations are not necessarily known at the Regional or Divisional level. Coordination between agencies. Coordination is required between State and Central agencies involved in surface water and groundwater quality monitoring. This is necessary to avoid overlap between their monitoring networks, and to develop complementary policies and strategies with respect to water quality monitoring and pollution control. Cooperation to ensure equal professional standards in the various chemical laboratories is also necessary. Several agencies which are not involved in the Hydrology Project are also monitoring water quality, including, among others, the Central and State Pollution Control Boards, Ministry of Environment, Public Health Departments, Water Supply and Sewage Boards, and Agriculture Departments. At the very least, these organisations should be members of the HDUG. Other
  • 30. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 12 possibilities of involving these organisations with the development of the HIS should be explored. Water Quality Monitoring Programs. Because the mandates of the HP agencies are not clear, it is difficult to evaluate the monitoring activities which they are conducting, especially the networks (i.e. location of monitoring, frequency of sampling and parameters of analysis). The states and central organisations do not have a good rationalisation of their existing programs, nor of the expansions that are planned. Organisation within agencies. Where there are two or more chemical laboratories within one agency, there must be one 'head chemist' who has technical oversight of all the laboratories so that they are functioning in a similar and coordinated manner. Regular visits to all the laboratories to check operating procedures and data processing would be required as part of the coordination task. An inter-laboratory quality control could also be implemented in this manner. Laboratory Design. Many organisations will be having new laboratories as part of the Hydrology Project. It has been seen during the visits to the States that there is are large differences in the planned laboratory accommodations, ranging from 60 m2 to 600 m2 . General recommendations at this time are for approximately 200 m2 (2000 ft2 ) for a Level II lab, and approximately 250-300 m2 (2500-3000 ft2 ) for a Level II+ lab. These areas are also consistent with the budget provisions for laboratory civil works as given in the SAR. Detailed recommen- dations as to the set up of laboratories including special instrument room, microbiology room, wet laboratory, sample storage, offices, etc. will be prepared by Consultants in the very near future (October/November 1996) and distributed to all organisations. Use of level II+ laboratory specialised equipment. Few of the organisations upgrading or establishing Level II+ laboratories have given much thought as to how they will use new equipment such as AAS or GC. In many cases, organisations do not know the functions or capabilities of these items. Given that these are both expensive and sensitive instruments (thus requiring regular use and maintenance), some attention and planning for their use should be made before procurement. This planning will need to be consistent with the objectives of the water quality monitoring. Procurement of laboratory equipment. In all cases, equipment procurement should be tuned to the availability of laboratory space and trained staff who can use the equipment. For many organisations, timely procurement of laboratory equipment may be difficult if new laboratories are not yet completed (in several cases land acquisition is still not finalised and completion of construction may still take 2 years). If existing laboratories have sufficient space, new equip- ment procurement should proceed and equipment can immediately be used. Where existing space is not sufficient, or where completion of civil works is required, temporary space should be found if possible. Exceptions to this can exist if an organisation already has one established laboratory, and the need for additional laboratories is not completely justified (the Kerala Groundwater Department is an example). In such a case, it may be better to strengthen the existing laboratory and proceed in a step-wise manner to set-up new additional laboratories. In all cases, it is recommended that because they are quite sensitive instruments, the GC and AAS for Level II+ laboratories should only be installed in their permanent location. This may cause problems with the procurement schedule as required by the World Bank, if new building completion still needs several years.
  • 31. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 13 Sample Collection. Too little attention is being given to sample collection for water quality. Examples from surface water include lack of Dissolved Oxygen samplers at most of the CWC stations. Also, many groundwater organisations report collection of stagnant samples in some of the groundwater tube wells. In the future, procedures will have to be given more attention, especially as the analytical results of pollution related parameters (heavy metals and organic compounds) can be strongly affected by sampling and sample preservation procedures. In the groundwater departments, the introduction of new sampling procedures for tubewells using compressors or pumps will need attention, as will the use of field monitoring kits. Procedures for preserving and transporting samples to laboratories will also have to be established. Level I laboratories. More attention needs to be given to the functioning of Level I site labora- tories where measurements of temperature, and analyses of EC, pH, and Dissolved Oxygen are made. Field visits to some of the Level one labs indicated a variety of problems from sample collection to 'drifting' pH readings. Especially because the field observers carrying the water quality tasks probably do not have any background in making chemical measurements, one of the main (surface water) laboratory chemists should have responsibility for the functioning of Level I labs. There should be a regular program to visit/inspect Level I labs and provide needed assistance. Analytical Quality Control. Procedures for laboratory quality control as yet do not exist in any of the laboratories visited. Procedures will need to be established for quality assurance of results: within 1 laboratory (intra-laboratory control); between 2 or more laboratories of a single organisation (inter-laboratory control); and between laboratories of different organisations (also inter-laboratory control). These procedures will be necessary to ensure that results from different laboratories are comparable. It is, for example, quite possible that the analysis of the same sample in a CGWB laboratory and a SGWD laboratory could yield signifi- cantly different results, which hampers the development of a sound common data base of groundwater quality data in a state. Staffing. Many of the existing laboratories are understaffed with respect to qualified staff. At a number of agencies vacancies exist and there are difficulties in filling these. Given that labora- tories require specialist staff, these additional and vacant posts can generally not be filled through re-deployment. Many of the agencies indicate that vacancies at higher positions are typically filled by promotion, and new hires (if any) occur at the junior positions. This in many cases has resulted in staff with many years of experience, but no real expertise, initiative or motivation at the senior positions. Many of the State agencies have indicated that new laboratories to be established will probably be headed by transfers and promotions from the existing laboratories. Such procedures may result in laboratories that are not in charge of well qualified staff. In many cases, recommendations have been given to have new hires of well qualified chemistry staff with a minimum requirement of M.Sc. chemistry. Staff capabilities to tackle water quality problems need to be (further) developed in all agencies participating under the HP. This includes the capability to take up pollution studies and to use the results of water quality monitoring for the planning and implementation of water resources development and management measures. Few laboratory staff appear to be involved in further analysis of water quality data or in water quality studies. Often analysts know little of whatever use is made by their own or other agencies of the published water quality data. Feed-back between those who use the data and those who monitor the data appears to be extremely rare. Staff often appears to be frustrated due to a lack of career opportunities as a specialist and, perhaps more important, the pervasive lack of interest and priority of the higher echelons in water quality as an issue. The fact that almost all laboratories are under the command of (geo)hydrologists or civil engineers is often felt as a disadvantage, prohibiting proper interest
  • 32. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 14 for the subject. A general lack of (scientific) interest in water quality was often reported to exist in the higher echelons. Within the new Data Centre units at State and Central levels, a water quality specialist would need to be employed to: • undertake a primary analysis of historical and new water quality data; • prepare annually comprehensive overviews of the current state of water quality and the aquatic environment in the concerned state or region; • conduct in close cooperation with the chemists of the laboratories surface water and groundwater pollution studies; • initiate remedial action as the need arises. 3.5 Data base management and communication Surface water data. As concerns CWC, the manually or automatically recorded data are sent to the sub-divisional centers, where the data are to be computerized after routine validation. The validated data will be forwarded to the next level of hierarchy, i.e. data center at the division level where the data are to be further reviewed and validated and forwarded to the regional centres of CWC. For the states the final destination of the processed data are the state level data banks. The states will transfer some of the data to the national level to create a comprehensive national level data bank. Ground water data. Raw data are collected manually or through Automatic Water Level Recorders for a large number of observation wells at a pre-determined frequency. The frequency of manual observations is generally low. In CGWB, the data are generally sent directly to the regional offices for data entry and validation, from where the consolidated data are forwarded to the central office. In case of state GW boards, the data are collected at the district offices, entered into the computer after due validation and sent to State Data Centres via Regional offices. Status of computerisation in participating agencies. Some of the states and central agencies have made isolated attempts to computerize its hydrometric data. These attempts were largely due to personal initiatives and not based on any systematic programme, while the adopted systems are of little use for the project. There is a wide variation among the participating organizations in matters of computer proficiency, literacy and awareness, but whatever is there is insufficient to support the program without adequate further training. For example, there is little familiarization with operation in a Windows environment. The computer hardware available among the agencies is generally of little substance. It is observed that all available computers function as stand-alones and are MSDOS based. There are no file servers in use. Lotus-123 is often used for data-entry and data storage, while dBASE is used by exception. IMD has a computer center at Pune. The computer facilities are updated from time-to-time. It does not use database software for the storage and retrieval of the data. The CWC has just initiated its computerisation process. Software applications. Certain special application software is available with a few agencies. Several CGWB regional offices have the GIS based MODFLOW software for Ground Water Simulation Modeling. GIS peripherals and software are found in only a few places, but such software is not fully exploited either due to either lack of skill or missing modules.
  • 33. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 15 System design. System design and development calls for a high level of technical expertise, usage of appropriate development tools and adherence to standards. It is recommended to engage experienced developers who would function under close coordination of the concerned specialist project consultant. Hardware specifications. The SAR provides details of hardware sets to be procured for various operating levels of the project. Considering the speed of technological developments in computers, the specifications and cost estimates as given in the SAR need to be revised. Availability of well- defined specifications is essential to ensure compatibility among all the systems to be procured, and Consultants will provide the same as soon as possible. This will, however, require analysis of user requirements at various levels of the system (system requirements). The specification of the systems should be critically weighed against the users capability and requirements. Very sophisticated system may introduce negative factors like problems in systems maintenance, reduced user friendliness and a demanding operating environment. The problem of maintenance of equipment in remote areas with difficult accessibility should also be taken into account. Procurement.. The procurement schedule should be phased in line with the progress of other infrastructural development. The procurement and installation should also be coordinated with training. It is proposed to acquire some of the common and inexpensive systems at the beginning, mainly to be used for training and the transfer of historical data from paper to magnetic media. As the development of the systems at various levels takes place, the procurement of more specialized and expensive systems can progress simultaneously. Acceptance of systems. The consultants will lay down various checks and tests to be conducted for acceptance of different categories of computer equipment. These will consist of guidelines and procedures which will ensure that the supplied equipment is received as per specifications. The acceptance will cover both hardware and software so that there is complete uniformity and compatibility in the operation of the system among all the agencies. Installation of Systems. Draft specifications for space, power supply, environment and other conditions for various types of systems will be provided by the Consultants for approved by the specification committee of CWC and CGWB. Communication. The communication concept through computers is yet to be properly understood by the participating agencies. This applies to both communication within the agency and between agencies. In general the collector of information is the owner of the information. He controls the access to the information by data users, who gets the information in the form of papers, as the data are generally not stored on a magnetic medium. Consultants will examine the state-of-art of communication networks in India (which develops at high speed) and propose a compatible system, in order to achieve maximum benefits from the project. Manpower. The concept of a Data Center and its responsibility for data management is yet to be properly understood by the agencies. Normally, there is no trained staff available to manage the activities of the data centres to be established. Consultants will examine the volume of data inflow and accordingly suggest optimal manpower requirements for the Data Centres. The computerised database system will have several levels starting from data collection at the site, right upto the National Data Centres. It may be described at four operational levels, each with its specific staffing and training requirements: • data entry at collector level; • data supervisory staff; • database manager;
  • 34. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 16 • database systems administrator. Training.. The required training for HIS can be subdivided into the following categories: • familiarization training for the introduction of Pcs; • training of data entry operators; • training of middle level supervisors with limited knowledge of database trouble shooting and system functions; • systems managers with ability to do more complex tasks of database administration and maintenance. 3.6 Training services The project will introduce standard procedures for data collection, processing, validation and management including the use of software for routine quality control and general water resources analysis. The basic objectives of the training programme are: • to ensure that these standardised procedures are followed uniformly throughout the project area, and • to sustain the staff capabilities developed during the project period by continuous internal training within the agencies without further external support by institutionalising training. Specific issues noticed in the SAR and during the Inception fact finding are listed below. Most of these issues have to be on the agenda of the National and State Hydrology Training Committees (NHTC and SHTC) 3.6.1 Institutional setting for training • The National Hydrology Training Committee (NHTC) with members and representatives from the participating central and state agencies has the overall responsibility of the organisation of the training programme. Proposals for training courses, workshops and seminars would be reviewed and approved by NHTC to ensure standardisation of training materials and maintenance of training quality. • The training consultants function as advisors to the NHTC and State Hydrology Training Committees. The training consultants will assist NHTC in consolidating, monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of training. • Central and State level training institutes are as yet to be identified for Water Quality Monitoring, Data Base Management and Training Development. • The nomination of State Level Training Coordination Committee and Training Coordinators is as yet not completed. • As a matter of policy, all training for sub-professionals, and junior professionals who are large in number and who perform routine tasks, will take place at State level Institutes. Some National Institutes still prepare for nationwide Staff training. For instance, IMD proposed a four week course to about 2600 hydromet observers at the IMD training
  • 35. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 17 centres in Calcutta, Pune and Madras. Participation cost have been budgeted twice, both by the participating agencies and IMD. • Not all State level Water User Organisations arrange for the capacity to undertake selected parts of training development under own management. Training design, evaluation, selection and mobilisation of participants should definitely be kept in their own hands as these matters closely relate to in-house human resources development. Production of training materials may, in the HP context, take place at Central Institutes but site specific adaptations, translations etc. will always require some internal desktop publishing provisions. 3.6.2 Human resources development context for training • Training should, by definition, improve existing and new job-related skills, knowledge and attitudes. To secure this, all job descriptions for hydrology staff should be reviewed, amended and made available to the Training Institutes to serve as terms of reference for their work. This should avoid the tendency to overdevelop training courses into academic education programmes which do not really prepare for a particular job in an organisation. • Job descriptions are also needed for the new posts suggested in the HP. • Steps should be taken that trained personnel is retained for longer periods, without routine transfers. • Competent middle level professionals in each participating agency should be identified for deputation to the training of trainers programme. Selected candidates should have a personal interest in training and have basic communication skills. A career in training should not be promoted as a last option for redundant personnel. • Deputation to study tours and post-graduate courses may be used as incentives for staff with demonstrated professional interests and career prospects in hydrology.
  • 36. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 18 3.6.3 Technical validity of training contents and standardisation • Training contents should be based on standardised procedures, equipment, formats etc. • To agree on technical validity may appear a time consuming and sensitive exercise. Many parties have or may claim a say in the HP training contents. Strict production and review procedures will be set to avoid delays. • Most State Agencies already made preparations for staff training delivery, based upon the outline given in the SAR. They rely heavily on State WALMIs to coordinate and deliver their progammes, in particular at the junior level. It is not unlikely that some WALMIs will face managerial difficulties in combining all State hydrology staff training with ongoing commitments in regular irrigation related training. • Consultants informed the State agencies that the training programme would commence immediately after the standardisation workshop and Training of Trainer's. Some states nominated training coordinators and also took initiative to start basic computer course in their WALMIs. • Maharashtra has taken a singular lead in planning the training component for the state. A state level coordination sub-committee was constituted to oversee training. Four engineers were deputed in 1996 to post graduate courses in Hydrology/Water Resources. • As regional offices of CWC and CGWB expect Headquarters to develop training the regional offices did not work out any training plan. • Equipment related training (operation, maintenance) should be arranged through suppliers and related clauses should be included in the tender documents. 3.6.4 Delivery planning • Training delivery can effectively commence after the redeployment of staff within the participating agencies. This was also stressed during the NLSC meeting on July 24, 1996. • Training in hydrological observations should be scheduled in the lean pre-or post-monsoon periods, to avoid disruption of ongoing work. • Data entry and data management course modules are for those who have undergone basic computer course module. This was also suggested by the Chairman of the NLSC meeting on July 24, 1996. • Normally, senior professionals would not be available for more than one full training week. Training duration also has its limits at lower staff levels. For example, the proposed hydromet observers course by IMD (for automatic and standard rain gauges) is preferably reduced from four to two or three weeks. • Approvals for overseas study tours usually take about 4 months. • The daily allowance given to the trainees is usually less than their daily expenditures on board and lodging at the hosting Training Institutes.
  • 37. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 19 • Proposals for training equipment and related transport facilities do not always fit with the actual training delivery workloads • In each State two stream gauging stations should be developed and available as training stations where the whole range of gauging practices could be demonstrated during on-the- job training. 3.6.5 Entry and exit qualifications • For each course, the minimum eligibility criteria should be clearly stated. These include the participants educational background, present job title and prospected job responsibilities. Successful completion of a training module could also be a prerequisite for admission to the next, f.i.: basic computer skills training should be completed prior to courses on data entry. • In case of sequential training or personal training paths, steps must be taken that the related jobholder actually proceeds through all training modules available for a particular function. In-between training courses, on-the-job coaching by first-in-line supervisors should take place. • Application of entry qualifications will result in homogeneous groups of participants which helps trainers to keep momentum in training delivery. Where more advanced participants are mixed with average groups, trainers should make use of such persons as assistants in the training process. All courses and training events will include evaluation elements. This is not necessarily a formal test. For lower level staff, guided exercises provide enough clues to find out whether trainees mastered particular skills or not. For professionals, presentations, assignments, quizzes, homework, participation in discussion groups etc. are alternatives for formal testing which can be easily integrated in the training itself and avoid the feeling of being school-tested (again). Training evaluation is often limited to trainee evaluation and certification. The Project will promote the practice to extend evaluation coverage to the trainers, training materials and organisational aspects. This would help to take follow up decisions towards HP training standards. 3.7 Project Management Support The important issues related to management support of the project are of different nature. One group of issues involves the institutional setting of the Project itself, coordination arrangements, and the relationship between external and internal monitoring. The second group of issues deals with the management information system being developed by the Consultant to provide a monitoring tool for the coordinating authorities of the Project (State nodal officers, SMCs, Consultant head office, PCS). The third group of issues relates to project activities, in particular the status of activity and procurement plans for 1996-1997.
  • 38. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 20 3.7.1 Institutional setting of the Project Activity plans. States prepared their activity plans, their budgets and their status and progress reports all in a different way. In order to enhance coordination and cooperation, each State should prepare one combined HIDAP document for 1997-1998 to ensure that the same formats are used and activities are adequately planned and coordinated. The Consultants will provide a format for the HIDAP. The production of one plan per State is expected to strengthen the role of the State Level Coordination Committees. The Consultant learned that in most of the states no time tables were made for the implementation of the procurement plans. As a consequence the construction of civil works, the procurement and installation of equipment, and the availability of skilled staff to operate the sites/laboratories/offices are not properly tuned to each other. Specific action plans are required, not only to dove-tail the activities but also to be able to monitor the progress and to be able to identify the bottlenecks in the development process. On request by the Consultant such activity plans were made, showing per activity a month-wise sequence of steps for the establishment of civil works, the installation and testing of the equipment, and the selection and training of staff. Generally, it appears that these activity plans are rather optimistic about the progress. A monthly update of the actual progress will help the State and central organisations to prepare more realistic action plans for the next fiscal year. Short-term consultancy. Several States indicated that they require a short-term consultancy to prepare civil works specifications and tender documents, to develop standard reservoir gauging procedures, etc. The Consultant should indicate how much short-term consultancy each year can be provided to the States. In October, the Consultants will approach each State to work out their specific requirements to be included in the Terms of Reference. Required assistance will be provided accordingly. Project Monitoring . Indicators to measure project results (progress and impact) should be discussed and agreed upon by the States, the Central Government and the donors. The set of four development objectives of the project and the related indicators, as was included in annex 12 of the SAR, was recently updated by the World Bank (letter dated 8 August). However, these indicators are not easy to verify objectively. The Consultant proposes to organise a workshop to discuss the concept of the Hydrology Project. This should address institutional development including its short-term and long-term objectives. The indicators to verify whether goals have been accomplished should be defined and agreed upon. This may involve (elements of) Logical Framework Analysis and Objected Oriented Project Planning. External monitoring . The final report of the Interim Consultant includes Terms of Reference (TOR) for monitoring the Hydrology Project. This would be done on a separate contract between the Government of the Netherlands and an external Consultant, termed the HIDAP Monitoring Consultant. With a well designed management information system expected to be underway in the present Project, the most effective monitoring of HIDAP progress will be done in the Project. Therefore, notwithstanding the possible benefit of having the present Consultant's progress monitored externally, it would appear that this external monitoring can easily result in duplication. Moreover, aforementioned TOR present a schedule for monitoring activities which is not entirely congruent with the annual project cycle proposed in the present
  • 39. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 21 Inception Report. At the very least, any external monitoring contract should ensure that the monitoring schedule will not affect the project cycle. Rather, monitoring should conform to the process of project implementation. 3.7.2 Management Information System. The design and development of a Management Information System that is effective and compatible across the project elements is affected by the following conditions. Lack of standardisation in documents. The procurement and establishment of all the elements for the project period are given in the SAR annexes on project cost estimates for all the participating agencies. These documents therefore form the basic plan for the project. There is a lack of standardisation and uniformity among the participating agencies in the organisation of these plan documents. The MIS, which has to derive information by matching achievement against planning, therefore cannot be implemented until the plan documents are organised for easy analysis. The formats for review by WB and coordinating committee should be finalised based on quantified data available with the MIS, so that appropriate programs can be developed to produce those outputs. Non-existence of data communication facilities. The data communication channel is yet to be established to connect the different elements of the Project within and between the participating States. Non-existence of MIS at the agency level. The systems study and analysis for developing an MIS at the agency level have not yet been undertaken, although similar study has been conducted at the PCS level. The agency level systems should be designed in a manner which, in addition to meeting the monitoring needs of the States, should also be able to generate monitoring information required by the PCS. Non-availability of computing resources. None of the participating agencies, including the PCS, has so far procured any computer system for implementing a computer based MIS. Also, adequate and qualified staff have not yet been earmarked for development and maintenance of such systems. Under these conditions, the following critical factors determining success of MIS operation are identified: • The success is primarily dependent on the efficiency of the participating agencies furnishing the input information. It is essential that State Management Consultants play a key role in assisting and motivating the state coordination bodies in furnishing inputs with desired accuracy and timeliness. • It is essential to commence designing an MIS for state/agency level operations. Other than enhancing the progress of the project, it will also widen the monitoring scope at other levels of the project.
  • 40. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 3: Implementation Issues Page 3 - 22 • Care should be taken to ensure compatibility and uniformity of computer systems to be used for the MIS. The specifications for the hardware, software, programming tools, and system design should be decided centrally by a team to ensure complete compatibility and uniform expandability. 3.7.3 Project Activities for 1996-97 Procurement plans. Almost without exception no procurements took place in 1995/96. Hence, for the fiscal year 1996/1997 the procurements scheduled for the first two years of the Hydrology Project have generally been clubbed by the various organisations. However, since approved funds have not actually been released, the implementing organisations will continue to be unable to proceed with listed procurements. Generally, the procurement plans were simply copied from the SAR and little effort was put in a re-evaluation of the plans to assure that they be properly tuned to the current need. Often the staff was unaware of the need for certain laboratory equipment. Proper site selections was often not carried out, and plans appeared to be based only on rough estimates. This may easily lead to failures: e.g. stilling wells and AWLRs inadequate to gauge the full range of water levels, or cable way spans not matching the river widths. Insufficient attention has been given to new developments in hydrometry. New types of sensors and dataloggers often require less expensive housing, and facilitate data entry directly into the database. Therefore, they may in the long run be more cost effective. The Consultant strongly recommends that procurement of expensive and location dependent equipment be postponed until site inspections are done. In a number of cases new office buildings will be established to accommodate data centres and laboratories. Their design, approval, tendering and construction may take several years to complete. It is therefore required that temporary arrangements be made in order not to delay the full implementation of the HIS. As the Project started one year late, the States and Central Organisations clubbed the hydrometeorology procurement schedule for the first two years. While Meteorological instruments specifications are available, actual replacements need to be evolved after inspections. The Consultant recommends that joint inspection by IMD and States be undertaken early. In summary, it is Consultant's view that for the current year only those civil works should be constructed and equipment procured which are easily applicable at other sites, properly designed, and inexpensive. In all other cases a re-evaluation is necessary.
  • 41. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 1 Chapter 4 Project Management Support 4.1 The process approach applied in the Project The process approach described in the SAR and the Consultant's proposal implies that Project plans will be critically reassessed before and during implementation. In technical terms, the Staff Appraisal Report provides the framework and overall cost estimates to develop an adequate Hydrological Information System. However, important attention is to be given to the dynamics of implementation. A process approach allows the Project to make use of insights being gained during implementation regarding the required structure and dimension of the network and the HIS. Thus, solutions to occurring problems will be devised and improvements will be implemented. Based upon the capacity and achievements of each State, the implementation of activities could be stepped up or scaled down. Appropriate phasing of the various components is very important. The Consultant will guide and support this process. The HIS is based upon standard procedures, uniform formats and parameters, model structures of data centres and recommended set-up of labs, uniform training modules and materials, etc. This does not contradict the proclaimed flexibility of the process approach of the project. Flexibility pertains to the process of shaping the system, not to flexible ways of taking the measurements. Project plans and budgets ultimately remain at the discretion of the States. These should not be simply copied from the SAR without determining what actually is required or feasible. 4.2 The concept of institutional development It appears that different views and expectations exist among States, GOI, World Bank and the Consultant regarding the outcome of the project in terms of institutional performance and sustainability. The expected results and how this can be measured (impact indicators) should be discussed and clarified by the concerned agencies. Once a start has been made on implementation of the physical components of the project, and administrative procedures have been established, the development of a Hydrological Information System will be discussed in more conceptual terms at a workshop with the State and Central agencies. 4.3 The annual project cycle In the process approach there are no milestones attached to specific types and elements of progress -- the ultimate objective is clear, but the route towards it and the speed at which it is to be attained remains dependent on review of actual progress "on the ground". Therefore, a method for managing Project progress has been adopted that focuses not on physical outputs but on the process of development, more specifically on the annual project cycle. In this cycle, planning, budgeting and review are executed according to an agreed time schedule. States are to prepare an annual Hydrological Institutional Development Action Plan (HIDAP), which serves as a reference document for project implementation. The HIDAP constitutes the annual workplan and budget,
  • 42. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 2 and will include all activities to develop the HIS. Not only works and procurement, staffing and training, but also other activities regarding institutional strengthening must be part of a workplan. State agencies are to prepare their plans and budgets in January, submit these early February to the State Government, NLSC, and the World Bank and then discuss and finalise the plans and budgets with them in March, before the start of the new financial year on April 1. In September/ October, the implementing agencies shall prepare a semi-annual progress report and carry out an internal project review. In addition to the Consultant's review of HIDAPs and general Project implementation, culminating in recommendations for action to the PCS, there will be an annual external project review executed by an independent consultant. The combination of activities by the implementing agencies, the Project Consultant, the external consultant, and the funding agencies results in the following annual cycle of activities. September Inception Report (by consultants) October internal project review (by States) November meeting for Annual Project Review (with the WB) December States to prepare draft workplans 1997-1998 (draft HIDAP) January workshop to coordinate State workplans (with PCS and consultants) February States to finalise workplans and budgets (by States) March submission to State Governments for approval (final HIDAP) April budget approval by State Government per April, 1(by States) May semi-annual progress reports Q4 and Q1 (by States & PCS) July external project review (by independent consultant) September semi-annual progress report Q2 and Q3 (by States & PCS) October internal project review (by States) November meeting for Annual Project Review (with the WB) December States to prepare workplans 1998-1999 (draft HIDAP) 4.4 Organization of the Technical Assistance As described above, the Consultant provides technical assistance at two levels. First, at the level of implementation, the Consultant will advise and support the State and central organizations in optimizing observation networks and harmonizing data processing and management. At this level, the Consultant will advise on technical specifications, information system development, and on institutional aspects. Also, the Consultant will develop National and State Level training capacity, introduce training quality systems, and monitor delivery of training courses and events. Second, at the level of administrative coordination, the Consultant will provide advisory support to the PCS. To carry out these responsibilities the Consultant team is organized into four Task Groups: Task Group I: Project support in the States Task Group II: Technical services Task Group III: Institutional development Task Group IV: Training services
  • 43. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 3 Task Group I comprises the State Management Consultants (SMC), who report directly to a Task Group Manager (TGM). TGM-1 would stay in regular contact with the SMC, advise other team members and Project management on actions to be taken, etc. He would also coordinate correspondence on behalf of the Project with the State. The Task Groups II, III, and IV are also each headed by a Task Group Manager. Overall coordination and management is the responsibility of the Team Leader, as well as high-level liaison with GOI and the donor/funding agencies. For day-to-day operations the Task Groups will function more or less independently, albeit of course with frequent interaction among the different team members, to ensure maximum coordination of all TA activities taking place in the participating agencies. However, a special relationship exists between the Team Leader and Task Group Manager III, who will work very closely in the planning and implementation of the consultancy activities, to ensure that technical contributions are cast in the proper institutional framework. . 4.5 State Management Consultants The Project is represented in each of the participating States by a State Management Consultant (SMC) supported by adequate support staff. The SMC is generally a retired senior member of the State civil service, or of similar stature. As of October 1, 1996, the SMCs are in place in all Project States. Because of the size of the project area and diversity of the organisations involved, the role of the SMC is of crucial importance to the success of the Project. Consultant staff located in New Delhi will of course endeavour to pay frequent visits to the Project States. However, experience in the identification mission for the present Inception Report has shown that it takes a minimum of eight weeks to visit all States on any given subject of substance. Hence, much of the contact between the centrally located staff of the Consultant and the individual organisations in the States will have to be channelled through central workshops (if possible). The workshop approach will not only contribute to the efficiency of central Consultant input, it will also provide a significant boost to effectiveness, in that the workshop setting provides an opportunity for exchange of information and experiences between participants from different States, thus enhancing the aspect of integration of the Hydrology Information System. In this setting, the SMC would be the eyes and ears of the Consultant staff in New Delhi, not only in the preparation for the workshops and other meetings, but also to reinforce the message and to Team Leader TGM 1 _____________ Project Support in States TGM 3 _____________ Institutional Development TGM 2 _____________ Technical Services TGM 4 _____________ Training Services
  • 44. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 4 provide feedback upon return of State participants to their respective States. Within this general perception of the role of the SMCs in coordinating, communicating and monitoring, their more specific responsibilities are inter alia: • become fully familiar with the State Action Plan, the training program and other implementation aspects of the Project; • liaise between State Government and Project headquarters on technical and organisational matters ; • stimulate establishment and maintain liaison with the Hydrological Data User Group (HDUG); • collect technical and management information relevant to the Project and organise a technical library at the State Project Office; • arrange technical discussions between the Project and State Government authorities and prepare missions from Consultant headquarters; • provide necessary background information on technical aspects; • undertake inspection visits to assess the progress of implementation; • monitor the quality of items procured under the Project; • report weekly to Project headquarters on development in the States. 4.6 Management information system for monitoring project activities 4.6.1 Introduction A significant element in the responsibilities of the SMCs is their involvement in monitoring. To be able to assess progress on the different Project components, the Consultant is developing a management information system (MIS). This system would provide important information to the Project Coordination Secretariat on progress in the different implementing organisations, and would thus enable the PCS to take necessary action. In keeping with the facilitating nature of the Consultant's role, it is envisaged that this system will ultimately be absorbed by the State and Central participants in the Project. However, in the short term the Consultant will not confine his activities to design and introduction of the system, but will shoulder part of the operational responsibility. The responsibility for data collection on Project implementation in the different organisations will ultimately lie with the State nodal officers. These would pursue the implementing organisations to submit reports regularly, and would conduct data validation at the State level. At least initially, the State nodal officers would be supported by the Project's SMCs. These SMCs would assist the nodal officers in the process of data management and data processing to the extent required. However, it should be noted that the SMCs are not themselves MIS experts. The main thrust of their support will lie in motivating State organisations to supply the required information on time. As to the more technical aspects of MIS support, this may be ensured (temporarily) by installing the requisite computers at the State Data Centres.
  • 45. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 5 The SMC will assist the nodal officers in conveying the data to the Consultant's headquarters, where it will be checked and validated before entering into the central MIS computer. Ultimately, this will be the responsibility of PCS staff, possibly staff seconded to PCS from the CWC or CGWB. To assist PCS in absorbing this responsibility, a work station will be provided at Consultant headquarters for PCS staff to be deputised there for data management, data processing, and also, in close collaboration with the Consultant, data analysis and interpretation. The main objective of the MIS is to monitor the establishment of the infrastructure as per the project plan. The basic aspects of the project to be monitored are : • timeliness of completion of activities; • procurement of materials and establishment of sites as per specifications; • institutional strengthening involving training, staffing, organisation and methods development. In the Process Approach, the monitored progress is periodically evaluated against the goal of setting up an infrastructure, which will support the establishment of reliable, sustainable, and easily accessible databases for water resources meeting the requirement of the users. This evaluation may result in modification of the plan of action. 4.6.2 Monitoring the Project Monitoring Organisations The monitoring process for this infrastructure establishment has a number of angles and levels depending on the type of agency viewing the progress. Presently the following agencies/institutions are directly involved with monitoring the progress of the project: The World Bank (WB). The WB as the funding agency is responsible for: • reviewing and approving the Procurement Schedule/annual plans; • providing Standard documents for all procurement operations; • conducting review of procurement decisions through prior or post or • field reviews according to the nature and size of contracts; • ensuring the proportionality of the physical progress with fund disbursement; • Assessing the achievement of the project objectives; The monitoring parameters for discharging these responsibilities are currently in a conceptual stage. The abstractions on performance indicators were listed in various documents. These documents, however, do not provide a concrete and formalised format based on quantified data inputs suitable for objective monitoring of the progress. The WB's monitoring function is currently done at half yearly and annual reviews. Government of India (through PCS). The GOI exercises its monitoring function through NLSC and NCC. The interface of these organisations with the participating agencies is provided through PCS. In fact, the PCS also acts as the interface between the GOI and WB. The monitoring function of PCS, therefore, is of critical importance. In the case of the participating agencies in the States, the monitoring information for PCS needs to be furnished through the nodal officer. The central agencies will furnish the information directly to the PCS.
  • 46. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 6 Project Consultant. The Project Consultant's monitoring role is exercised through the inputs obtained from two components the implementing agencies in the participating States (through the SMCs), and the central agencies (through the PCS). The SMCs have no direct or indirect executive authority over the participating agencies and no independent infrastructure to gather information on such a large scale. Therefore, they must confine their monitoring activities within the limitations imposed by the willingness and capabilities of the implementing organisations in the States. Participating States and Agencies. The most detailed monitoring is required to be exercised by the participating agencies. In fact, all the monitoring information that is forwarded to the WB or GOI by the implementing organisations should ideally be a subset of the information system maintained by these organisations. There has not been any organised effort yet to formalise a monitoring system for these agencies. Levels of Monitoring Functions From the above it is seen that there exists a hierarchy of the monitoring activity. The information becomes more abstract as it is consolidated up the hierarchical levels both for the GOI as well as for the Project Consultant's organisation. Table 1 below outlines the three monitoring levels and their characteristics. No. User Nature of Information Frequency Usage 1 Participating agencies and SMCs Very detailed monitoring of individual project elements Monthly Direct control and monitoring by the project coordinating committees. 2 PCS Summary from the States Quarterly Coordination committee meeting and monitoring by PCS Project Consultant's head office Reasonably detailed Monthly or fortnightly Monitoring 3 World Bank NLSC NCC Summary with emphasis on overall progress and budgetary provisions Semi-annually Monitoring of project implementation, fund utilisation, and disbursement Achievement of the project objectives and policy issues Table 4 - 1: Monitoring Hierarchy 4.6.3 Brief characteristics of the proposed MIS Generation of Source Data. Ideally speaking, the same data should not be allowed to enter and be processed separately in an organisation. Other than multiplicity of efforts, it also degrades the credibility of a system when the variation of outputs produced by different processing channels are noticed by the users. For the MIS of this project, the participating agency level data should form the basic inputs. These inputs can be processed at the agency level to provide management information at that level. In addition, the required outputs for the higher levels of this project i.e. the WB and NCC, can also be generated from this basic source data to form the inputs for their MISs. The SMCs, in consultation with the state coordination committees, are responsible for deciding on the input structure which will serve their respective requirements.
  • 47. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 7 System at the Agency Level. The MIS at the level of the participating agency should be most detailed and elaborate, keeping track of all the activities, progress, budgeting and planning relevant to every unit. The frequency could be weekly or monthly depending on the state of communication and achievement of measurable progress. An integrated system with elements of database, project management, accounting and personnel system should be designed at the agency level. System at the PCS Level. The MIS at the PCS level may consist of a summary of progress and fund disbursement. The frequency of input could be quarterly, which could be enhanced in future with the improvement of data communication facilities. This MIS should also be able to generate relevant reports and reviews for NCC as well as for the WB. 4.6.4 Strategy for MIS Development It is proposed that the MIS for the project should be developed in an incremental manner. Considering the fact that the system study for PCS is nearly completed, it is proposed to set up the nucleus of the MIS at the PCS. The frequency of input can be kept quarterly and a simplified information format can be designed initially. Before the establishment of data communication channels, these inputs can be sent by the participating agencies on floppy diskettes. The format and structure of these inputs may be finalised after consulting the nodal officers from these agencies. This system will be implemented on a trial basis and refined subsequently. An analysis of the plans submitted by the participating agencies reveals the following grouping of project elements: Expansion and Upgrading of Hydrometric Facilities • Upgrading Data Collection Infrastructure • Upgrading of Data Management Research and Development • Reservoir Instrumentation & Management • Monitoring Return Flows • Real Time Water Resources Management • Water Balance and Acquifer Recharge Institutional Strengthening • Training • Staffing • Facilities establishment Among these categories, the initial focus for monitoring will involve civil works and equipment procurement in relation to expansion and upgrading of the hydrometric system, which is the core activity for this project. The R&D activities represent only a small segment of the project. They can therefore be excluded for the time being. The procurement of equipment and facilities construction for R & D needs to be viewed in terms of approved R & D projects, which are yet to be finalised. Items listed under institutional strengthening need a separate MIS module. Thus, definition of the measurable and simplified milestones for the expansion and upgrading activities only, and design of an input format, will allow the most important segment of the project to be monitored effectively. Before the commencement of quarterly returns from the agencies, the plans submitted by them have to be reorganised in a standardised manner for which the codes have already been evolved. The input format, as mentioned earlier, will be finalised in consultation with representatives of the implementing organisations.
  • 48. ___________________________________________________________________________ _Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 4: Project Management Support Page 4 - 8 During the development stage, before the PCS acquires the personnel and equipment for running its MIS, the system could be established at the Consultant's head office in New Delhi. The quarterly inputs from the participating agencies could be obtained through the PCS. The data could be processed under the supervision of the Consultant and reports generated as per specifications. This would furnish the PCS with its desired monitoring information and the information for WB reviews. When fully developed, the MIS at the agency level would be in a position to transfer this information through data communication channels from their own databases without the need for manual transfer. Subsequently, increasing input frequency from quarterly to monthly may be considered. Thus the incremental development has to be planned in such a way that it grows in a controlled manner and assimilates the introduction of new technologies into the system. A major activity in support of institutional strengthening is training, which involves training institutions earmarked for this activity. The training module of the MIS should therefore include the plans and capacities of these institutions. The format of input for this activity is to be designed in consultation with these institutions and training consultants. Similarly, staffing functions are complicated by the variations in staffing policies among the states. The MIS module on staffing must be evolved after studying these variations, to create a system that gives simplified information relevant to effective project monitoring.
  • 49. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 1 Chapter 5 Activities for the first year of the Consultancy 5.1 Introduction In the effective implementation of the Project Consultancy four phases are distinguished: • Inception Phase, to do the necessary groundwork for Project implementation, including development of the organisational framework and planning of project activities. • Development Phase, comprising standardisation of procedures and the design of the Hydrological Information System including development of staff training curricula and planning. • Implementation Phase, in which the procedures and designed structures are gradually being implemented, and • Consolidation Phase, including support activities to arrive at sustainable operation of the Hydrological Information System. All participating Central and State organisations will go through all four phases, but the duration and timing of each phase will depend on the development in each particular organisation and State. The progress and timing with respect to these phases will be monitored in the Annual Project Cycle. Based on the findings of Consultant's meetings with the state and central organizations and with the HDUGs a number of areas have been identified in which the Consultant can assist in the implementation of the Hydrology Project. In the sections below, support activities are discussed. Related activity time schedules are provided in Section 5.9.
  • 50. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 2 5.2 General Support to Project Implementation 5.2.1 Project Management support Strengthening general Project Management. The consultant's support during the first half year shall be concentrated on strengthening general project management of the implementing organisations. A central PM workshop will be organised for Nodal officers and (partially combined with) State Management Consultants. Objective is to improve integrated planning of civil works, procurement of equipment, and posting and training of staff through use of detailed activity bar charts. The workshop will involve: • explanation of Annual Project Cycle, (basic time schedule for project implementation); • presentation of 'process approach' and status of SAR; • presentation of MIS formats for planning, budgeting and reporting; • role of the consultants and the State Management Consultant. Preparation and implementation of the supporty entails: • developing and finalizing Project Management Information System (PMIS) and formats; • organizing and conducting the Project Management workshop; • demonstration-cum-training on utilization of PMIS formats and software; • assisting States to install and operationalise the MIS; • project support and monitoring by State Management consultants. (Participants in workshop: Nodal Officers and State Management Consultants) Annual Project Review. In November each year, the donors agencies will conduct a joint review of Project activities do date. The Consultant will make preparations for this review and ensure that outcomes will be incorporated in the cyclical planning characterising the process approach. Specifically, the Consultant will: • prepare format for Progress Reports; • compile and prepare Progress Report (Q4 and Q1); • prepare guidelines for internal project review; • assist States to undertake review (with state-assigned consultant); • compile and prepare Progress Report (Q2 and Q3); • organise Annual Project Review workshop (with World Bank mission). 5.2.2 Facilitation of financial disbursements and billing • This activity should contribute to a better understanding of the process in order to be able to make recommendations for improving the efficiency of the budgeting, approvals, disbursements, billing, and claims procedures. In this connection, the possibility of establishing a Revolving Fund has been raised by a number of participating States.
  • 51. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 3 5.2.3 Data needs assessment with Hydrological Data User Groups (HDUG) The objective of this exercise is to provide or check on the extent of data collection and dissemination, so that it remains demand driven. In this exercise, small interview teams will assess the mandates and hydrological data needs of the potential users. This will provide an important input to the design of the observation netware and the database and processing procedures: • develop draft questionnaire; • assist HDUG to conduct interviews with data users; • review State reports on Hydrological Data Needs; • prepare summary report; • organise workshop with data producers to address identified data needs. 5.2.4 Preparatory Planning workshop (Planning for HIDAPs) Objective of the workshop is to identify the elements of HIDAP, assist in development of formats for combined State work plan and budget, discuss Project inputs, and prepare the States for integrated planning for HP in the regular budget preparation and implementation process. Activities for the workshops will involve ((Participants: 3-5 persons per State): • developing format for combined State HIDAP 1997-98; • organising 2 workshops for Nodal Officers, representatives from State Finance Departments, and senior staff of State agencies; • finalise formats for use by the States. 5.2.5 Preparation of Hydrological Institution Development Action Plans The objective is to explore the concept of ID in the Project and to identify required action in this field. Issues to be addressed: • specification of mandates of hydrological data producers, and improving services to hydrological data users; • strengthening integrated planning; • inter-agency cooperation between State SW, GW and WQ organisations In preparation of the workshop the States should draft one combined HIDAP document for 1997- 1998, using formats and structures disseminated in the Preparatory Planning Workshops. This is expected to strengthen the role of the State Level Coordination Committee.
  • 52. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 4 Project activities to prepare and carry out the workshop will involve (Participants: Nodal Officers, State Finance Departments, SMCs): • reviewing the draft HIDAP and suggest modifications; • organising and conducting the HIDAP workshop to coordinate State plans; • finalizing HIDAP and submitting to State Government with copy to NLSC (by the States) 5.2.6 Organisational analysis of State Implementing Agencies The objective is to identify possibilities for strengthening of implementing organisations. It will involve an in-depth organisation analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) for sample SW and GW organisations, so that the relative strengths of these organizations in different areas may be identified and proposed for more general adoption in order to achieve an overall improvement in organizational effectiveness. This will entail the following activities: • SWOT analysis in 1 or 2 States; • reporting findings and recommendations; • assisting States in implementation of recommendations. 5.2.7 Review of staff requirements The review of staffing requirements will deal with quantitative as well as qualitative issues. It will involve: • manpower planning (and required budget); • job descriptions, training needs; • training programme (and required budget). The review is carried out in the context of a study into possibilities for streamlining organizational structures and procedures in a more general sense (Organisation Development). This broader issue involves: • organisational set-up of the State Water Data Centre; • cooperation or integration of the SW and GW organisations; • position of Hydrology Wing in relation to other WRD activities; • cost-efficient set-up of (sub-)divisional offices and gauging stations. Project activities for organisational strengthening will include: • preparing an OD approach for State SW and GW organisations; • reporting on findings and recommendations for follow-up; • circulating report to States for feedback.
  • 53. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 5 5.2.8 Project impact monitoring Objective would be to discuss project monitoring and to determine the indicators for success. How to measure whether an integrated Hydrological Information System (HIS) is achieved, and whether institutions have been strengthened. This could be done through a Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) with the Nodal Officers in an OOPP workshop. This would involve: • stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objectives analysis; • formulating long-term and short-term objectives (and what will not be included); • defining indicators to measure success (milestones; means of verification). Project activities for the preparation and implementation of the workshop will entail: • assessing views and expectations of Central, State and funding agencies; • drafting document on concept, objectives and indicators of Institution Development; • organising and conducting workshop with States, based on Logical Framework Analysis; • developing impact monitoring system.
  • 54. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 6 5.3 Hydrological Information System Although the ongoing procurement activities conflict to some extent with an ideal sequence of steps to set up a Hydrological Information System (HIS) fully tuned to the user requirements, Consultant's Workplan is phased in such a manner that a speedy convergence to the ideal line is achieved. Therefore, with high priority Consultant's will assist in the execution of the following activities: • Assessment of hydrological data needs • Overall structuring of the HIS 5.3.1 Assessment of hydrological data needs At the various meetings of HDUG in most of the Project States, it was gathered that assistance from the Consultant would be required to properly identify the respective dataneeds of the users (for GW as well as for SW). The States suggested that the Consultant prepare a draft questionnaire for consideration by the duely constituted HDUGs. HDUG will then constitute interview teams, comprising both state representatives and Consultants, to get a proper profile of the data user, including mandates, water use, and data requirements. 5.3.2 Overall structuring of the HIS Prior to the review of the standards and procedures for monitoring and processing, the overall structure of the HIS has to be able to specify the stream of data and the responsibilities of the officers/offices involved in the HIS. In Chapter 2 a structure for the HIS has been proposed, based on a central database per state with dedicated systems at the satellite stations. This modular set up ensures great flexibility in the development, extension and maintenance of the database and of its use. It is proposed that the overall structure of the HIS is discussed in a workshop by late November 1996. The following activities have been identified: Draft document on HIS Structure. Consultant will draft a document on the proposed structure of the HIS with alternatives. This document should address the following topics: • identification of all components of the HIS; • main structure and functioning of the database; • specification of user interfaces; • communication between the components, at three levels: within the organization, within the state and nation-wide; • responsibilities for data entry, transfer, primary and secondary validation, data processing within the organization and between the state/central organizations per state; • technical and legal aspects of data dissemination; • overall responsibilities for the operation of the HIS. Workshop on HIS structure. A workshop is proposed to discuss proposals for the overall structure for the HIS based on the draft document drawn up by the Consultant. The Workshop is meant for the nodal officers and the proposed chiefs of the data centres. Output of the workshop should be:
  • 55. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 7 • an agreed overall structure of the HIS • formation of a task force for the design of dedicated data processing systems, communication network and the database • formation of a task force for the design of the user interfaces
  • 56. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 8 5.4 Surface Water and Hydrometeorology Based on the Missions findings during the Inception Phase it is considered essential that Task Group II (Surface Water), provides input in the following fields: • Design and operation of the monitoring network; • Design and operation of the data centres; • Assistance in the preparation of the HIDAP; • Training; • Research and development. In each field a number of activities are discerned, which are elaborated below. Where appropriate the activities will be implemented in an iterative way. This implies that first experience is gained on the applicability of a methodology in one state. The approach is subsequently discussed in a workshop in which all state and central surface water organizations as well as the IMD participate, prior to its implementation in all other states. 5.4.1 Design and operation of the monitoring network Network design. In view of the existence of a network, the activities meant under network design aim at a review of the network (meteorological and hydrological network). As these reviews are a continuous process in view of the ever changing HDU requirements, a procedure will be developed to guide the present and future reviews. The procedure will be designed based on the network in selected representative river basins. This procedure will be put forward in a workshop to train the other states in the same procedure. Consultants' activities include: • Review/redesign of the surface water and meteorological network in a selected river basin, where the selection is based on the availability of sufficient historical data, and preparation of a document. • Presentation of the design procedure in the workshop on network design • Assistance to the implementation of network design procedure in all states (on-the-job training). Site selection. At short notice guidelines are required for proper site and equipment selection of hydrological stations, with due regard to the hydraulic and morphological conditions. Furthermore the Consultant will assist the implementing authorities in the site selection of key stations, where expensive equipment is going to be installed. Since the matter has an urgent character short term experts will be required for the latter job. The activities include: • Drafting of guidelines based on a review of existing instructions available with CWC, WM., ISO etc. • Site selection, field visits to approximately 10 to 15 key stations in the states. Design of civil works. Standard designs for civil works will speed up the upgrading and establishment of stations and ease the maintenance. The Consultant will prepare in collaboration with CWC and the Surface Water Organizations standard designs for AWLR-housings, cable ways, site-stores and buildings.
  • 57. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 9 Equipment specification. Specification of the standard equipment was prepared by the specification committees of CWC and CGWB with assistant of Consultants. Some additional specifications are required with respect to specific equipment. Review/design of standards for monitoring, processing and data dissemination. One of the major objectives of the HP is the standardization of procedures for monitoring, data processing and data dissemination. The Mission concluded that the presently applied monitoring procedures need to be reviewed, whereas data validation procedures need to be further developed. Based on the latest views with respect to monitoring, data processing and dissemination the Consultant will prepare a document with proposed standards for the various fields. In a workshop planned for December 1996 these standards will be discussed. The following topics will be included: • standards for sampling of climatic parameters • standards for stage and stream gauging • special stream gauging techniques for mountainous rivers • standards for sediment sampling • standards for bed material sampling • layout of field sheets (meteorology/hydrology) • digitization of charts • reading and testing of dataloggers • data transfer • coding of stations and parameters • formats for data entry • content of primary and secondary validation procedures • data storage and processing procedures • data presentation and dissemination procedures • rating curves and extension of rating curves • O&M of instruments. Consultants will assist with drafting the standard procedures and facilitate workshops to review the standards. Outputs of the workshop will be agreed procedures for sampling and processing in the Hydrological Information System. Equipment installation, testing and maintenance . The Consultant proposes to provide input of experts on the installation of special/new equipment, including its testing for acceptance and guidance of equipment maintenance (in follow-up to training course). 5.4.2 Design and operation of the data centres Specification of hardware and software for hydrological applications. The Consultant will draw up, keeping in view the design of dedicated processing systems, the specifications for the hardwa- re and software. The software refers to the packages for validation and processing of hydrological and meteorological data to be implemented at the (sub)-divisional offices and local data centres. Consultants will advise on the hardware and software package(s) to be procured. Implementation of hardware and software. The Consultant will assist the state and central organizations with the implementation and testing of the hardware and software at their data centres upon request (see section 5.5).
  • 58. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 10 Design of data communication system. The Consultant will advise the state and central organi- zations in the states on the most efficient means of communication between the (sub-)divisional offices to the data centres and to the state database (see section 5.5). This is to be discussed in specification of CWC, CGWB, PCS and WB. Design of state specific data storage and processing procedures. The Consultants will advise the State Surface Water Organization and the local CWC and CGWB offices in their set up of agreed data processing procedures (using the methods agreed upon in the workshop on review of standards). The methods should ensure that maximum benefit is obtained of data gathered in the respective networks. This activity will be combined with the processing of historical data. Processing of historical data. The Consultant will draw up guidelines for the entry and processing of historical hydrological and meteorological field data. General processing procedures of the historical data will be part of the training courses. The state specific procedures will be advised upon in combination with the design of the state specific data processing procedures. The activities include advise on entry of historical data and processing of historical data 5.4.3 Assistance in the preparation of the HIDAP The Consultant will advise the state and central organizations in drawing up their procurement and action plan for the financial year 1997/98. 5.4.4 Training Surface Water Consultants will review existing courses for various levels of Staff and assist HP training Institutes with the development of updated courses by preparing reference documentation, participation as in training delivery as guest trainers and selected on-the-job coaching in data processing. 5.4.5 Research and development Estimation of return flows. In 1997 pilot studies will be carried to estimate return flows. These studies should result in the design of procedures and identification of suitable equipment for estimation of return flows elsewhere. The results will be presented in a workshop, scheduled for 1998. The pilot studies will be carried out by NIH. The Consultant will advise NIH on the selec- tion of the pilot area and on the monitoring procedures and equipment. Consultant's input will be provided by Task Group II Surface Water and Ground Water.
  • 59. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 11 Design/review of telecommunication system forecasting and operational water resources management. The Consultant will advise on the telecommunication systems for flow forecasting and water resources management. In some states communication systems have already been designed or have to be expanded. The Consultant will review these systems. Design and development of flood forecasting systems. Implementation of flood forecasting systems are planned for the Brahmani river in Orissa and the Tambraparani river in Tamil Nadu. The design of the system for Orissa is contracted to WAPCOS. The Consultant will review the system. The implementation of the flood forecasting system for the Tambraparani river is scheduled for 1998/99. An early design of the system is required to install the proper equipment for the collection of relevant historical data necessary for the development of the system components. The equipment should be installed before the monsoon season of 1997. The Consultant will advise the State Surface Water Department in the design of the system. Design of reservoir sedimentation monitoring programs. For the monitoring of reservoir sedimentation a method will be developed in which DGPS positioning, echo soundings and satellite images are combined to estimate the dead and life storages of reservoirs. The Consultant will advise on the selection of equipment for the soundings and the location of AWLRs. There- fore, pilot studies will be carried out to link the reservoir sedimentation monitoring with the sediment measurements. The Consultant will advise in the selection of the pilot reservoirs and in the execution of the studies. Consultants activities include advising on design of monitoring programme and of equipment, and participation in the pilot studies of reservoir sedimentation. Other demand driven R&D projects will be identified after discussion with State and Central Agencies.
  • 60. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 12 5.5 Groundwater Following the Mission findings during the Inception Phase it is considered essential that Task Group II provides input on groundwater issue in the following fields: • Design and monitoring of groundwater networks • Design and operation of databases • Review/design of standards for monitoring, processing and data dissemination • Assistance in the preparation of the HIDAP • Training • Research and Development The activities to be undertaken by the Consultants in each field are elaborated below. Where appropriate, implementation of these activities will follow a modular approach; i.e. pilot experience will be discussed with all participating parties in workshops or meetings, prior to implementation in other places. Other activities which are already on their way, will be carried out in a parallel mode but experience from one participant will be shared by all members of the project and used to modify respective activity plans and procedures. 5.5.1 Design and monitoring of groundwater networks Monitoring network design should fulfill the expected HP objectives, namely reflecting the hydrogeological configuration and flow regime and record properly every change in the system in time and space with respect to water levels and quality. Monitoring of groundwater abstraction figures, which are commonly practiced along with comprehensive monitoring activities to arrive at balanced water budgets, are not included in the HP. Design of network spacing and monitoring record frequency should be carefully considered so that data acquisition will optimally reflect the system without gaps or overloading unnecessary data. Monitoring well sites should be selected so that interference with production wells will be minimal and the construction mode should provide protection required for long-term monitoring. Specific requirements expressed through HDUG should be integrated into the network design. A major objective of the Hydrology Project is to improve and modernize the Groundwater observation well networks layout and accuracy in all the participating states, through construction of purpose-built piezometers and installation of Digital automatic Water Level Recorders (DWLR) in key wells. The sites for installing these piezometers should reflect the prevailing hydrogeological regime in each State and have to be properly identified in the field. Moreover, there is a need for integration of the State and Central GW observation well networks, not only to avoid duplication but also to ensure that the network systems respond to the hydrogeological situations. Consultants will supervise this work and extend their advice where necessary.
  • 61. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 13 Consultant's input on this issue includes the following activities: • Review network design and spacing of site selections; • Ascertain completion and construction of DWLR equipped key wells according to standards; • Assist the agencies to process and generate hydrographs in selected areas for both new key- wells and historical computerized data.; • Advise on relating hydrographs to the field situation (withdrawals, irrigation, domestic supplies, etc.), and analyze/review cause-effect relationships; • Advise upon frequency of observations to be recorded in data loggers, required to adequately reflect fluctuating field situations; • Examine and promote integration of State and CGWB networks equipped with DWLRs. Analyze data output in relation to the spacing between adjacent key-wells on same litho-units and inter-State overlapping and continuation of networks; • Promote activities to identify data gaps and review the planning for complementary monitoring wells in order to optimize monitoring systems, state and nation wise. 5.5.2 Design and operation of databases Development of groundwater data bases in all the participating States and the Central agency (CGWB) , adopting uniform formats and software, is a main objective of the Hydrology Project. To start with, existing (historical) GW data including one-time data (location, depth, well log, aquifer parameters, etc.) and repeated monitoring water level and quality data in all organizations have to be computerized. This has already been done in case of Gujarat State under the externally aided Water Resources Development Project of the State. Initially, the type and quantum of data available in each State are to be assessed and then the data should be entered into a common data base or spread-sheet software (Access, Excel, etc.) which will serve as temporary host. These computerized data bases along with the data which will be acquired through the DWLR equipped networks, will be transferred into standard advanced data base systems to be specified by the Consultants. Specific requirements expressed through HDUG (Section 6.1) should be integrated into the design and implementation of the database and processing facilities. Consultant's input on this issue includes the following activities: • review availability of computerized and manual GW data files with the State and Central organizations; • advise on priorities and procedures for computerization of existing as well as newly acquired data in common data base or spread sheet software; • interact with the task group on the selection of data bases and dedicated processing systems. The consultants will advise on the hardware and software packages to be procured;
  • 62. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 14 • assist the state and central organizations with the implementation and testing of the hardware and software at their data centers upon request; • advise the state organizations on the design of their data storage and processing procedures to ensure efficient handling and real-time information output requirements 5.5.3 Review/design of standards for monitoring, processing and data dissemination Another major objective of the HP is the standardization of procedures for groundwater monitoring, data processing and data dissemination. The Identification Mission concluded that the presently applied monitoring procedures need to be reviewed and data validation procedures which are, at present, hardly applied, should be introduced. In view of common modern practice, the Consultant will advise on standard procedures for various activities involved in these issues which will result in uniform basic outputs such as: • long-term hydrographs of single observation wells; • water-table maps of specified aquiferial units; • differential water-table maps to assess water storage changes; • salinity maps of specified aquiferial units; • 3D calculation and presentation of average aquifer parameters; • well-log presentation and 3D correlations; • GIS, geographical coding; • Monitoring of deeper acquifers; • O&M of DWLRs. A workshop planned for early 1997 will review the existing procedures discuss proposed changes in procedures and layouts in the following topics: • groundwater level monitoring and accompanied routine field measurements; • sampling of groundwater for routine and specific quality analyses; • layout of forms for field data acquisition; • reading and testing of data loggers; • data transfer to a PC environment; • formats for data entry; • content of primary and secondary validation procedures; • data storage and processing; • data presentation and dissemination. Consultant's input includes drafting of standard procedures and layouts and facilitating a workshop on the review of standards. The output of the workshop should be agreed upon procedures for monitoring, sampling and processing in the Hydrological Information System. Expert in these fields will be commissioned for this purpose.
  • 63. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 15 5.5.4 Assistance in the preparation of the HIDAP The consultant will advise the state and central organizations in drawing up their procurement and action plans for 1997/1998. 5.5.5 Training The staff involved in the groundwater data collection and processing is generally at a post- graduate level. The GW organizations in the states have different work culture and often follow different practices. The introduction of new instrumentation and methodologies need to be supported by a comprehensive training program. The input of task group II includes review and co-design training courses for relevant staff, participation in course deliveries and on-the job coaching 5.5.6 Research and Development Selected pilot research and development studies have been proposed to be conducted under HP. There is need to develop an appropriate methodology and detailed work plans to ensure efficient employment of the data emerging from the project activities within the time-frame of HP. Consultants in these fields will be commissioned for this purpose and their input includes support to: Estimation of return flows from irrigation. The range of needs requires a cooperative effort of both state surface water and groundwater agencies and associated modeling conducted by a research organization. Task group II will advice on the selection of the project area , on the monitoring instrumentation and procedures and on the methodologies involved. Basin/sub-basin water resources evaluation. The nature of such studies suggest a comprehensive approach which includes combined surface water and groundwater resources evaluation applied in numerical modeling. It is recommended that such studies will be restricted to basins entirely included in one state to avoid rivalry over surface water data. Task group II will advise on the selection of the project area, on the monitoring instrumentation and procedures and on the methodologies involved. Water pollution and quality projects. Natural as well as anthropogenic process may affect severely the quality of groundwater, especially in highly populated areas over which intensified abstraction is exercised. Task group II will advise on the selection of the project area, on the monitoring instrumentation and procedures and on the methodologies involved. Small and well defined basin water balance projects. Such studies are expected to yield actual recharge figures which may complement commonly applied estimates. Task group II will advise on the selection of the project area, on the monitoring instrumentation and procedures and on the methodologies involved. Artificial recharge and aquifer performance enhancement. These studies are expected to yield quantitative data as to the benefit obtained by such costly activities. Task group II will advise on the selection of the project area, on the monitoring instrumentation and procedures and on the methodologies involved.
  • 64. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 16 Data storage for conjunctive use. A (sub) basin will be selected for a study into optimization of water availability to meet specified demands. Customization of computer software for dissemination. This involves developing standard information outputs of the HIS to meet the needs of the different users. Other issues to be convered under R&D will be decided upon in consultation between CGWB and the State Groundwater Organizations.
  • 65. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 17 5.6 Water Quality Several areas have been identified where the consultant can provide input to the water quality monitoring programme to be implemented under HP. Agencies involved in monitoring water quality and collecting water quality data in the states include CWC, CGWB, State-GW, State-SW, and SPCB. These agencies have various degrees of experience (up to 20 years), with the State-SW agencies in some cases just beginning in this activity. There is some concern that with the upgrading of facilities and programs in the Hydrology Project, a large amount of data of uncertain necessity will be gathered/produced. Some may also be duplication of effort. The following input, applicable to both surface water and groundwater, is proposed to optimize the water quality monitoring effort: • Optimum Network design • Laboratory equipment, training and database specifications • Development WQ monitoring guidelines • Aid in HP implementation • Participation in training • Continuing guidance and assessment 5.6.1 Laboratory specifications Laboratory Design and building plans. In many states, new laboratory buildings are being constructed, or new spaces are being allocated for upgrading existing labs or establishing new ones. From some of the draft plans seen from the various states, it appears that there is a wide range of space being allocated for laboratories and plans for utilization of space within the laboratory. Some organizations have specifically requested the help of the consultant in designing the laboratory. The consultant will prepare specific recommendations with regard to laboratory design for the different levels of laboratories including regard to specific laboratory spaces required, such as: sample receipt and storage area (refrigerated), office and computer space, wet chemical laborato- ry, instrument room, microbiological work area, chemical storage area, glassware washing area, etc. The guidelines will be made considering, among others, the budget that is allocated in HP for the construction of such new space. The recommendations will be distributed to all states and central organizations for their use. Laboratory Equipment Specifications. The list of equipment as given in the SAR (Annex 2, Table 2, Sheets 7 and 8), need to be reviewed with regard to use and required replicates of the same item. Laboratory equipment specifications have been prepared by CWC, Maharashtra State Groundwater Department (GSDA) in Pune, and CGWB. The specifications of CWC and GSDA have had a preliminary screening, though not by a laboratory specialist. The specifications of CGWB have not been reviewed by the consultants. A laboratory specialist of the consultant team will finalize the list of equipment to be procured plans for the various level laboratories, and make the last review of the technical specifications for laboratory equipment. He can also assist in the preparation of contract documentation. In some cases, various potential suppliers can be listed. Suggestions for procurement of various items relative to the available laboratory conditions will also be made (i.e. Level II+/III laboratory equipment such as AAS, GC, ICP should have a dedicated, air conditioned instrument room, and preferably should not be moved once they have been installed). Suggestions for procurement
  • 66. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 18 conditions will also be made (i.e. procurement of certain items must include a certain number of days of training, as well as a service contract). Training programme. The consultant will prepare the programme for training with respect to water quality staff working in laboratories, and also have some input for training of field staff regarding collection of water quality samples including field or Level I laboratory measurements, and computer training for water quality staff. Specific activities will include: • preparation of a detailed outline, and actual lectures and practicum plans for training courses for the 3 main levels of chemistry training to be provided. Specific courses, including course components, syllabi, lectures and lab schedules will be prepared (i.e. expand on general program for 'chemical assistants', 'chemists', and 'chief chemists' as described in the SAR, Annex 10, p.6.). A review of the SPCB training program sponsored by a World Bank project can be made; • identification training location(s). This will probably require visits to potential locations such as training institutes of CGWB and CWC, as well as CPCB laboratory, NEERI, ITRC in Lucknow, etc.; • identification of trainers; • job specifications for all staff to receive; • preliminary identification of locations and organisations study tours in India and overseas, and for postgraduate training . The planning of the training programme will require coordination with the National Hydrology Training Committee (NHTC), so that all states and central organizations agree with and accept the training plans. Development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for sample collection and analysis. Standard procedures to be used for collection of water quality samples, field analysis of basic parameters, and laboratory analysis of main parameters are to be developed. While many laboratories follow the 'Standard Methods for Analysis of Water', it was seen that different practices exist in different labs. Analytical methods to be used should be formalized in laboratory manuals, or documented by directly referring to specific procedures in 'Standard Methods' (if this procedure is followed, it must be confirmed that all laboratories have a recent version of this reference). These procedures will be taught in the training courses. Additionally, intra- and interlaboratory programmes for analytical quality control of laboratory analyses shall be defined, also to be included in the training program. Review of Staffing. There are general concerns about lack of sufficient staff, with proper backgrounds to meet the needs of the expanded water quality monitoring program being developed in HP. A list of staff for different designations (and recommended qualifications) will be prepared for each laboratory, taking into account the expected workload for each laboratory. Review of software. Different types of software will be necessary in the laboratory for the data center as well as for analysis and presentation of water quality data. A review of commercially available software packages will be made, and recommendation for use in the Hydrology Project will be made.
  • 67. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 19 Workshop on Standardization. A workshop on standardization will be held in December for all disciplines. Issues to be covered include, among other, specification of databases, staffing requirements and training specifications. Relevant members of the state and central organizations will gather in Delhi for 2-3 days for discussion on laboratory design, equipment, staffing, training, and software. 5.6.2 Design/Review of water quality monitoring guidelines Review water quality mandates of central organizations (CWC, CGWB, CPCB). Planning of an effective water quality monitoring program depends on having a clear definition of the mandates and objectives of the relevant organizations with respect to water quality. While this may currently be poorly defined in the various state agencies, it is expected that the central organizations have more clearly documented policies. Discussions with the central agencies will be held to identify the mandates, and objectives of their water quality monitoring programs, and the relevant national or state legislation that affects water quality. Pilot program - monitoring guidelines. Beginning with a pilot program of 2 agencies (surface water and groundwater) already active in water quality monitoring, the consultant will assist these agencies with the rationalization of the water quality monitoring networks, and standardization of all their monitoring activities. This will include identification of information needs which allows to: • identify and document the mandate of the state and central agency with respect to water quality monitoring needs; • identify the main water quality issues in the state; • interact with data users (HDUG) to understand water quality data needs; • catalogue existing data availability; • identify the end-product(s) of the water quality monitoring program.. Objectives for the water quality survey will be defined and documented for: • baseline water quality; • quantifying trends or changes in water quality; • calculating loads (rivers only); • assessing impact of development activity on water quality; • assessing suitability of water for various uses; • checking compliance with standards. Guidelines for the regular monitoring network will be developed, including: • types of monitoring stations, baseline stations (primary or secondary), impact stations, use oriented stations; • number of stations; • frequency of sampling; • parameters for analysis. The frequency of sampling at each station and the parameters to be analyzed can be decided based on the monitoring objectives, classification of station, known seasonal behaviour of the water body, inter-station correlations available from previous records and availability of resources:
  • 68. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 20 • develop plans for special investigative studies of pollution or other problems; • encourage coordination between relevant agencies to ensure that national and State monitoring networks cooperate on a complementary basis and establish uniform quality standards; • review procedures for sample collection and analysis; • review field/laboratory equipment used; • review and develop quality control practices; • assist with standard methodologies of data storage and processing; • discuss formats for production of yearbooks, and distribution of results. Documentation of monitoring guidelines. The results of the pilot program will be documented as a set of guidelines for the state and central agencies for running an effective water quality monitoring program. In the guidelines, the approach to be used in the state and central agencies for developing the monitoring program will be documented. The guidelines will be distributed to all agencies, and HDUGs (MOEF & State PCB) discussed in a workshop and reviewed with them in detail during subsequent visits to each state. Review advanced water quality training. Based on the results of the pilot program, the material to be included in the advanced chemistry training may need to be adjusted or revised. This should be done as soon as possible as to be incorporated into the training schedule. A review of all the state and central agency plans for the coming year will be made with respect to preparation of the HIDAP for 1997/98, which must be completed by 1 April 1997. Implementation of monitoring guidelines. All of the states will be visited, and consultants will work together with the state and central agencies to review and strengthen their monitoring program. The guidelines developed during the pilot program and presented during the workshop will be the basis of the work performed together. In addition, states will be asked where possible to proceed with computerization of existing data, while giving attention to validation of data, which will also be reviewed. Workshop. At the end of the visits to all states, a wrap-up workshop will be held to discuss the implementation of the guidelines, and any revisions necessary. Progress in data computerization and validation will be evaluated. The role of the consultants for the coming months (aid in HP implementation) will also be explained. 5.6.3 Assistance with HP implementation During the period of defining monitoring guidelines (activity 2) in each state, the state and central organizations will also be receiving their new equipment, in some cases moving to new buildings, obtaining new staff, and receiving some training. The consultants will again travel to each state, to work with state and central organizations for hands-on training and involvement with the new procedures, and for general support of the agencies with establishment of their new laboratories. Coordination meetings between agencies will be facilitated. Attention will be given to both the functioning of both the laboratory and the data center.
  • 69. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 21 During these visits, attention will also be paid to quality control procedures, methodologies for data validation, computer entry, processing and reporting, resource assessment, and further evaluation of water quality in a region. Again, coordination between the various agencies in a state will be encouraged, and interaction with the HDUG will be organized. Specific problem areas relating to laboratory equipment and the water quality database can be referred to short-term experts. 5.6.4 Participation in training During the ongoing training programs, the consultants will have some involvement to follow the progress and possibly conduct some of the courses. 5.6.5 Follow-up guidance and assessment For much of the remainder of the project, continuing guidance will be given by visiting all the state and central agencies and working together with the laboratories and data centres. Short-term specialists will be brought in as necessary. One long term objective includes establishing inter- laboratory quality control procedures as a means of ensuring comparability of data. At periodic intervals, assessment of the progress of the different states and agencies will be made.
  • 70. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 22 5.7 Data base management and communication 5.7.1 General approach The Hydrological Information System HIS can be understood as a network of cooperating subsystems: a distributed database system. Each subsystem has its own task to accomplish and can, to some extent, be operated as a independent system. A method to classify subsystems is by associating them with organisational subsystems, such as regional offices, divisions, sub-divisions etc. These subsystems have their interfaces at organisational boundaries then, e.g. with interfaces between divisional and sub-divisional offices. Field Office Sub-division Office Division Office Regional / State Office Hydrological Data Users National Office Figure 5.1: Example of a hierarchical structure The diagram is not meant to reflect the exact organisational structure, it is merely presented to depict a general concept of where interfaces can be distinguished. Some organisational bodies have more hierarchical levels. There are a number of reasons for dividing the HIS into logic sub-systems. First of all, HIS is a distributed database and secondly HIS is a cooperation of a large number of data providers and data users, each with their own tasks and processes. Also from the system developer’s perspective it can be beneficial to divide the HIS in smaller units. Each sub-system can be developed as if it were a stand-alone system which receives input from external systems and generates output which is submitted to external systems. Like in the development of any system, the interfaces with associated systems have to be clearly defined.
  • 71. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 23 In general terms, the interfaces describe the input and products of the sub-systems in the succession of organisational levels as the data pass through the system to their destination in the data base. This method allows for a phased and independent development and implementation of the HIS. The system development can then be synchronized with the progress in development of specific organisational entities involved. Moreover, the development of HIS can be executed priority wise, that is, there is no need to ensue a strict bottom-up or top-down methodology. Obviously, the link to the HIS proper should not be lost, in particular the overall system specifica- tions and the interfaces between subsystems must be detailed out sufficiently before irrevocable steps are taken at sub-level development. For this it is essential that a single organisational body takes responsibility for the project coordination and tuning of the sub-systems input/output requirements, in order to secure a smooth interaction between the various sub-systems. However, although a single body coordinates the activities, the development of the Data base and Communication System, DCS, is to be a joint activity. Software selection, procurement and implementation to be executed in close cooperation with Consultants assigned for the project. The priorities during the development of HIS will be set according to the users' requirements. The HIS specifications have to be defined by the users, interactively with the system developers. The definition is a top-down process, that is, the data users at the top of the system define their requirements, which are translated downwards to the lower echelons and eventually determine the measurement requirements. The DCS merely provides facilities to make data available and trans- port them. DCS as such is the backbone of the HIS and must be able to integrate all its subsystems. Many implementing agencies of the project are not yet familiar with information technology, and as a consequence, it will be difficult to conceive system specifications based on an abstract text only. To facilitate understanding of specifications and to allow for adequate users' input during HIS development it is suggested to follow a prototyping methodology. Quickly built prototypes are used to define the real thing; the prototypes act as live mock-ups of user interfaces at different levels. Applying this interactive methodology several iteration cycles have to be executed before a final result is reached. Several implementing agencies already have drawn-up requirements, some of these are quite comprehensive, from the hydrological perspective. Decisions have to be made to what extent SAR is followed and where extensions can be accepted including their budgetary and organisational consequences. Presently a kind of technological revolution is taking place in the domain of on-line data access, data communication, data visualisation. Keywords are: Internet, GIS, Windows NT, LAN. Instead of massive centralized systems based on a single CPU, computing power is nowadays made available by distributed PCs on a Local Area Network. In this environment however, the LAN system acts as the single integrating element. Bearing the project's duration in mind, it is wise to contemplate on these present and future options to factors like ease of use, value for money, and maintainability. An aspect not to be overlooked is security, both in terms of virus protection and unauthorized data access. HIS is to be provided with proper barriers against illegal access, the more so when use would be made of Internet services. Virus protection schemes, including procedures for system operators and users, have to be designed. Virus guards have to be selected, installed and operated on each computer in HIS.
  • 72. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 24 The development of the HIS cannot be isolated from already operational systems and functions in the project area. Existing operational systems have to be integrated into HIS, possibly after some adaptations. Moreover, a vast amount of historical data has been collected which is presently available on paper file or in electronic storage, in many different formats. Most data supp- liers/users deem the historical data too valuable to be ignored. However, incorporation of historical data into HIS is a major effort. The embedding of presently active systems into HIS is to be coordinated properly. Hardware, software and data conversions may be needed before original data handling systems can be embedded into the HIS structure. 5.7.2 Phases of the Project All along the process of developing the database and communication system for HIS a substantial input from the users' side is required. For this the parties involved have to allocate time and resources. From the perspective of the project management there will be no single nicely structured and phased project flow. Instead, a varying number of sub-projects are likely to be under execution. This is a consequence of establishing a distributed information system like HIS in an operational organisation. However, each sub-project is to be planned and to be executed by a structured methodology. Subsystems are defined according to their position in the organisation, corresponding to the primary data flow, which proceeds from bottom upwards. Subsystems are centres of activity interfaced to one or more data transport and communication functions. Figure 5.2 on next page gives a schematic representation of data flow through the various levels of a typical HIS system. The sketch is merely an example of data flow in an arbitrary state. For national bodies a similar diagram can be drawn up. (See figure on the next page)
  • 73. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 25 Field Office screened field data Sub - Division Office primary validated data Division Office collected primary validated data State Office validated data (secondary) Central Database (processed data + meta data) collected field data Fig 5.2: Data flow in a HIS ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ || || || ||
  • 74. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 26 The organisational structure and data flow as depicted here is merely an example, several states and also the national bodies maintain other, though in many cases equivalent, organisational schemes. Given the basic direction of data flow through the organisations and the increasing system complexity towards higher organisational levels, the introduction of the database and communica- tion facilities might be initiated at a lower level, e.g. at sub-divisional level. As procedures at sub- divisional level are relatively simple, merely data entry and checking for obvious errors, the intro- duction can be effectuated in an early project stage which allows staff returning from the basic computer course to start gaining experience while entering useful historical data and recently collected field data. In other organisations the development and introduction of HIS can be started at another level, depending on its priorities as well as its state of development. Major issues on the development of DCS include: • procurement plan for hardware and software (including specification and system design); • entry of historical data; • data centre; • training; • set up of a communication performance test; • main activities: system analysis and design of DCS, design and implementation of the communication infra structure, design and implementation of the database system, design and implementation of the user interfaces, testing of the DCS as part of HIS, operation and maintenance of the HIS; • input to R&D projects. The sequence of the activities as listed here is arbitrary and not necessarily related to the sequence of execution. 5.7.3 Resources Implementation of HIS will draw largely on the resources of manpower, hardware and software as made available by the project plan. From all parties input is needed, that is, the HDUGs, trainers, institutional developers, suppliers of hardware and software, external specialists etc. Considering the complexity of the task and the requirement of high level application software expertise, it is proposed that the detailed programming work is outsourced to programming specialists. Possibly the suppliers of the software packages have the resources and expertise in- house, then they might be given a task. Otherwise, specialised developers are to be approached. It is planned to start in an early stage of the project the initial negotiations. This obviously requires firm and reliable commitment from the developers side. Also the conception of technical and user documents and manuals might be outsourced to the suppliers or developers respectively. This all under supervision of national and foreign experts. For the typical hydrological packages probably foreign input is required to customize the preferred package for application under HIS. It is proposed to define one or more pilot applications for testing and tuning the package. Prerequisites for selection are proven operation in hydrological applications and ease of use. 5.7.4 Implementation
  • 75. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 27 Implementation of the HIS is to be achieved in a phased manner, in close coordination with national and state agencies. Listed below are comments on the activities involved in the DCS. Procurement plan for hardware and software. Links to other project goals and activities have to be taken in account. The procurement of computers is to be synchronized with amongst others the establishment of the data centres, training requirements, entry of historical data and the specifications (e.g. performance, number of computers) as generated during the design of HIS. The advantage of rapid technological advances and falling prices of computer systems can be obtained if we decide on a phased procurement plan. In this respect, it is noted that high-end PCs presently have a performance rating which is quite equivalent, if not better, to common workstation performance of only a few years ago. A similar situation applies to operating systems. In particular Windows NT 4.0 is widely regarded as an operating system fit for professional, demanding applications. It is proposed to divide the computer procurement in two lots, the first lot to be defined as soon as possible. The second lot to be defined upon finishing the specifications for performance and quantities as a result of the design of HIS DCS. Procurement of first lot of computers. It is recommended to procure Pentium type PCs, with MS- Office as a general purpose software environment running under MS-Windows for Workgroups (3.11, MS-DOS 6.22). Consultant will prepare a detailed specification and suggest the numbers per data user (national and state agencies). Procurement of second lot of computers. Specifications and numbers to be drawn up during the design of HIS, in concert with participants, specification committees of CWC/CGWB and PCS. Procurement of software. Software to be procured can be divided in hydrological (all its aspects) and in utility software. The specification and selection of hydrological software will be done by the associated experts. However, input will be given by the DCS team as far as requested. Definition and procurement of utility software, including the DBMS, communication packages, presentation (visualisation) software and other supporting packages are to be defined during the DCS/HIS design, in concert with parties concerned. In particular for communication aspects (NICNET) input is required from NIC. Specifications for data centres. For the purpose of standardisation detailed specifications for data centres for various types of systems will be furnished to the organisation. These will contain details of space, environment and power supply.
  • 76. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 28 5.7.5 Entry of historical data Historical data currently are kept in disk and paper based file formats. The 'on-paper only' data, as far as they are deemed valuable, are to be entered into a digital, computer accessible format. This effort is to be executed as soon as possible prior to the commissioning of the HIS. Consultants will propose formats for data entry for provisional data storage. Design of provisional data storage format. The data entry formats are to be defined in standard software packages Excel (spread sheet) or Access (database), whichever of the two is most appro- priate for the specific data type and the experience of the staff involved. If feasible, use will be made of the utilities as supported by MS-Office, because user training will be given in that very package. Prior to the design of the user interfaces the entry and storage formats are to be designed in cooperation with the hydrologists involved. It is thought that a basic scheme can be designed for each data type, e.g. stage, discharge, well log, water quality etc. For specific conditions as found in the states small adaptations may be allowed. Possibly the same data entry schemes can be re- engineered for entry of new data, this so as soon as the final data requirements are defined. Implementation of historical data entry. Consultant can render assistance in installation and commissioning of the entry interfaces in the organisational bodies involved in entry of historical data. Training and/or trouble shooting support might also be given in case problems arise. 5.7.6 Training It is proposed to give familiarisation training on PC operation and MS-Office applications to all staff who will be exposed to PC applications. The training should go into sufficient depth to make trainees feel at ease using a computer and to become aware of the basics of the windows environment, that is, how to navigate to an application, how to copy files from one directory/disk drive to another etc. Similar basic skills must be mastered to be able to work autonomously on a PC. This familiarisation training, however, is not designed to develop proficiency in the use of packages like Excel or Access. Motivated individuals can master these on their own. The general purpose training is to be linked with PC procurement and establishment of data centres (as far as applicable). Support will be given in establishing proper training conditions and to assist in trouble shooting and problem solving. The Consultant's training cell will draw up a detailed training schedule. Arrangements have to be made for adequate technical support for the computer training centres, this to prevent backlog due to computer or software malfunctioning. It is expected that the need for technical support will drop rapidly after the initial training sessions. Virtually all assistance is expected to be given by national experts, in order to avoid any hampering effects due to a language barrier. Other then the familiarisation training on the operation, maintenance and usage of the hydrological packages will also be planned. There will be various levels of training on this aspect starting from data entry operations at the lowest level. Separate training courses for system operators and managers at various levels will be organised. Depending on the level of operation, the training on network communication management will also form an important component.
  • 77. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 29 Also at application level training will be provided, e.g. in hydrological packages and for responsibilities associated with database, user interface and communication systems, as well as system management. In particular the nation wide system management, that is IT management across state and regional offices, has to be elaborated further before a training plan can be defined. In due course a training program will be developed. Training is to be given aligned with the implementation of the application software, office wise. 5.7.7 Test of data communication services Data communication undoubtedly is a major issue in the performance of HIS. Presently new services, which might be of great benefit to HP, are being developed. NIC is making Internet services available in all state capitals and district offices. Many software systems, including DBMS, support Internet access. Using a communication standard, like the Internet Protocol, HIS will not be dependent of proprietary software which usually is not open and can be maintained by the supplier only. For and on Internet, reliable state of the art software is abundantly available. Also technical and maintenance support in future is less of a problem then. As only limited performance data is available for Indian circumstances, where only very recently NIC started to provide Internet services, it is proposed to carry out communication trials. For real application testing and to allow the consultants to gain experience with the NIC services the HP Consultants office should by subscribed to the NIC/Internet service. A SLIP/PPP dial-up facility is considered the most realistic, later higher capacity data connections can be tested as well. Initially this facility is used for general purpose communications such as E-mail and WWW access. In concert with PCS one or more state MIS offices could be selected for further perform- ance and reliability testing. If initial trials are successful then more and more state and national centres can be networked to the system for further trials. This is to be synchronized with NIC's progress in setting up state and regional access centres which is planned to be finalized mid 1997. 5.7.8 Implementation of HIS The following activities are primarily dedicated to the DCS of the HIS. The specifications of the HIS system are demand based, that is, they are drawn up from the user's perspective. It is the Database and Communication System (DCS) which has to integrate and accomplish the functions like data entry, data storage, data transport and data access and dissemination. As a consequence of the user's interaction, the workplan outlined here is to be associated with the activities as formu- lated in Sections 5.3 to 5.6. Implementation of DCS and HIS requires input from a number of highly specialized professionals. The software packages for groundwater and for surface water have to be tuned to the specific applications. This in close cooperation with the supplier and/or developer. Another responsibility for the suppliers/developers is to give adequate training in operation and maintenance of their packages. The databases at state/national level are to be based upon standard software systems. However, a lot of work is to be done before these software systems function as an application. It is proposed to have the software suppliers/developers build the applications, under guidance and control of the consultant's specialists.
  • 78. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 30 The HDUs eventually will have access to data originating from various sources and possibly from various states. For that very reason it is of great importance that an agreement can be reached upon a standard for the data units applicable within the HIS. There should be uniformity in the structure and storage of data in the databases for all the entities supported by HIS. E.g. coordinates, levels, discharges, concentrations and alike should be expressed in standardized units. Two main data types are distinguished viz.: hydrological data and meta data, both are recorded in different databases. The meta data can be conceived as a catalogue of the hydrological data. A small team of national and foreign experts is to be established. This DCS team is to be involved in the full trajectory of the design and implementation of HIS. The staffing of the DCS team may vary according to the workload and required experts input. Consultant does not have the resources to design and build HIS with in-house experts and professionals only. Instead Consultant plans to render advisory and project management services by making its DCS team available. The main deliverables are to be outsourced to competent developers. The budget is to be derived from the associated functions. It is proposed to define a pilot project for each subsystem to be implemented. That subsystem is to be fully developed, tested and commissioned, including training of staff, finalizing of documents before the commissioning in other units/cells is commenced System analysis and design of DCS. This activity is to be executed in coordination with consultant's hydrological experts, data suppliers and HDUs. The importance of this activity can hardly be overestimated as it is to result in the internal and external specifications of HIS. An issue during the analysis process is to reach agreement on uniform formats and parameters, model struc- tures, data centres etc. Benefits of uniformity are for example. maximum system transparency, lower cost of development, procurement, O&M; maximum exchangeability of data and staff; possible pooling of spare parts, etc. In particular the definition and design of the user interfaces of HIS require a considerable input. These are the user interfaces which have to make the HIS easy to use. Under Section 5.1 the 'assessment of hydrological data needs' is covered. In preparation of the questionnaire, input is given by a database expert. The main analysis and design activities are to be initiated when the users' replies are available. In the meantime a short list of software and service suppliers will be made, in particular in the fields of data communication, database management systems, GIS, and data presentation software. Results are to be reported in standard documents which must contain all the information required to design and implement the HIS. These may consist of documents like system specifications, (performance, capacity, inputs, outputs, etc.), description of data structures and relations, the data flow through the system, the processes and responsibilities involved, the communication requirements, the interfaces between subsystems, data access and user interfaces, procedures, specifications for manuals (technical, O&M, user), training, resources and time planning, etc. Also the input which will be required from the users during design and implementation are to be defined. Design and implementation of the communication infra structure. In this respect the communication infrastructure comprises the internal as well as external communication and data transport under HIS. Internally data are transported from the field, elaborated, transported to a higher level in the organisation and so forth. For each type of data transport specifications have to be formulated to make a smooth entry at the subsequent level possible. Data transport does not necessarily have to be on a sophisticated Local Area Network, but can also take place on diskette.
  • 79. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 31 The basic requirement is that the data format matches the requirements of the receiving interface. This applies to all levels of data transport and communication. Another activity is to take the necessary steps to get access to the public communication networks, such as the public telephone system and NICNET or other connectivity providers. Again technical, O&M, and user documentation is to be generated, plans and schedules or training and commissioning to be drawn up. The major part of these tasks to be executed by the supplier of the data communication infrastructure and services. Design and implementation of the database system. Data from various sources and in various formats are to be recorded in HIS. For this forms, procedures and tools have to be defined. Most of the data will be entered manually from logbooks and/or data collection forms. Some data is collected in digital/electronic format, e.g. by DWLR/AWLR. Such data can be entered directly through a proper software interface. The data entry is to be supported by appropriate elementary, software guided, validation methods. A proper protection scheme against data loss due to a system crash or any failure must be part of the database system. Consultant will make its services available in the definition and implementation process. As mentioned above, the database system is to be conceived as a standard software package which is tuned to a specific application. This tuning, or programming, is to be outsourced to the package supplier/developer. Obviously the supplier/developer may not be a mere software distributor, but must be a specialist with back-up from the manufacturer. He will also have to deliver the technical documents, manuals and training. Design and implementation of the user interfaces. Each application within HIS has its own user interface. A number of packages have their proprietary user interface. E.g. dedicated standard packages for ground water and surface water come with a built-in user interface. For other system components, e.g. at data entry level it might be required to built a dedicated, though simple, user interface to give the user guidance. However, the main effort will be focused on the design and implementation of the interfaces for the meta and hydrological databases. The user interface on top of the database application is to assist in searching for data, needed for the user's application. In full operation the database is planned to contain hydrological data of thousands of stations, which makes it a difficult, if not impossible, job to find the requested data without the assistance of a powerful user interface. Presently one of the ideas is to put a graphical user interface shell around the data base application. The user will be presented a map of India on which he can zoom in to the area of interest under mouse control. Subsequently he is offered a bird's eye view of that area including the spatial distribution of stations supported and with data loaded in the data base. He might zoom in further or indicate the periods of data required and so forth. This is typically a GIS application. One of the uncertainties is the adequacy of the communication system to support a graphical application like depicted above. If a GIS package is to be used then also its supplier/developer must be competent to build the application, give training etc., in close cooperation with the consultant. Training is to be given to both users and O&M staff of the HIS systems and the database adminis- trators. Adequate manuals and documentation, in agreement with Consultants specifications, are make part of the supplier's/developer's delivery. Testing of the DCS as part of HIS. Testing the DCS is to be executed according to a well defined protocol. It is conceived to execute the detailed testing in a bottom-up succession, starting with small functions gradually working to the more complex ones with multiple external interactions.
  • 80. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 32 The skeleton of main HIS is to be tested top down, with special emphasis on user interface and communication and data transport processes. Before the entire HIS system is tested the subsystems should have passed the test protocol. It is quite possible that some redesign is required after initial testing, e.g. inadequate performance or ambiguous user interfaces are sensitive in this respect. Although considerable effort will be put into testing, it is impossible to do comprehensive system test. Adequate procedures are to be defined for error handling and system change and repair. Testing does not have to be executed in one single exercise after finishing all functions and subsystems. Instead, each subsystem can be tested and made operational after finishing of its implementation. However, there is always the danger of a backlash from a higher subsystem. The systems have to be tested for factors like correctness, reliability, stability, error handling, stress recovery, performance, ease of use. Also the documentation must be assessed on applicability, correctness etc. Inputs are required from DCS team, IT staff, suppliers/developers and users. Operation and maintenance of the HIS. Although each subsystem is implemented according to a specified plan, with priorities set by the relevant organisational unit, to an external observer, the implementation processes may appear to be executed practically at random, because so many subsystems have to be implemented. This affects operation and maintenance planning to such an extent that at is this stage it is not practical to draw up a detailed plans. The numbers of applications, distinguished by type, can be assessed in an early project stage. This allows for contracting certain maintenance to the associated suppliers/developers. The operation of the subsystems is to be taken up by the committed organisational units, each at its own national or state level. Prior to the commissioning of subsystems the users involved have to be made acquainted with (sub)systems and trained in application and O&M responsibilities as applicable. The impact of HIS on Indian society not only depends on is technical capabilities and performance but also on the HDU's awareness of its existence and potential benefit. One way to increase awareness is by advertising through a WWW site. The web-pages could inform potential users about services both existing and under development. Consultant is to provide support or organise support as required. 5.7.9 Input to R&D projects The R&D projects are not fully defined yet. There may be projects like flood forecasting and operational management of water resources, reservoir monitoring, and discharge measurement by Moving Boat Method using ADCP. Some of these projects will need IT input which can be rendered by the DCS team. On-line applications. Forecasting and operational management impose additional requirements, especially the response time on inputs and queries is critical in such applications. In particular in flash flood prone areas responses must be fast which implies that electronic communications systems have to be included in the system. In rural or mountainous terrain, lacking a reliable telephone system communication may be set up by radio. The data entry functions are to be extended with a real-time interface for automatic data entry. Also data validation, processing and presentation procedures have to be tuned for quick response. To cover communication and data entry functions the DCS team could provide guidance in establishing such a system. On-line applications are not planned to be integrated in HIS.
  • 81. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 33 Reservoir monitoring. Some objectives in reservoir monitoring are storage capacity assessment and sedimentation studies. A small bathymetry system based on echosounder and a differential GPS system, including a suitable software package for data collection, processing and presentation could be one of the elements. On data collection matters the consultant will render assistance through its equipment, data base and communication specialists. Moving boat application. Discharge measurement by ADCP, applying the moving boat method is a widely used method. Using modern computer and positioning technology, a system can be implemented in a fairly small, transportable package which allows for swift application on small crafts. Input will be given in drafting specifications, rendering assistance for commissioning tests and during application.
  • 82. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 34 5.8 Training services 5.8.1 Scope of work The training component helps to improve the knowledge, skills and attitudes of hydrology staff and key players in the main five HP activity sectors: surface water hydrology, ground water hydrology, hydrometeorology, water quality monitoring and data management. Training events are organised as formal group training, on-the-job coaching, study tours in India and overseas, post-graduate training in India, refresher courses, workshops and seminars. The main HP effort in the period October 1996 - December 1997 will be to mobilize the resources (trainers, training institutes, materials) to secure the delivery of training courses in line with existing State proposals. At the same time, a start will be made to improve their training quality in terms of technical contents (updating, standards), training skills, evaluation systems and human resources development aspects. 5.8.2 Central Training Institutes Six national training institutes will be involved in the Project for the development of hydrology training programmes: • Central Training Unit (CTU) of the Central Water Commission in Pune for surface water hydrology • Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) in Faridabad and Raipur for ground water hydrology • Training Centres of the Indian Meteorological Department in Pune, Madras and Calcutta for hydrometeorology training • National Institute for Hydrology (NIH) in Roorkee for data base management • National and State level laboratories for water quality monitoring, which have yet to be selected • institutes for training management and curriculum design, which have yet to be selected • in addition, other institutes will be involved as support organizations for materials and guest trainers, such as the Central Water Power Research Station (CWPRS) in Pune, the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Universities etc. A short profile of the institutes is provided in Annex 3. The identified Central Training Institutes (CTI) have established training facilities and are themselves important sources of trainers. As training delivery for lower level staff will take place at State level, CTIs will train the future trainers from the participating eight States. These trainers will, in turn, undertake the actual staff training on a regular basis. State level training developers and trainers / instructors will be selected from the State Water User organisations. These organisations do not yet avail over the facilities and logistical experience to deliver their training. It appears a practical solution to involve State WALMIs for this purpose. At longer term, Water User organisations may choose to develop their own training staff and facilities as in-house Training Cell.
  • 83. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 35 5.8.3 Training Cells The Training of Trainers programme, developed and delivered by the CTIs, should enable State level technical trainers to update their sector specific and general hydrology knowledge in conjunction with subject related didactical skills. This latter aspect is often underestimated in the HP context and it is wrongly assumed that knowledgeable people are by definition the most appropriate trainers. Secondly, the average technical trainer is often in charge of special subjects and not involved in general curriculum development and training course management. Each Water User organisation would require a training manager and curriculum developers who are familiar with organizational and personal training needs analysis, training programming, materials development, logistics, evaluation and training administration. HP’s support to training development will not be limited to the updating of technical know-how, but also cover training skills of technical trainers and diversification of training functions in the beneficiary organizations to secure quality training. 5.8.4 Training of trainers CTIs will organize Training of Trainers (ToT) in surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology, water quality monitoring, database management and training skills. ToT is not proposed for hydrometeorology, as the CTI for this sector (IMD) avails over facilities at Pune, Madras and Calcutta which could directly cover all training requirements for all hydromet staff in India. CTIs will prepare the detailed curricula and materials for their ToT programmes with the assistance of consultants. The States have to depute competent middle level professionals who have the right aptitude for training. CTIs and the Consultant will assist participating agencies with the selection of technical trainers. New Training managers and administrators at State level would require training and coaching in the organization, logistics and enrollment administration of all training in their organization. For CTIs, this will be provided by the Training Consultants in the third quarter of 1996. At longer term, it should be considered to mobilize specialized Indian resources to deliver this type of training on a regular basis for all training institutes and water user organisation Training Cells where training is developed. Curriculum developers are needed to help technical trainers and instructors in developing their training sessions and training skills. Curriculum developers are also the key persons in an organization if it comes to detail the training needs, work out training schemes, evaluate impact etc. At longer term, it is considered to mobilize specialized Indian resources to deliver this type of training on a regular basis for all training institutes and water user organisation training cells interested to develop their own training capacity. Present estimates for the first rounds of ToT participation are: Surface water hydrology: 8 x 4 persons / State: 32 persons Groundwater hydrology: 8 x 4 persons / State: 32 persons Water quality monitoring: 8 x 2 persons / State: 16 persons Data management: 8 x 2 persons / State: 16 persons Training management 8 x 4 persons / State: 32 persons Training systems 8 x 4 persons / State: 32 persons With a course intake of 15-20 persons, ToT is to be repeated twice in surface water, ground water hydrology, training management and training systems while one ToT is adequate in water quality monitoring and data management. ToT is scheduled for January ‘97 with a duration ranging from
  • 84. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 36 4 to 6 weeks. Training modules for observers and supervisors courses will be produced by the end of February 1997. Requirements: • ToT programme for SW field observers training Total number requiring training: 75 Commencement of training: January 1997 Duration of training: 6 wk Recommendation: Central Training Unit of CWC, Pune plans to conduct 2 courses/yr for 2 years. • ToT programme for GW field observers training Total number requiring training: 120 Commencement of training: January 1997 Duration of training: 4 wk Recommendation: CGWB plans to conduct 3 courses/yr with an intake of 20 persons for 2 years. • ToT component for Water Quality training Total number requiring training: 20 persons, selected from the 111 chemists and 50 chief chemists who underwent technical training Commencement of training: January 1997 Duration of training: 5 wk Recommendation: the selected Central training laboratory plans to conduct one ToT course with an intake of 20 • ToT programme for data management training Total number requiring training: 20 persons (preferably selected from the computer faculty of WALMIs) Commencement of training: January 1997 Duration of training: 6 wk Recommendation: NIH plans to conduct one ToT course with an intake of 20 persons.
  • 85. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 37 5.8.5 Training modules Often, training requirements of one job will overlap with those of other jobs. For instance: at higher staff levels an appreciation of lower level skills should exist to introduce good supervisory practices. And, at lower staff levels an appreciation of higher level supervisory action will help job holders to know precisely which quality and quantity standards are expected in a particular job. Overlaps in training topics do also exist horizontally, even between unrelated jobs. For example, water quality know-how and basic computer skills are important in both ground water and surface water jobs. The provision of training modules will accommodate for the flexibility needed in all job training. As these training modules are produced in various institutions all over India, it is the HP’s tasks to keep a complete overview of modules, avoid multiple production, secure technical standardization and stimulate exchange of modules between various training providers. In Annex 2, a first listing of HP training modules is given. 5.8.6 Training development activities In Hydrology Project’s training component a distinction is made between training development activities and the support of actual course deliveries. Training development refers to (new) provisions as needed to at training delivery started. This includes: Establishment of National and State Hydrology Training Committees • identification of NHTC members; • definition of working procedures; • participation in NHTC periodical training review meetings; • establishment of (8) State Hydrology Training Committees (SHTC). Establishment of Training Cells in Water User Organisations • prepare job descriptions for Training Cell Staff; • prepare guidelines for staff selection: trainers, managers, designers; • assist with identification of TC staff; • monitor Training Cell review meetings. Central and State level laboratories for Water Quality Monitoring training • assess training capacity of major national water analysis laboratories ; • advise on selection as CTI ; • assist with preparation as CTI ; • review selection of State level laboratories; • assist with preparation as STI; Training of Trainers • brief and confirm commitments of CTIs as ToT centres (SW/GW/WQ/DM); • brief and confirm commitments for additional resource persons from other Institutes, Universities etc.; • identify organizations for training in training development: management, HRD, didactics; • develop reference materials and training guidelines: all technical training sectors;
  • 86. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 38 • develop reference materials and training guidelines: HRD, training management, curriculum development, didactical aspects; • monitor ToT delivery: technical; • monitor ToT delivery: managerial and didactical; • coach the preparation and review corporate HRD/training plans (1997). These plans, as explained during and prepared immediately after the ToT, will include details on staff redeployment, training calendars (formal, post graduate etc.), lists of participants, specifications for training equipment and demonstration plots, overviews of equipment supplier training, arrangements made with local WALMIs; • coach the preparation and review training materials. These materials, for which the format and didactical design criteria are explained during the ToT, are initially prepared by the CTIs. Training materials development includes writing of technically valid scripts, specification of training methods, preparation of handouts, illustrations and trainer visuals etc. Practice learns that this production process may take months of preparation time per typical training week.. Training database, monitoring and evaluation at HP level. The Project will prepare several data bases for managerial purposes and to keep track of progress made in training development, its delivery and actual impact. To do so, the Project would largely depend on the reports provided by the Water User organizations and Training Institutes. Formats for such reports, will be prepared by the HP in consultation with the users at National and State levels. The HP will take a lead in the initiation and promotion of the training databases and resources. It is expected that the National and State level Training Committees will, at short term, take over daily database maintenance and usage. The HP training database will include the following components: • potential hydrology training resources in India; for post graduate training, study tours, guest trainers etc.; • potential international hydrology training resources; • profiles of active HP training institutes and smaller corporate Training Cells, indicating baseline situation, annual plans, improvements made etc.; • HP trainer profiles: CV, position, experience record, performance; • HP trainee profiles: indicating position, career record, training participation etc. For longer term training evaluation purposes, the tracing of a sample of these records would be useful; • progressive records of training courses and events, as planned and as delivered, together with evaluation notes from trainers, trainees and possible external observers; • comprehensive library of all hydrology training modules which comply with HP standards for training design and technical contents. Typical activities for the set-up and application of each these databases include: • Specification of input formats, reporting and software requirements
  • 87. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 39 • Consultation with main data providers and future users • Software programming, first loading and testing • Routine loading and library management • Reporting and distribution 5.8.7 Training calendar Training courses and events are envisaged at seven distinct job levels in the four hydrology sectors as presented in the following table: GW SW Meteo WQ Ce St Ce St Ce St Ce St HIS level HIS role HIS job holder National Develop policies PCS, NCC, NLCC, NHTC State / Region Manage HIS & water resources Executive Engineer SE/CE Circle Accumulate data Executive Engineer/ SE Division Apply software Executive Engineer Sub- div. Enter data Jun./Ast. Engineer Site Validate on site Jun /Ast. Engineer Collect data Observer Legend: Ce = Central agencies St = State Agencies Where jobs are distinct from others, a separate training course will be required and the composition of the group of trainees would be only heterogeneous in terms of previous job experience, age and locality. In the matrix above, 7 (levels) x 4 (technical sectors) would, in theory, generate 28 job-related training courses or training-like events (workshops, study tours etc.). In practice, not all States maintain such a clear-cut division of HIS roles and subsequent allocation to specific job holders. For instance, observers in the GW organization may be in charge of meteo reading and data collection and the Meteo organization may not have their own staff at site level to do so. From a training point of view, trainee selection should also accommodate for shared training needs in the sense of common topics and to introduce cooperation across various technical sectors. Such cooperation mainly exists at the level of Circles and upwards. During the Inception surveys, State specific training requirements and plans were noted. More details are provided in Annex 2. These requirements, together with the training needs listed in the SAR and the Consultant’s suggestions result, at present, in the training courses, events and enrollment figures as discussed below. Hydrometry for surface water field observers. Field observers of state and central agencies, will be trained at STIs (WALMI/staff college) by the trainers and resource persons who underwent
  • 88. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 40 ToT. They use the training modules received from CTIs. The importance of reliable hydrological data shall be emphasized. Training includes accurate measurements, data recording, operation and maintenance of equipment. Modules include: river gauging (SW-1), sediment sampling and on- site analyses (SW-2), surface water quality and on-site analysis (WQ-1) • Total number requiring training: 3595 (State average : 450) Commencement of training: March - April 1997 Duration of training: 3 wk Recommendation: Each WALMI/state staff college might plan for 7 courses/yr. with an intake intake of 20 persons for about 2.5 to 3.5 years as per need. Hydrometry for ground water field observers. Field observers of state and central agencies, will be trained at STIs (WALMI/staff college) by the trainers and resource persons who underwent ToT. They use the training modules received from CTIs. The importance of reliable hydrological data shall be emphasized. Training includes accurate measurements, data recording, operation and maintenance of equipment. Modules include: water level monitoring (GW-1), ground water sampling and on-site analyses (WQ-2) • Total number requiring training : 1776 (State average: 222) Commencement of training: Mar - April 1997 Duration of training: 2 wk Recommendation: Each WALMI/state staff college might plan to conduct 4 courses/yr (course intake : 20) for about 2.5 to 3.5 years as per need. Training for surface water supervisors and junior staff will also be organized and conducted at STIs by the resource persons who underwent ToT with the aid of training modules received from CTIs. Training will include: computation, data validation, analysis, effective motivation and supervision of field observers, operation and maintenance of equipment and significance of good quality data in water resources evaluation (SW-3) in addition to a rapid review of SW-1, SW-2 and WQ-1. • Total number requiring training: 782 (State average : 98) Commencement of training: March - April 1997 Duration of training: 4 wk Recommendation: Each WALMI/state staff college might plan to conduct 2 courses/yr with an intake of 20 persons for 2-3 years as per need. Training for hydromet observers of State and Central Agencies will be conducted on SRG and ARG by IMD trainers in the local language as agreed to by the IMD representative in NLSC meeting on 24th July, 1996 (Hydrometeorology Module 1). • Total number requiring training: 2640 (=880 per IMD institute) Commencement of training: December 1996 Duration of training: 3 wk Recommendation: IMD might plan to conduct about 8 courses/yr with an intake of 20 persons per course for about 4 years as per need. Training for Full Climatic Station supervisors in hydrometeorology will be conducted at IMD Training Centre, Pune. The course would cover all aspects of operation in a Full Climatic Station (HM-1 and HM-2). • Total number requiring training: 432 Commencement of training: January 1997
  • 89. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 41 Duration of training: 6 wk Recommendation: IMD might plan to conduct 4 courses/yr with an intake of 30 persons per course for 3 to 4 years as per need. Training of middle level professionals would be organized by the CTIs on hydrological analysis, modeling of hydrological systems, hydrogeological analysis, groundwater modeling, effective staff supervision, application software etc. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have proposed studies on the estimations of return flows from surface water irrigation. Additionally AP, Gujarat and Maharashtra have proposed catchment area water balance studies. A 4-wk refresher course on modeling of hydrological systems, water balance studies and drainage (surface and groundwater) could be organised by NIH with consultants" support. An intensive 10 wk course on groundwater modeling could also be organised by NIH with consultants" support. Orissa, Tamil Nadu have proposed catchment modeling for flood estimation. A 4-wk refresher course on rainfall-runoff modeling and flood hydrology could be organised by NIH with consultants" support. Mahrashtra has proposed continuation of its groundwater recharge studies. A 2-wk refresher course on geohydrological analysis and groundwater could be organised by CGWB/NIH with consultants" support. Andhra Pradesh and Kerala have proposed studies on groundwater pollution. A 3-wk course on modeling groundwater pollution could be organised by CGWB/NIH with consultants" support. Appreciation course for senior professionals would be organized by CTU, NIH or other qualified training centres on project management, significance of hydrological analysis in water resources evaluation, development and management, user-oriented data collection and dissemination. Training for Chemical assistants of state and central agencies will be conducted within the state by the trainers (Chemists) who underwent ToT in the Central Training Institute. The training includes basic aquatic chemistry, laboratory chemical analysis, operation and maintenance of equipment in addition to sampling of surface and groundwater and on-site analyses. The course covers Water Quality Modules 1, 2 and 3. • Total number requiring training: 244 (State average: 31) Commencement of training: March 1997 Duration of training: 6 wk Recommendation: the selected State training lab might plan to conduct 2 courses/yr with a course intake of about 15 persons per course, depending on equipment availability, for one year. Training for Chemists of Level II and Level II + Laboratories will be conducted in the Central Training Institute on advanced aquatic chemistry, water pollution, microbiology, data validation and storage, interpretation of water quality data, use of computer software, laboratory management and significance of water quality data in water resources management. The course covers Water Quality Module 4 and a rapid review of Water Quality Modules 1, 2 and 3. Chemists of Level II + laboratories do additionally Water Quality Module 5 which deals with operation & maintenance of specialized equipment like Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Gas Chromatograph (GC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS) etc. Training for Chief Chemists will be conducted at Central Training Institute (laboratory) on WQ network design, statistical methods, quality control procedures, identification of problem areas (Water Quality Module 6) in addition to a rapid review of Water Quality Modules 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
  • 90. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 42 Basic Computer Course of 3-week duration will be conducted at State WALMI (two courses in November and December 1996) to professionals in surface water/groundwater/water quality who will do data entry, validation and processing. The course includes module DM-1, as pre-requisite to subsequent data management courses. • Total number requiring training: 1480 (State average: 185) Commencement of training: November 1996 Duration of training: 3 wk Recommendation: Each WALMI might plan to conduct 5 courses with an intake of 20 persons per course for about 2 years. Computer course for data entry of 3-week duration is a follow-up of Data Management Module 1 and will be conducted at WALMIs by the resource persons who underwent ToT with the aid of training modules received from NIH. This is for professionals in surface water/ground water/water quality and will be for those who undertake data entry. The course deals with basics of database management and covers surface water database software for surface water professionals (Data Management Module 2)/groundwater database software for groundwater professionals (Data Management Module 3) and water quality database software for chemical assistants and chemists (Data Management Module 4). • Total number requiring training: 893 (State average: 112) Commencement of training: March 1997 Duration of training: 3 wk Recommendation: Each WALMI might plan to conduct 3 courses with an intake of 20 persons per course for a period of 1.5 to 2.5 years as per need. Computer course for database supervisors of 3 week duration is a follow-up of Basic Computer Course and Computer Course for data entry and will be conducted at NIH, Roorkee. This is for professionals of surface water/ground water/water quality. The course would provide application of specialized analysis software in surface water (Data Management Module 5)/groundwater (Data Management Module 6)/water quality (Data Management Module 7). The course will emphasize supervision of data entry and processing, validation checks, flow of data from field stations into the database, maintenance of time schedules etc. Computer course for database managers of 3-week duration is a follow-up of abovementioned three computer courses and will be probably conducted by NIH, Roorkee. This course is for professionals in surface water/groundwater who would function as database managers at data centres. The course covers Data Management Module 8 for surface water, Data Management Module 9 for ground water, GIS and interface issues. Training on specialized equipment. Suppliers will provide instructions and on-the-job training in the operation and proper maintenance of specialized equipment. This type of training is expected to take place before and during the installation of the equipment. CWPRS will conduct training in the States on application of the special equipment, data collection and analysis in surface water hydrology. The Water Resources Development Organization (WRDO) of Karnataka has proposed the installation of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at a major river site in the state. Special training is to be provided by the supplier, assisted by CWPRS and consultant. All States, except Madhya Pradesh, would be procuring a package of equipment for reservoir sedimentation surveying. Special training is to be provided by the supplier, assisted by CWPRS/CTU and consultant.
  • 91. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 5: First year Activities Page 5 - 43 Overseas study tours for senior professionals are suggested in the course of 1997, to provide exposure to established hydrological information systems in other countries. It is proposed that three groups would be constituted, one in surface water, groundwater and water quality. Each participating state should depute one specialist for each group. CWC would send 3 for surface water and CGWB likewise 3 for ground water. CWC & CGWB may jointly send 3 for water quality. Each group consists of 8 from states and 3 central agencies. Study tours in India will be organized in 1997 for middle-level professionals to visit other states to get acquainted with different hydrological methods and practices. Participants should be selected on the basis of performance in training courses. Duration should be 2 weeks to visit 3 states (6 per state and 4 from CWC making 4 study tours of 13 persons in surface water and likewise in groundwater with 4 from CGWB). Post-graduate courses in hydrology. It is desirable that about 3 to 4 promising junior professionals be deputed next academic year in 1997. State and central agencies should already start identifying appropriate candidates. Based upon specific expertise needed by the agencies, state-specific theses topics are prioritized and recommended to the candidates. Arrangements for post-graduate course, which could take place in India or overseas, will be made in close consultation with PCS/WB. For each course and training event described above, the following assistance is proposed. The actual depth and duration for external assistance would depend on the Institute’s or Cell’s capacity to undertake these steps under own management: • training needs analysis at sector, organisation and personal levels; • curriculum development and/or updating; • etailed training session/event specification; • materials production: for trainers and participants, including translations; • preparation and training of trainers and instructors; • training planning, organization and logistics management; • training delivery; • training administration, monitoring, evaluation and reporting; • evaluation and review sessions.
  • 92. Activity Schedule Task Group 2 SURFACE WATER & HYDROMETEOROLOGY No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Set up of HIS 1.1 Assessment of hydrological data needs a Preparation of questionnaire for data users b Interviews c Reporting 1.2 Overall structuring of the HIS a Draft documents on HIS Structure b Workshop on HIS structure 2 Surface Water 2.1 Design and operation of the monitoring network a Network design . Review/redesign of the surface water and meteorological network in a selected river basin. . Presentation of the design procedure in a workshop . Assistance to the implementation of network design procedure b Site selection . Drafting of guidelines . Site selection, field visits c Design of civil works d Equipment specification e Review/design of standards for monitoring, processing and data dissemination . Draft of standard procedures . Workshop on review of standards f Equipment installation, testing and maintenance Page 1
  • 93. Activity Schedule Task Group 2 SURFACE WATER & HYDROMETEOROLOGY No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2.2 Design and operation of the datacentres a Review/design of standards for data processing b Specification of hardware and software c Implementation of hardware and software d Design of state specific data storage and processing procedures e Processing of historical data . Advise on entry of historical data . Processing of historical data 2.3 Assistance in the preparation of the HIDAP 2.4 Training a Review of course curricula b Development of course material c Participation in training courses d On-the-job training in monitoring e On-the-job training in data processing 2.5 Research and development a Estimation of return flows b Design of telecommunication system for WRM c Development of operational WRM system d Design and development of flood forecasting systems e Design of reservoir sedimentation monitoring programs . advice on design of monitoring program and of equipmts . participation in the pilot studies of reservoir sedimentation Page 2
  • 94. Activity Schedule Task Group 2 DATABASE AND COMMUNICATION No. Activity 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Historical Data 1.1 Analysis and assessment of historical data 1.2 Entry of historical data 2 Procurement and Installation of Computer Systems 1.1 Finalization of Data centre infrastructure specifications 1.2 Procurement and installation of initial lot of systems 1.3 Procurement installation of second lot of systems 1.4 Procurement installation of final lot of systems In the year 1998-99 3 System Design and Development 3.1 System analysis 3.2 Design and development of the database 3.3 Design and development of user interfaces 3.4 Feasibility trials of data communication systems 3.5 Design of data communication systems 4 System Implementation 4.1 Database integration and testing In the year 1998-99 4.2 User interface integration and testing In the year 1998-99 4.3 Systems integration and testing In the year 1998-99 4.4 Training for operation, maintenance and management
  • 95. Activity Schedule Task Group 3 INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Project Management Support 1.1 develop and finalise Project Management Information System(PMIS)&formats 1.2 organise and conduct the Project Management workshop 1.3 Demonstration-cum-training seminar on utilisation of PMIS formats and software 1.4 operationalisation of PMIS in States 1.5 compile and prepare Progress Report (Q4 and Q1) 1.6 prepare format for internal project review 1.7 assist States to undertake review (with assigned consultant) 1.8 compile and prepare Progress Report (Q2 and Q3) 1.9 organize Annual Project Review workshop (with World Bank mission) 2 Finance: facilitation of financial disbursements and billing 2.1 review current procedures for budgeting approvals, disbursements, regulations, billing and auditing 2.2 exlore the option of setting up Revolving Funds including guidelines for billing and claims from World Bank 3 Development of the Hydrological Information System(HIS): Data needs assessment with Hydrological Data User Groups (HDUG) 3.1 Review and comment on draft document on HIS structure 3.2 Participate in workshop to determine the overall HIS structure 3.3 assist in development of questionnaire 3.4 assist States in conduct interviews with HDUs 3.5 review State reports on Hydrological Data Needs 3.6 prepare summary report 3.7 convene workshop with data producers 4 H.P Planning workshop 4.1 develop format for combined State workplan 1997-98 4.2 organise workshop for Nadal Officers and Senior Staff of State agencies for preparing integrated plans. 4.3 finalise formats for use by the States Page 1
  • 96. No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 Preparation of Hydrological Institution Development Action Plans (HIDAP): 5.1 review the HIDAP and suggest modifications 5.2 organise and conduct the HIDAP workshop, coordinating State plans 5.3 States finalise HIDAP and submit it to State Government, cc. NLSC 6 Organizational analysis of state implementing agencies 6.1 carry out SWOT analysis in 1 or 2 States 6.2 prepare report with recommendations, circulate and obtain feedback 6.3 assistance to States in implementation of recommendations 7 Staffing: review of staff requirements Organisational Development: streamlining organisation structures 7.1 preparation of OD approach for State SW & GW organisation 7.2 State visits to work out staffing and streamlining 7.3 reporting on findings and recommendations 8 Project Impact Monitoring 8.1 assess views and expectations of Central, State and funding agencies 8.2 organise and conduct workshop with States based on logical framework analysis 8.3 draft document on concept, objectives and indicators of institution development 8.4 develop impact monitoring system Page 2
  • 97. Activity Schedule Task Group 2 GROUNDWATER No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Design & Monitoring GW Networks 1.1 Review network design 1.2 Construction of DWLR key wells 1.3 Generating selected hydrographs 1.4 Hydrograph - field relationships 1.5 Frequency of observation 1.6 Integration of state-CGWB networks 1.7 Data gaps identification 2. Design and Operation of Database 2.1 Computer and manual data segregation 2.2 Selection of database and proc. syst. 2.3 Implementation of software 2.4 Design data handling procedures 3. Standards for Mon., Proc., Dissem 3.1 Drafting Standard Procedures 3.2 Workshop - review standards 4. Preparation of HIDAP 5. Training 5.1 Review training courses 5.2 Review courses curricula 5.3 Participation in courses 5.4 On the job training - monitoring 5.5 On the job training - data processing 6. Research & Development 6.1 Estimation of return flow 6.2 Water resources evaluation 6.3 Water quality projects 6.4 Water balance projects 6.5 Artificial recharge and aquifer perform.
  • 98. Activity Schedule Task Group 4 STAFF TRAINING CALENDAR No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Basic Computer Skills 1.1 confirm involvement of WALMIs 1.2 development of curricula 1.3 course organisation 1.4 first deliveries 1.5 evaluation of sessions 1.6 feedback to course providers 1.7 regular monitoring 2 Observers and supervisors training 2.1 assistance to CTIs for curriculum development 2.2 assistance to STI training delivery 2.3 evaluation sessions 2.4 promote improvements 3 Hydromet observers training at IMD training facilites 3.1 monitor module production (local languages) 3.2 course delivery monitoring 3.3 evaluation sessions 3.4 promote improvements 4 Hydromet supervisors training by IMD 4.1 course delivery monitoring 4.2 evaluation sessions 4.3 promote improvements 5 Training at CTIs & NIH for middle level professionals 5.1 identificaiton of topics and relevant software 5.2 familiarization of CTIs/NIH trainers with the software 5.3 assistance to CTIs/NIH in the conduct of courses Page 1
  • 99. Activity Schedule Task Group 4 STAFF TRAINING CALENDAR No ACTIVITES 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 o 7 8 9 10 11 12 6 Assistance to NIH in appreciation courses for senior professionals 6.1 identification of relevant themes 6.2 conduct of workshops/seminars 6.3 evaluation 6.4 promote improvements 7 Training on special equipment 7.1 monitor training by equipment suppliers 7.2 training by CWPRS 7.3 evaluation & feedback to suppliers and CWPRS 8 Overseas study tours 8.1 formulation of objectives by NCC and PCS 8.2 selection of participants by agencies 8.3 organisation of tours for SW/GW/WQ 8.4 seminars upon return 9 Post-graduate courses 9.1 appraisal of post-graduate courses in India and overseas 9.2 selection of post-graduate institutions 9.3 deputation of proper candidates 9.4 selection of state specific theses-topics 10 Study tours in India 10.1 selection of middle level professionals 10.2 organisation of study tour programmes 10.3 seminars upon return Note: Several courses repeat; only the initial course is shown in each category. Page 2
  • 100. Activity Schedule Task Group 4 TRAINING DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING OF TRAINERS No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Establishment of NHTC 1.1 Identification of NHTC members 1.2 Definition of working procedures and agenda 1.4 Participation in review meetings 1.5 Promote establishment of SHTs 2 Establishment of Training Cells in implementary agency 2.1 Prepare job descriptions for training cell staff 2.2 Prepare guidelines for staff selection: trainers, managers, designers 2.3 Assist with identificaiton/nomination of staff 2.4 Monitor Training Cell review meeting 3 Central and State Level Water Quality Training 3.1 Assessment of national laboratories , selection as CTI 3.2 Assist with preparation as CTI 3.3 Assessment and selection of state level laboratories 3.4 Assist with preparation as STIs 4 Training of Trainers 4.1 Brief CTIs as ToT centres (SW/GW/WQ/DM) 4.2 Brief and confirm committments for additional resources persons 4.3 Identify organisations for training management, HRD, didactics 4.4 Develop reference materials for technical training sectors 4.5 Develop reference material for HRD, training management, currdevo 4.6 Monitor technical ToT deliveries 4.7 Corporate HRD/training plans(1997) 4.8 Coach the preparation and review training materials 5 Training database and monitoring systems 5.1 Database 1:Hydrology Training resources in India 5.2 Database 2:International hydrology training institutes 5.3 Database 3:Profiles of active HP training institutes 5.4 Database 4:Trainer profiles 5.5 Database 5:Trainee profiles and enrollment 5.6 Database 6:Training courses and events 5.7 Database 7:Library of hydrology training modules
  • 101. Activity Schedule Task Group 2 Water Quality No. Activities 1996 1997 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Development & Strengthening of Lab. 1.1 Review of equipment list,building,plans,staff 1.2 Development of SOP, AQC, Trg curricula 1.3 Review of available software 1.4 Workshop on Standardization 1.5 Identification of training centres 2. Development of WQ monitoring guidelines 2.1 Pilot programme design 2.2 Documentation of guidelines 2.3 Workshop on guidelines 2.4 Programme development in states 3. Assistance in implementation of HP 3.1 Participation in Training 3.2 Hands on Training, quality control data validation, computer entry, processing, etc., and assessment of progress.
  • 102. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 1 Chapter 6 Staffing requirements of Consultancy Services 6.1 Inception Phase The official starting date of the consultancy is May 1, 1996. Activities started with preparations for the mobilisation of experts, wile an architect was commissioned the task for the design of the project office, to be located on the top floor of the CSMRS building in Delhi. The Team Leader arrived on May 27, 1996. Other key staff followed soon, as indicated in Table 6.1. The consultancy gained momentum with the start of the Identification Mission on June 24, which was completed on August 26, 1996. About 12 staff members participated in this Mission. Table 6.1 summarises the staff months utilised during the Inception Phase, i.e. from May 1 till September 30, 1996. About 4% of the available staff months were used in this phase. Deliberately a relatively low staff input was maintained during this phase. For various reasons it was necessary to seek approval for staff changes and the mobilisation of short-term experts during the Inception Phase. The approved staff changes are listed below. Designation Name Approval dates Task Group 1 1. SMC Tamil Nadu S.M. Krishnan 18.06.96 2. SMC Gujarat S.C. Sharma 12.07.96 3. SMC Maharashtra V.P. Shimpi 12.07.96 4. SMC Andra Pradesh P.S. Murthy 18.09.96 Task Group 2 5. Sr. Hydrogeologist A. Bein 29.08.96 6. Sr. WQ Expert (LT) Boderie 18.09.96 7. WQ Expert (ST/F) M. Villars 13.06.96 8. Equipment Spec. J. van der Pot 13.06.96 9. WQ Lab. Specialist J.A.C. vd Broek 19.09.96 Task Group 3 10. MIS expert P.K. Mukherjee 18.06.96 11. MIS expert J.V. Rao 13.06.96 Task Group 4 12. Training Expert E. Korsten 13.06.96 13. Training Expert P.B. Sastry 13.06.96 The State Management Consultants (SMC) for Gujarat and Maharashtra had to be replaced because they were not able to settle at their duty stations, while the SMC for Andra Pradesh sadly deceased. Early October all SMC's are expected to be in position. Due to unfortunate personal conditions, the Sr. Hydrogeologist (F) had to be replaced, while the short-term WQ Specialist (F) was changed into a long-term position in view of the substantial input required in this domain. This required also a change of the initially proposed expert. The
  • 103. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 2 Equipment Expert was mobilized on specific request of PCS, while the WQ Lab. Specialist will be mobilised urgently to draft a standard model (blue print) for the set-up and operation of water quality laboratories under HP. MIS expertise has been mobilised on an urgent basis to support PCS with the preparation of its bi- annual progress report to the World Bank, while short-term training experts participated in the Identification Mission due to non-availability of the long-term experts. 6.2 Proposed Staffing October 1996 to December 1997 6.2.1 General The proposed staffing for the period October 1996 till December 1997 follows directly from the activity barcharts as presented in Chapter 5 for the various domains of activities. Staffing barcharts for each domain are included in Section 6.3, notably for the activities related to Management and Coordination, SW, GW, WQ, DCS, ID and Training. The number of staff months estimated to be required are also listed in Table 6.1. Staffing requirements are further explained in the following sections. Several reallocations are proposed, particular with respect to short-term foreign experts, which could not be defined precisely at the proposal stage. Similarly the need for 18 short-term and long-term additional national experts has been identified, which may be recruited from staff months to be named. According to the staffing plan as detailed in Table 6.1, about 150 foreign staff months (out of 289) and 480 national staff months (out of 1125) would be utilised in the first 1.5 years of the project (till December 1997), equivalent to about 45% of the available resources. This leaves 55% for the last 3 to 4 years of the consultancy services. The justification of this distribution of resources in time is that the need for immediate support in numerous domains of activities within all participating states and agencies is very substantial. Task Group 3 may serve as an example. ID requires interaction with all participating agencies on a frequent basis. To spend in one year one staff month within each participating agency requires already about 40 staff months of Task Group 3 to be spent in the states. Time to be spent at Consultants' main office in Delhi for preparatory activities, team work and consultations, reporting, etc. requires another 20 to 30 staff months for this Task Group. Consul- tants anticipate to spend 50 to 60% of their time in the participating states. Hence, the ID-TG requires 6 long-term experts to achieve the same, and yet only one staff month is spent within each organisation on Institutional Development (or 4 to 5 staff months in one state). The situation is by and large similar with respect to other TGs or sub-TGs (like SW, GW, WQ, DCS). A total of 570 staff months has been planned for the next phase of 15 months. About about 60% or 340 staff months would be spent within the participating agencies and on field inspections, etc. This leaves in a period of 15 months less than 10 staff months within each agency to cover all relevant issues and domains of activities. The above scope should be kept in mind while reviewing the staffing schedules as contained in Table 6.1. It is also the reason that where possible a modular approach should be followed, developed in one state on a pilot basis and communicated thereafter to other states through workshops and short-duration visits. Finally, it clearly
  • 104. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 3 demonstrates that Consultants can only function as facilitators, rather than as implementors of the Hydrology Project. 6.2.2 Task Group 1: General Coordination and Management On the 1st October 1996 all staff of Task Group was mobilized, with the arrival of the Dpty. Team Leader and the newly appointed State Management Consultants (SMC) for Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andra Pradesh taking up their posts. As discussed in Chapter 4, the role of the SMCs is of crucial importance to the success of the Project, being the eyes and the ears of the Consultant staff in New Delhi. Hence, frequent coordination and interaction of the central consultancy team with the SMCs is a must. The post of Dpty. Team Leader has, therefore, been renamed Task Manager 1, and it will be his responsibility to keep close liaison with the SMCs, through frequent visits to the States and other means of communication. The tasks of the SMCs are discussed in Chapter 4, to which is referred for briefness. The names of the SMCs are listed in Table 6.1. These tasks will be carried out in close cooperation between Task Groups 1 and 3. The Team Leader will liaise with the Task Managers of all 4 Task Groups to ensure the overall coordination of tasks, activities, workshops etc., as well as the timely fielding of experts, logistic preparations, etc. Given the crucial role of Task Groups 1 and 3 in achieving a successful project, he will maintain a special liaison with the Task Managers of these Task Groups (ref. to Chapter 4). In coordinating the various project components and liaising with the donor and funding agencies, the PCS, Steering and Coordination Committees, the Team Leader will particularly involve the Task Managers 1 and 3. 6.2.3 Task Group 2: Technical Services Surface Water. Consultants have nominated in their proposal one foreign and one national Sr. Hydrologist. In view of the substantial scope of activities to be undertaken with priority in the domain of SW, it is proposed to include three additional national experts on a long-term basis, i.e. a second Sr. Hydrologist, a Data Processing Expert and a Network Design Expert. All experts will be involved in training activities, including on-the-job training. The first Sr. Hydrologist, Dr. D.V.L.N. Rao will look in particular after all matters related to monitoring network design and optimisation, supported by the Network Design Expert. Jointly they will prepare a standard approach for the optimum design of networks for hydrological and hydrometeorological data collection, conduct a workshop on standardisation and assist all SW agencies with implementing the same. The Advisor SW, Mr. Dharma Rao, is proposed as second Sr. Hydrologist, who will look in particular after all matters related to project implementation in the field, including site selection, design of stations, inspections, standards for SW monitoring stations and the flow of data from field to data Centre. The foreign Sr. Hydrologist will be involved in all activities, with special emphasis on HIS and hydrological data processing, with assistance of the proposed national Data Processing Expert. The latter will assist the state officers in operating various data validation procedures and interact
  • 105. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 4 closely with the technical experts in setting and standardising data validation procedures. He will work at the state data centre in building up the main data base with other hardware and software experts, with particular attention to the organisation of the Meta data base. Short-term foreign experts will assist with: • the design of procedures for data validation, the preparation of documentation for standardisation of data validation procedures and the implementation of the same (Data Processing Expert). • the selection of locations for installation of new equipment such as AWLR, ADCP cross section, cableways, design of civil works as needed, and the preparation of guidelines for the same (Site Selection/Guidelines Expert). • the development of a standard approach for the design of SW monitoring networks, based on international standards and ground realities, and assist with the application of the methodology on a pilot basis. Groundwater. In addition to the already scheduled long-term foreign and national experts one long-term national expert would be involved to support the concerned state and central agencies with respect to GW data entry, validation and other relevant data processing. The expert would work mostly in the Data Centres and provide on-the-job training. He will be instrumental in getting the GW Data Centres working. Short-term foreign experts will assist with: • the review and design of standards for monitoring, processing and data dissemination, draft standard formats and procedures and participate in a workshop on the subject; • the design of the research procedures and methodologies, with emphasis on numeric modelling, artificial recharge and aquifer enhancement performances; • the design of the data base configuration, the preparation of specifications, and the selection and implementation of dedicated software for groundwater data processing.
  • 106. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 5 Water Quality. Within the participating agencies WQ is still in an infant stage, particular so in the SW departments. This required substantial input, during the first years of the project, being the reason that it is deemed necessary to employ a long-term expatriate WQ expert for the development and supervision of the overall approach to WQ monitoring under HP, and 3 national experts for extended time, i.e. (i) the general WQ expert nominated in the contract, (ii) a Sr. Chemist with experience in the running of WQ laboratories to assist all agencies on an 'as needed' basis in setting-up and running their often new laboratories, and (iii) an expert with experience in the computerisation and processing of WQ data, to support the agencies with the processing of historical and new WQ data. Additionally several foreign short-term experts will assist with: • the preparation of a standard module for a WQ laboratory, covering lay-out, set-up and instrumentation of the laboratories, Standard Operation Procedures, Quality Control, training curricula, etc; • the development of State/agency wise WQ monitoring programmes with respect to SW and GW, covering monitoring mandates and objectives, monitoring guidelines, etc., as well as assist with the implementation of the guidelines as needed. Data Base and Communication System. Long-term specialists include: • Information Specialist The Information Specialist has a wide experience in design and implementation of IT projects and has more than average experience with database, communication and GIS/userinterfaces. The Information Specialist has a responsibility for HIS development and implementation and reports to the Consultants project management. • IT-Assistant The IT_Assistant has in depth knowledge of PC applications in a MS-Windows environment (MS-Windows 3.x), MS-Office, LAN. His responsibility is to assist in the design and implementation of HIS with respect to PC technical matters, both hardware and software. Additionally, he renders technical assistance to agencies taking part in the project • General Database Specialist The General DataBase Specialist assists the (geo)hydrologists, water quality experts and other professionals during design and implementation of HIS. Furthermore he communicates with the database developers in behalf HP. He has in depth knowledge of and experience with the DBMS which is going to be used for HIS. During implementation at the agencies he gives assistance as required. • GIS and Userinterface Specialist This specialist gives input to the design and implementation of user interfaces under HIS. At data entry level this is planned to be in Excel and Access, supported by Visual BASIC. At the state and national level emphasis will be on GIS. The GIS is planned to visualise spatial data features. Adequate knowledge and experience in the GIS package to be used under HIS is a requirement. During implementation he will render assistance at the agencies according to their requirements. • Communication Specialist
  • 107. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 6 The Communication Specialist gives input during design of HIS data communication system. Data communication will be by leased telephone line and by satellite. Probably the greater part of communication will be Internet compatible. During implementation, his assistance is required at national and state level. The communication Specialist has appropriate knowledge and experience to fulfil his task efficiently. His support will be required at national and state level during implementation. Short-term specialists include: • Equipment Expert. The Equipment Expert will provide necessary input in the installation and testing of sophisticated equipment like ADCP, AWLRs (Sensor type), DGPS system, echo sounders, etc. He will also provide post - installation training to the field engineers for handling such equipment adequately. He will further advise on special equipment for reservoir sedimentation surveys. He will assist in the preparation of guidelines for site selections, instrument handling, and procedures for data logging. • Database Designer The Database Designer will communicate with the supplier of the DBMS-software package and will prepare the design and tender documents for the HIS national and state databases. He has ample experience in database application and design, in particular on the client/server DBMS to be used under HIS. He will also have been exposed to combined GIS/database applications. The database specifications are conceived in concert with the database users. The Database Designer reports to Consultants project management. • GIS Designer For design of userinterfaces at national and state level GIS input is planned. The userinterfaces are to visualise the spatial data distribution and to enhance/assist data search and selection processes operated on the underlying database. The GIS Designer prepares design- and tender documents for the userinterfaces at national and state level. Adequate knowledge and experi- ence for this responsibility is required. He reports to Consultants project management. • Communication Specialist In particular at the higher levels of HIS, communication is of great importance. During design of these high level communication facilities professional input is needed. The Communication Specialist assists during final design and prepares design- and tender documents. The Database Designer reports to Consultants project management. Task Group 3: Institutional Development Institution Development Specialist, Long-Term, Foreign: R. van Ommen. The foreign ID expert will direct and manage the activities of Task Group 3, and provide support to the Team Leader for Project planning and implementation. He will identify the institutional issues to be addressed, and the activities needed to be undertaken. He will collaborate closely with the team leader on scheduling the required inputs for institutional development, taking into account the needs from the other Task Groups. He will maintain regular contacts with the State Management Consultants.
  • 108. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 7 In the first year of the consultancy, he will guide development and introduction of a Management Information System (MIS), develop a format for State work plans and budgets, participate in an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) regarding the State organisations, culminating in an overall organisational assessment and development of recommendations for their strengthening. With respect to the Hydrological Information System (HIS), he will assess institutional aspects of the relevant proposals, discuss views and expectations with the participating agencies, and guide the development of objectives and indicators of success for the Project. Institution Development Specialist - 1, Long-Term, Local: P. Kongari. He will assist the foreign ID expert in the management and direction of the ID activities. In the first year of the consultancy, he will develop the institutional part of a questionnaire for Hydrological Data User Groups (HDUGs). In collaboration with the foreign expert, he will develop a format for State work plans and budgets, develop proposals for strengthening management practices of the participating agencies, and participate in the SWOT of State organisations to develop an organisation development approach. Regarding the HIS, he will assist the foreign specialist by drafting a document for discussion with the participating agencies on appropriate objectives and indicators for success of the Project. Institution Development Specialist - 2, Long-Term, Local: (replacement Agarwal). Due to practical limitations, many issues need to be addressed -- at least in the first instance -- in workshops for representatives from the implementing agencies from the States. One of the main responsibilities of this ID specialist is to assist in the organisation, implementation, and follow up of these workshops, and to liaise with the State Management Consultants on related project support and flow of information. With respect to the HIS, he will participate in development of the questionnaire developed on the institutional aspects of meeting data needs of HDUGs, conduct interviews using the questionnaire in the States, and assist in developing indicators for impact monitoring. Institution Development Specialist - 3, Long-Term, Local: (to be identified). This ID specialist will focus mainly on planning and implementation of activities to be undertaken by the participating agencies. He will assist the States in applying Project specifications to the formulation of draft work plans and budgets, develop key job descriptions in preparation for recruitment and identification of training needs, and participate in the SWOT and advise States on incorporating consequent recommendations in their activity plans. Finance Specialist, Short-Term, Local: (replacement Ajay Singh). The finance specialist will review current procedures for budgeting, approvals, disbursements, and regulations regarding generation of funds, billing, and auditing, and draft recommendations for expediting the relevant processes as they pertain to implementation of the Project (within existing Government regulations where they obtain). He will also explore the option of setting up Revolving Funds, including guidelines for billing and claims for reimbursement of expenses by the World Bank. Management Information Specialist - 1, Long-term, Local: P. Mukherjee. The MIS specialist 1 will develop the MIS, conduct a workshop on the functional use of the MIS, and provide relevant technical demonstrations and training. He will assist the States in installing and commencing operation of the system. He will provide full-time input on these matters during the first few months of the consultancy, and subsequently reduce his input to part-time as he will also take up responsibilities for development of the HIS. He will provide guidance and direction of a second
  • 109. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 8 long-term MIS specialist who will continue Project support to the system during his part-time involvement. Management Information Specialist - 2, Long-term, Local: (to be identified). The MIS specialist 2 will work in close collaboration with and under the direction of MIS Specialist 1, to design and implement the MIS at the State level. He will work in close cooperation with the State nodal officer, to ensure smooth functioning of the MIS. He will review MIS operation from time to time and conduct workshops as needed for maintenance of the system. 6.2.5 Task Group 4: Training Services Training has been earmarked as a priority activity during the first 1.5 year of the project. Therefore, a considerable part of the available resources will be spent during this period. In the period October 1996 - December 1997 the following fields of training expertise need to be covered with qualified project and advisory staff. Training institutions development specialists. These are typical long term functions during the whole Project period and will be mainly taken care of by the training (Deputy) Team leader and State Management Consultants. • Involvement, support and networking for CTIs and STIs • Establishment and support of National an State level training coordination committees • Establishment and support of Water User Training Cells Training data bases and resources management specialists.These areas of activities are managed by the core longer term Training Consultants, with additional assistance from software programmers to automate resource administration and reporting, and a librarian for data entry and daily supervision. • Design, start-up and maintenance of HP training monitoring and evaluation systems • Design, start-up and maintenance of national and international training resources • Design, start-up and maintenance of HP trainees and trainers databases • Collection and maintenance of HP training modules Course design, production and management specialists. Translators are needed for the Oriya, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam versions of English master modules. For other Indian language versions no difficulties are expected. These translators should be technical translators and familiar with the subject matter. The provision of training management, curriculum development and educational design should secure the (non-technical) training quality requirements in the HP. Related experts will prepare practical guidelines for these areas and deliver special training sessions at selected training institutes. As advisors, they will also review actual application of the guidelines and recommend on follow-up action. For field visits and study tours in India and abroad, travel arrangements need to be prepared and managed at the spot. For this purpose, study tour managers are needed who will also operate in the country where the hosting organisations are located.
  • 110. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 9 Technical trainers. Technical subject matter specialists and training advisors should, of course, be familiar with the training contents they represent, but their real added value is their familiarity with the full cycle of training development for a particular curriculum. This means that technical training advisors are not charged with the task to review the technical validity and standardisation of training contents as done by HP’s Task Group 2. Technical trainers will: • further specify training needs at sector, organisation and personal levels; • further detail curricula and training paths on the basis of training needs analysis and human resources development plans; • specify training sessions/events (modules) within a curriculum, including the preparation of reality-based case studies, examples, exercises etc. ; • assist with educational design and production of materials for trainers and participants; • occasionally take part as trainer in selected courses; • review initial rounds of training delivery. Hydrology areas to be covered by these technical trainers include: • Basic computer training • Data management training • Surface water training • Ground water training • Water quality training in surface and ground water • Hydromet training
  • 111. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 10 Table 6.1: Summary of Staffing Hydrology Project October 1996 till December 1997 Task Group 1: General Coordination and Management Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 1 Team Leader J.G. Grijsen 50 50 2.3 2.5 9.5 35.7 27.05.96 2 Dpty Team Leader R.K. Visvanath 63 63 2.5 11 49.5 30.09.96 3 MC Andra Pradesh P.S. Murthy 50 50 3 3 11 36 01.10.96 4 MC Gujarat S.C. Sharma 50 50 3 3 11 36 01.10.96 5 MC Karnataka N.R. Venkatesha 50 50 3 3 11 33 01.07.96 6 MC Kerala N.V. Vapicha 50 50 3 3 11 33 01.07.96 7 MC Madhya Pradesh B.B. Ghosh 50 50 3 3 11 33 01.07.96 8 MC Maharashtra V.P. Shimpi 50 50 3 11 36 01.10.96 9 MC Orissa G.N. Padhi 50 50 2 3 11 34 01.07.96 10 MC Tamil Nadu S.M. Krishnan 50 50 3 3 11 33 01.07.96 Total Foreign mm 50 0 50 2.3 2.5 9.5 35.7 Total Local mm 463 0 463 14 26.5 99 323.5 Total TG 1 513 0 513 16.3 29 108.5 359.2
  • 112. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 11 Task Group 2: Technical Services Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 1 Sr. Hydrogeolog A. Bein/Botbol 24 24 1.2 2.8 10.5 9.5 12.06.96 2 Sr. Hydrologist H.J.M. Ogink 24 24 2.5 2.5 9.5 9.5 10.06.96 3 Sr. WQ expert Boderie (Groot) 26 -2.4 23.6 2 10.5 11.1 Oct. 96 WQ expert (ST) Villars 0 2.4 2.4 2.4 0 21.06.96 4 DB Manag. Spec. B.W.G. Blok 24 -8.5 15.5 1 1.5 7 6 04.09.96 Equip. spec./hydrom J. van der Pot 0 8.5 8.5 1 1.5 5 1 30.06.96 5 Sr.Hydrogeologist T.S. Raju 50 50 1.7 2.8 11 34.5 05.08.96 GW data proc. exp. t.b.n. (N) 12 12 1 11 0 6 Sr. Hydrologist D.V.L.N. Rao 50 50 4 3 11 32 01.06.96 Sr. Hydrologist Dharma Rao 14 14 3 11 0 Oct. 96 SW data proc. Exp. t.b.n. (N) 12 12 2 10 0 Netw. Design Exp. t.b.n. (N) 10 10 10 0 7 WQ expert R.H. Siddiqi 50 50 1.7 3 11 34.3 30.06.96 WQ data proc. exp. t.b.n. (N) 10 10 10 0 Chemist t.b.n. (N) 9 9 9 0 8 Information Spec. Kaulgud/t.b.n. 50 50 3 3 11 33 20.06.96 Gen. DB Spec. t.b.n. (N) 13 13 2 11 0 IT assistent t.b.n. (N) 6 6 0 6 0 DCS - MIS Mukharjee 4 4 1 3 0 Oct. 96 GIS/UI Specialist t.b.n. (N) 12 12 12 0 Communication Spec. t.b.n. (N) 6 6 6 0 9 Lab. eq. special. Van den Broek 3 3 1.5 1 0.5 05.10.96 10 Monit. manuals SW P.H. von Lany 1 1 1 11 Monit. manuals GW H. Michelson 1 0.5 1.5 1.5 0 12 Network Optim.Exp. S.C. Child 3 2 5 2.5 2.5 0 (technical services cont’d)
  • 113. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 12 Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 13 Data validation P.T. Adamson 4 -3 1 1 14 R&D spec. GW J. Bear 3 -0.5 2.5 1.5 1 15 R&D spec. SW J.L. Stephens 3 -1 2 2 16 Telemetry spec. A. Willis 3 -3 0 0 Commun. Spec. t.b.n. (F) 2 2 2 0 17 Reserv. sed. spec. E. Mosselman 3 -1.5 1.5 1.5 18 WQ spec. GW A. Mercado 2 2 1.5 0.5 19 WQ spec. SW C. Hoggart 2 1 3 3 0 20 Water Balance Mod. P.H. von Lany 3 -3 0 0 21 Data proces. exp. D.R. Archer 3 2 5 1.5 3.5 0 GW DB-software exp t.b.n. (F) 3 3 1 2 0 DB Designer t.b.n. (F) 1.5 1.5 1.5 0 GIS Designer t.b.n. (F) 2 2 2 0 22 Monitoring & Eval. J.C. de Goede 2 -2 0 0 23 Advisor GW D.K. Dutt 6 6 12 3.3 2.2 6.5 0 01.06.96 24 Advisor SW Dharma Rao 10 -7 3 3 0 18.06.96 25 Advisor Meteo.S.D.S. Abbi 6 5 11 3.3 1 4 2.7 01.06.96 26 Add. Experts t.b.n. 190 -112 78 78 Total Foreign MM 134 0 134 8.1 16.8 64.5 44.6 Total Local MM 412 0 412 20 24.0 153.5 214.5 Total TG 2 546 0 546 28.1 40.8 218.0 259.1
  • 114. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 13 Task Group 3: Institutional Development Spec. Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 1 ID specialist R. van Ommen 45 45 2 2.5 9.5 31 03.06.96 2 Financial Exp. Rajiv Vij 25 -10 15 3 4 8 3 ID specialist P.Kongari 35 35 2 2.5 10.5 20 25.06.96 4 ID specialist Ravi Pandit 35 35 2.5 10.5 22 ID specialist R. Bhatnagar 13 13 2 11 0 5 MIS specialist Mukherjee 14 14 3.5 2 8 0.5 17.06.96 MIS specialist tbn 13 13 2 11 0 6 ID specialist tbn. 49 -30 19 19 Total Foreign mm 45 0 45 2 2.5 9.5 31 Total Local mm 144 0 144 5.5 14 55 69.5 Total TG 3 189 0 189 7.5 16.5 64.5 100.5
  • 115. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 14 Task Group 4: Training Services Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 1 Team Leader H.J. Wittenberg 40 -2.8 37.2 1 2.5 10 23.7 01.09.96 Training Exp.(ST) E. Korsten 2.8 2.8 2.8 0 13.06.96 2 Dpty. TL Training t.b.n. 37 -3 34 2 11 21 Training Exp.(ST) P.B. Sastri 3 3 3 0 17.06.96 3 ID specialist G.J. van Reenen 1 -1 0 0 4 Monitoring & Eval. J.C. de Goede 1 -1 0 0 5 Data Validation P.T. Adamson 2 -1 1 1 6 Reservoir Sedim. E. Mosselman 2 2 2 7 SWQual. Trainer C. Hoggart 2 2 1 1 8 Info. Manag. (SW) D.R. Archer 2 2 2 0 Info. Manag. (GW) t.b.n. (F) 2 2 2 0 9 Telemetry A. Willis 2 -2 0 0 10 SWQuan. Trainer R. Harpin 2 2 2 0 11 Trainer GW (Q & Q) J. Bear 2 2 2 0 12 Info. Manag. (WQ) S.R. Brown 2 2 2 0 13 WRM spec. G. Uittenboogaard 1 -1 0 0 14 OOPP spec. A.W. Rijneveld 1 1 1 0 Tr. Hydromet. t.b.n. (F) 1 1 1 0 Tr. Managem. Spec. t.b.n. (F) 1 1 1 0 Tr. Systems Spec. t.b.n. (F) 1 1 1 0 Educ. Design Spec. t.b.n. (F) 1 1 1 0 15 Trainer SW B.P. Parida/Chandra 12 12 1 5 6 16 Tr. Hydromet. S.D.S. Abbi 12 -5 7 1.5 3 2.5 01.06.96 17 Training spec. K. Ramana Murthy 12 -12 0 0
  • 116. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Chapter 6: Staffing Requirements Page 6 - 15 (training services cont’d) Budget Reall. Total Spent 4th Q96 1997 Balance Mobil. Designation Name mm mm mm mm mm mm mm date 18 Trainer GW (Q & Q) D. Kasyap 8 8 1 6 1 Basic comp/software t.b.n. (N) 4 4 2 2 0 Info. Man. Trainer t.b.n. (N)/Parida 6 6 6 0 SW Qual.Trainer t.b.n. (N) 4 4 4 0 Training DB Progr. t.b.n. (N) 6 6 1 5 0 Translators t.b.n. (N) 4 4 4 0 Tr. Managem. Spec. t.b.n. (N) 4 4 4 0 Tr. Systems Spec. t.b.n. (N) 4 4 4 0 Educ. Publishing Spec. t.b.n. (N) 6 6 6 0 19 Training spec. t.b.n. (N) 25 -21 4 4 Total Foreign mm 60 0 60 3.8 2.5 26 27.7’; Total Local mm 106 0 106 3 12.5 56 34.5 Total TG 4 166 0 166 6.8 15 82 62.2 GRAND TOTAL FOREIGN 289 0 289 16.2 24.3 109.5 139 GRAND TOTAL NATIONAL 1125 0 1125 42.5 77.0 363.5 642 GRAND TOTAL PROJECT 1414 0 1414 58.7 101.3 473 781 *) time ST staff (F) at home office for extensive preparation and follow-up on request of the TL is included.
  • 117. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 1 ANNEX 1 The Hydrology Project 1 Background and objectives The GoI's National Water Policy gives first priority to the provision of domestic water supplies for urban and rural populations but also recognises the water needs of irrigation, hydro- and thermal power, industry, navigation, pollution control, wild life and environment. The fast growing population creates a rapid growth of water demands making water in an increasing manner a scarce commodity. Not only do the various water users have conflicting interests, border crossing rivers also tenses the relation between a number of States. Integrated water management, where relevant supported by interstate agreements, is required to balance sustainable resources, demands and interests. This requires a.o. reliable data on hydrological and climatological parameters and water use. At present, information on the water resources, quantitatively and qualitatively, is neither reliable nor is its temporal-spatial coverage sufficient for proper planning, design and operation purposes. Particularly water quality and surface water quantity data are lacking or appear often to be of poor quality. Also, although to a lesser extent, groundwater observations show imperfections. As clearly documented in the SAR, the monitoring networks, equipment and practices as well as the validation and dissemination procedures are poorly tuned to the present day requirements. Different monitoring and processing standards for equipment and procedures are practised and exchange of data is fairly non-existent. The problems can largely be attributed to weaknesses in the institutional infrastructure within the agencies and between the agencies. The agencies are short of skilled staff, due to lack of training and frequent transfers in a weak-hydrologically oriented environment; a career in surface water hydrology e.g. does not exist. Procurement procedures and disbursements of funds are often very lengthy, which frustrates timely implementation and reduce motivation and enthusiasm of the concerned staff. Standardisation of equipment and procedures and exchange of information are strongly hampered by the absence of an interagency communication culture. The Hydrology Project (HP) was embarked upon to support the establishment of reliable, sustainable and easily accessible databases at Agency, State and National level for climatic, surface water and groundwater quantity and quality data, fit to the requirements of the users. Each database is embedded in an Information System, which covers the hydro-meteorological infrastructure and resources including the recording of the parameters and their storage and dissemination and presentation. The Hydrology Project therefore includes on the one hand the expansion and upgra- ding of the infrastructure to record, collect, store, validate, process and distribute hydrological and hydro-meteorological data, using standardised equipment and procedures, and on the other hand strengthening of the relevant institutions. The Project area covers almost the entire Indian Peninsula south of the Ganges basin. It comprises the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. The state agencies dealing with surface and groundwater, the national surface and groundwater agencies CWC and CGWB operating through their Central and Regional offices with own networks in the Project Area as well as the India Meteorological Department participate in the Hydrology Project. The NIH and CWPRS undertake special applied research activities formulated under the Project and provide with the IMD and the Consultant training for professional staff.
  • 118. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 2 Undisputedly, reliable historical meteorological, surface and groundwater quantity and quality data is of paramount importance for proper water resources planning and management. It should be realised, though, that the envisaged project output is only an essential first building-stone in the development of a general Water Information System (WIS), covering ultimately all relevant data for planning and management, including also water use information, space oriented data and socio- economic data to meet future user requirements. Awareness should be created among the data users about the type of information that can be derived. Therefore, the structure of the central databanks at the State, Regional and National agencies has to be flexible to allow future broadening. GIS oriented analysis/presentation tools would be required in this respect. Such tools not only enhances integration of the various types of data but would also improve the data validation procedures. 2 Project scope The support that the project will provide to the concerned State Government and Central agencies may be summarised as follows. Project States Hydrometry and Data Management • Upgrading and expanding the physical infrastructure for hydrometric activities related to the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water resources and for monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters through construction of observation site works and buildings, and provisions of measuring instruments and equipment, and laboratory facilities; • Upgrading systems for collection, validation and processing of data on reservoir operations and river diversions and return flows from surface water diversions and on groundwater withdrawals, through the provisions of buildings and measuring instruments and equipment; • Upgrading and standardisation of data management facilities by establishment of computerised data banks for the storage and retrieval, analysis and dissemination of data related to the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater resources and for monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters, including provision of equipment and buildings; • Provision of communication systems, including equipment and services to inter-connect the project computerised data centres; • Provision and installation of instruments and equipment, and services to improve or establish flood forecasting systems; • Provision of instruments and equipment, and services for sediment surveys of reservoirs; and • Carrying out of survey, investigation and design of hydrometric and hydrometeorological activities. Institutional Strengthening
  • 119. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 3 • strengthening existing hydrological and hydrometeorological institutions in technical and management areas through the provision of local training, incremental staffing and operation and maintenance, equipment and vehicles; and • provision of consultants services, overseas training and study tours, and studies for institutional strengthening. MOWR and MOWR Agencies Hydrometry and Data Management • upgrading and expanding the physical infrastructure for hydrometric activities related to the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater resources and for monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters through construction of observation site works and provisions of measuring instruments and equipment, and laboratory facilities; • upgrading and standardisation of data management facilities by establishment of computerised data banks for the storage and retrieval, analysis and dissemination of data related to the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater resources and for monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters, including provision of equipment and buildings; • provision of communication systems, including equipment and services to inter-connect the project computerised data centres; • carrying out of survey, investigation and design of hydrometric and hydrometeorological activities; • carrying out of research and development related to hydrometry, water quality measurements and data processing; and • upgrading calibration facilities through the provision of works, instruments, equipment and services. Institutional Strengthening • strengthening existing hydrological and hydrometrorological institutions in technical and management areas through the provision of training facilities, local training, incremental staffing and operation and maintenance, equipment and vehicles; and • provision of infrastructural support for the National Water Academy of Pune, and the Institute of Raipur; and • provision of consultants services, overseas training and study tours, and studies for institutional strengthening. IMD
  • 120. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 4 Hydrometeorology and Data Management • upgrading and standardisation of data management facilities by establishment of computerised data banks for the storage and retrieval, analysis and dissemination of data related to monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters, including provision of equipment and buildings; • provision of equipment and services to inter-connect the project computerised data centres; • carrying out of survey, investigation and design of hydrometeorological activities; • upgrading calibration facilities through the provision of works, instruments, equipment and services; and • carrying out of research and development related to hydrometeorological measurements and data management. Institutional Strengthening • strengthening IMD's technical and management capabilities through the provision of training facilities, local training, incremental staffing and operation and maintenance, equipment and vehicles to assist IMD in providing technical support to the Project states, MOWR, and MOWR agencies in (i) upgrading and expanding the physical infrastructure for monitoring of hydrometeorological parameters; and (ii) strengthening related institutional arrangements; and • provision of consultants services, overseas training and study tours, and studies for institutional strengthening. 3 Project implementation The main difficulty in the Hydrology Project lays with the institutional aspects to establish an infrastructure, physical tools and human capacity to develop reliable and sustainable Information Systems, which produce output fully tailored to the requirements of the users. Key elements in this development are introduction of efficient standardised tools and procedures at all levels in the organisation, creation of skilled enthusiastic staff and strong communication links between the agencies as well as with the data user groups. To bring about changes is a gradual process, which proceed unsynchronously between the various institutions and agencies. Guidance and assistance in the coordination and mutual fine-tuning of these unsynchronuous processes of change between the institutions are the Consultant's major input of the Project. Given the large size of the Project, covering six years and a large number of institu- tions, and the complexity of institutional and management challenges, a flexible and responsive approach is needed. Therefore, the Project will be implemented according to the "process approach". The application of the process approach to monitor the progress of a project is a relatively new phenomenon. The Consultant appreciates the proposed process approach as having the potential to overcome some pitfalls often occurring in projects implemented according to "blue-print" approa- ches. Blue-print approaches imply top-down planning, application of strict procedures, and staunch
  • 121. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 5 adherence to fixed, pre-set, quantifiable targets. Often blue-print projects are formulated at the start of a project in such a way that objectives and content match with the requirements of the donors, rather than that they are "owned" by the receiving government institutions or target groups, which might have severe consequences for the sustainability of the interventions. A process approach entails the design of a project on the basis of local needs and institutional and human resource capacities and considers the project intervention as being part of a continuous development process. Implementation of the project will take place according to development in the concerned sector both in terms of outputs (contents) and institutional capacities. This implies that during project implementation a continuous, cyclic process of learning occurs about potential changes and the timing thereof. This learning process might lead to adjustments in policies, targets, organisational set-up and project activities. A process approach will build upon the "absorption capacity" of the receiving government institutions or target groups regarding policies, organisation and scope of activities. Generally, a learning process approach consists of three main elements: the implementing organisation, the target group and the programme. A successful project ensures the adjustment of these three elements to each other. The intervening organisation of the project has to be adapted ("fit") to the needs of the target group and to those of the intended programme. The programme has to "fit" with the capacities of the implementing organisation and the requirements of the target groups. And, finally, the target group will put its requirements on the procedures and set-up of the implementing organisation and the programme to be followed. A project can thus be conceived as a process in which the capacity and set-up of the intervening organisation, the design of the programme and the needs of the target group are being adjusted to each other continuously in order to reach the generally formulated objectives of the project that are conceived and monitored jointly by the intervening organisation and the target group. The HP is a Service Project in which the participating Central and State agencies are the imple- menting agencies. The programme that will be implemented by the agencies is the shaping up of their own organisations to establish a reliable, sustainable Information System for climatological, surface water and groundwater data. The target group of the HP comprises the (potential) users of the data, both public and private sector organisations. The application of the process approach to project management has some important implications for project implementation.
  • 122. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 6 First, a process approach implies a learning process. Adoption of change is a gradual process. Lessons may be learned from pilots. Change is often described in three stages: unfreezing, moving and refreezing (Lewin). The first stage of change is when the current state is disturbed and the organisation is (made) ready for change. The second stage is the actual adoption of change. The third stage is when the change gets stabilised in the organisation. As changes only occur gradually, a process approach would need a long commitment of the interested parties, irrespective of the commitment of donor organisations. For the HP these principles entail the phasing of activities in development, experimental and operational phases of the proposed data-base system. It would also imply the phasing of activities between states in order to learn from the experience in one state for the activities in other. Hence, advanced States will act as pilots for others. Similarly, the HP may act as a pilot for a NHP, for the HP was initially conceived as a National HP, though it covered only the eight peninsular states. At the same time GoI endeavoured to undertake a similar programme for the other States encompassing international river basins. Though little has happened yet in this direction Consultant will take special efforts to ensure that concepts, criteria, processes and procedures developed under the current HP can be carried forward to the rest of India. Second, a process approach is participatory in nature. Successful change in organisations depends on identification of actors with the proposed changes. The feeling of "ownership" of the proposed interventions - and concomitantly the overcoming of resistance to change - can be promoted by development of the changes by the actors themselves. Careful identification of the actors, i.e. organisations or units collecting information, analysing information and distributing information and the data users, will be essential at the start of the project. They will be brought together to operationalize project objectives, phases and activities. Coordination between the data users and the agencies at State and Central level and among the agencies themselves at State and Central level will be critical to the project success. Third, in a process approach only general objectives and the direction of change will be defined by all actors involved in the process at the start of a project. Unlike the conventional project approach, the outputs of project activities are not determined in quantifiable targets to be reached within a limited period of time. Rather, targets are set at the start of each particular stage of development of the project. These stages would cover limited time periods of, say, not more than a year and would allow flexibility in the activities and final achievements of the project. In case of the HP, the annually reviewed and subsequently adjusted and up-dated Hydrology Institutional Development Action Plans (HIDAPs) of the involved agencies would be instrumental in this. Fourth, a process approach requires a strict management information system (MIS) in order to identify benchmarks in the process and monitor progress in the direction of the formulated general objectives. An often cited risk in the application of a process approach is that it would be too open- ended, too flexible and uncontrollable. To prevent the project to step into these pitfalls it is of paramount importance that the actors involved in the process agree upon: • the various phases in the process; • their roles and responsibilities in each phase; • the expected progress at the end of each phase; • indicators of progress;
  • 123. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 7 • timing of measurement of progress; • methods of measurement of progress, and • an analysis of the context in which the process takes place. The result of discussions on these issues will entail important efforts in project management through the design and establishment of a MIS in conjunction with the stakeholders in the Project. The structure of the HIDAPs will be an important input in the MIS, but it might be that for appropriate project management additional studies will be required to measure progress or impact of the identified interventions. Also the planned joint Annual Review meeting, in which the local stakeholders and donors participate, will assist in keeping the project on track. Fifth, the role of the Consultant in a process approach is emphatically advisory. The Consultant will facilitate the process of change, but will not decide on directions of change and activities. The Consultant will develop options together with agencies and data user groups and indicate their consequences in terms of policies, institutional aspects and resources, but will not decide. This could imply, that according to the Consultant, sub-optimal solutions or interventions will be proposed, but which are developed, agreed upon and implemented (and thus "owned") by the stakeholders. It is proposed that the role of the Consultant themselves will be subject of monitoring in the MIS. Sixth, a process approach implies that technical assistance needs will - to a large extent - be identified during the course of the project. It will be necessary to specify, especially short term, technical assistance needs in the annual HIDAP's, rather than identify them at the beginning of the project. The embraced process approach as a tool for institutional strengthening has to be tuned to the realities of the public sector in India. The approach assumes that full participation of staff in programme preparations and implementation will create changes in attitudes and through this contribute to the sustainability of project interventions. Though absolutely sound in its principals, several institutional pitfalls and menaces exist in the Indian context, such as: • The terms and conditions for employment of government staff (lack of incentives, low pay scales) • Random lateral transfers of staff, including those trained under the programme, will occur regularly and is detrimental for continuity in the process. This occurs in particular in agencies dealing with surface water. Mechanisms, procedures and incentives to facilitate the retainment of qualified staff need to be developed. Otherwise continuity in the process would only come to rest with the Consultant, which is a threat to the process proper. Recruitment of young profes- sional cadre, which can gradually develop into a specialist cadre, as took place in Groundwater Departments, is an important step. Terms and conditions of employment are crucial in retaining such staff through the provision of adequate incentives. The provision of carrots to both staff and agencies for promoting interest to embark on this course is anticipated in the SAR, and Consultant will support and attempt to encourage such processes of change where feasible. What is faced is a long-term challenge, which may easily take over 10 years to mature, and is considered to be a highly sensitive political issue. The HP would hopefully induce a significant step in the right direction, and through this develop concepts which can also be transferred to non-participating states.
  • 124. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 8 • Rigid bureaucratic procedures hamper severely the creation of changes in staff attitudes and motivation, as well as staff commitment. A multitude of reasons why things cannot be done as it should is always readily available. This frustrates qualified and dedicated staff, of which many were met during the HP preparatory missions. Real coordination between agencies is difficult to materialise, since an inter-agency communication 'culture' does not yet exist in the sub-continent. The Consultant shall have to understand the institutional and personal constraints hampering effective communication and coordination between Departments. Experience shows that the Consultant, who will communicate with all relevant agencies, will easily be tempted (and perhaps even requested) to take up this role. A careful balance must be found between the primary responsibility of the agencies for the envisaged coordination and the role of the Consultant in facilitating this process as catalysers and grease in the process. • Effective communication is absolutely crucial in the HP process. Institutional constraints often hamper the communication between various levels within and between organisations. Lateral communication is only possible up and down through the hierarchy. During NHP preparation missions it was also found that regional offices of central agencies often had not received relevant preparatory documentation, nor had they been involved in the preparation of their programmes. These communication processes would need substantial improvements under the programme. The process of regular communication between all actors is also hampered by lack of adequate technical communication means. The Consultant plans to implement as soon as possible e-mail connections between the central PSU office (where the consultants would also reside) and the offices of the Management Consultant in the States, shortly (as feasible) to be extended into the offices of participating agencies. Such facilities will greatly enhance the speed of communications, facilitate tremendously the monitoring process (e.g. on weekly or two- weekly basis) and enable fast feed-back at all times. It will also create an awareness within the organisations of being regularly monitored. • Once implemented within government bodies routine procedures live a long live in the sub- continent. This may sometimes be an obstacle, but could possible also be turned into an advan- tage. This holds not only for sound technical procedures, but also for sustainable administrative arrangements to be put in place (including embedding in annual budgets). • In the process the capacity and set-up of the implementing organisation, the design of their institutional strengthening programme and the needs of the data users (HDUG) should continu- ously be adjusted to each other. A constraint is that in India water is not yet recognised as a holistic resource, but often rather as the property of Irrigation or equivalent Departments. Initially this may well cause frictions, but the envisaged interaction between data providers and data users is expected to increase the awareness within the latter Departments on the need for a well-defined Water Policy in the states and a comprehensive approach to water management. The role of Consultant to guide and facilitate such interaction processes is important and will be given special attention. Special attention under the HP should be given to the streamlining and acceleration of procurement procedures and disbursement of funds. Procurement procedures are often very lengthy. Finalisation of approved technical specifications and tender documents, tendering and approval of bid evalu- ations and procurement contracts is often a time consuming process, followed by the time required
  • 125. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 9 to release e.g. advance payments and arrange custom clearances. A parallel process is the flow of money from the Bank through the Reserve Bank of India to the State Banks (three months), and from there to Departments and to the field. The latter two steps may take each half a year. Reasons for these long processes are involvement of many departments, well developed bureaucratic procedures, frequent changes in staff and other impediments, causing that allocated funds are not timely released. Often such situations create frustrations at the technical implementation levels and reduces motivation and enthusiasm of the concerned staff. Even qualified and well trained technical staff cannot perform without adequate facilities, support and equipment. The need to identify bot- tlenecks in this process and to remedy the same as possible is imperative. A platform for communication between responsible officers in agencies (procurement, financial administration and technical staff), and where relevant between agencies, would be necessary to smooth and speed-up the process through the creation of mutual awareness of each other needs, problems and priorities. 4 Institutional framework The implementation of the HP in each of the participating agencies is monitored by a Project Coordinating Committee. To bring about standardisation of procedures and to share experiences in the Project area a strong coordination of activities at National and at State level is required, which is at Central level governed by: • National Level Steering Committee (NLSC) at secretary level to resolve project policy and strategy and generic implementation issues. • National Coordinating Committee (NCC) under the NLSC, coordinating the project imple- mentation of the concerned Central agencies and acting in an advisory capacity to the project coordinating committees at state level to promote standardisation of procedures. The NCC is chaired by the Member (RM), CWC who acts as Project Coordinator. • Project Coordination Secretariat (PCS), which assists the NCC in the day-to-day management of the Hydrology Project. State Project Coordinating Committees are responsible for the monitoring of the implementation of the HP at the State agencies. They report to the Secretary of the controlling Irrigation or Water Resources Department. The liaison with the Regional offices of the Central agencies in each of the States is accomplished through the State Project Implementation Group. The Consultant, in his capacity to assist the MOWR and to advise the implementing agencies and coordinating committees under the HP, has continuous inputs at the following levels: • Project Coordination Secretariat in Delhi, through their Central Coordinating Team (CCT) to advise in the day-to-day operation of the Project, • State Project Coordinating Committees, through their Management Consultant in each of the States to assist in the implementation of the HP. In addition, the long term and the short term international and national experts give regular inputs to each of the implementing agencies for advise and assist on managerial, technical and training issues. The content and frequency of such inputs is, in line with the Process Approach, fully tuned to the identified needs.
  • 126. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 1: The Hydrology Project Page Annex 1 - 10 Input is also given to the platform of Hydrological Data User Group's (HDUG) by organising and facilitating their annual meetings. The Consultant will encourage the establishment of smooth relations between the HDUGs and the Project Coordination Committees through their representa- tive in the States and the visiting experts to stimulate the use of the data and to ensure continuous feed-back. The Consultant reports to the NCC Project Coordinator, Commissioner (WM) Ministry of Water Resources, and to the Royal Netherlands Embassy, Sector Specialist Land & Water (RNE) and The World Bank.
  • 127. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: State and Agency specific issues Page Annex 2 - 1 ANNEX 2 State and Agency specific issues Introduction .................................................................................................................page 2 - 1 1. Orissa .............................................................................................................................page 2 - 3 2. Andhra Pradesh ..............................................................................................................page 2 - 6 3. Tamil Nadu.....................................................................................................................page 2 - 10 4. Karnataka .......................................................................................................................page 2 - 14 5. Kerala..............................................................................................................................page 2 - 17 6. Maharashtra ...................................................................................................................page 2 - 20 7. Gujarat ............................................................................................................................page 2 - 24 8. Madhya Pradesh.............................................................................................................page 2 - 29 9. Central Water Commission............................................................................................page 2 - 34 10. Central Ground Water Board.......................................................................................page 2 - 38 11. India Meteorological Department................................................................................page 2 - 41 12. National Institute of Hydrology...................................................................................page 2 - 44 13. Central Water and Power Research Station................................................................page 2 - 46
  • 128. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Orissa Page Annex 2 - 2 Introduction Immediately upon mobilization, the Consultant fielded an Identification Mission to enable Project staff to: • introduce the Consultant’s team in each State to all actors in the Project and to allow them to acquaint themselves with the organizations and officials involved; • present the way in which the Consultant intends to work with the central and state level agencies, and to learn the needs and expectations of these agencies; • to elaborate with the implementing agencies their annual work program (1996-97), which comprises the HIDAP, a Physical and Procurement Plan, and a Training Program. Over a period of nearly three months, the Mission travelled to all project states and visited the central agencies. In each case, the basic project elements (technical, HIS, institutional development and training) were investigated by relevant project staff. These (preliminary) investigations revealed general issues pertaining to all states and also more specific issues for the individual states and central agencies. This Annex presents the latter specific issues in summary form. Issues of a general nature are discussed in Chapter 3 of the main Inception Report.
  • 129. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Orissa Page Annex 2 - 3 1 ORISSA Consultants visited Orissa from 23 to 29 June 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 29 June with the Secretary. 1.1 Institutional issues Organization. Reorganization of the SGS&I is planned. Implementation. The mission found implementing agencies in Orissa awaiting the approval by national authorities of procurement and building plans as well as for the required 'go ahead'. Staffing. The posting of permanent staff is necessary for the successful completion of the Hydrology Project. Hydrological Data Users. The first meeting of HDUG was held during Consultants’ visit. Vehicles. A Government ban on procurement of vehicles might cause operational problems. For the replacement of old vehicles, a special sanction can be requested from the Principal Secretary. 1.2 Hydrometeorology Raingauge network. The State Water Resources Department of Orissa does not yet maintain a meteorological network in the state. Under the Hydrology Project, the State will install 75 SRG, 15 ARG and 9 FCS. It is necessary to examine the raingauage network in order to give representation to all sub-basins of Orissa rivers and to areas where the existing IMD network is sparse. The State proposes to instal these raingauges at their existing and new Gauge and Discharge (G/D) sites so that these raingauge stations can be manned by the staff of the G/D stations. Procurement of meteorological instruments can start as specifications are already made available by IMD. However, until such time as G/D sites are ready, meteorological instruments may not be installed. Full Climatic Stations. The state has finalized the locations of 9 FCS in consultation with IMD but the staff to man these stations are yet to be identified and trained. In addition, a programme of joint site inspection by IMD and State is yet to be made for final site selections. Staff training. At present, Orissa has no trained staff in meteorological observations. Thus, training is an important and urgent need of the State. The State has expressed difficulty in deputing their field staff to Calcutta for training due to administrative reasons. IMD may be requested to depute their trainers to Orissa for training the observers in their local language. Coordination between agencies. Interactions between State, IMD and CWC need to be strengthe- ned for effective implementation of the Hydrology Project. 1.3 Surface Water
  • 130. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Orissa Page Annex 2 - 4 Type of instruments. Winding instruments with paper charts have problems such as loosing gauging time, mechanical difficulties with the main spring, difficulties with paper and ink, the need to change paper regularly, and storage of large numbers of charts. Thus a careful choice of new instruments needs to be made. Automatic Water Level recorders or autographic rainfall recorders do not automatically need to be drum, float, and chart type only. Sensor type equipment could be considered in some cases. Availability of guidelines. Hydrometric guidelines, gauge-discharge relations, and sampling procedures are not well known. There is a need to update them and enhance their availability. Site selection guidelines are also to be reviewed and made available to site officers. Data validation. Data flow procedures and data validation procedures are not applied and are not available to the officers. For internal consistency, the check between rainfall and runoff in basins needs to be made, as well as identifying key rainfall stations for data processing. Staff posting. The proposed organization aims at a free standing organization, but there are no officers heading the unit or data center at the time of visit (end June 1996). Planned activities. There needs to be a coordinated, month by month plan of activities, with civil works and procurement actions. For each station, activities need to be listed and timed for implementation. Joint review of rainfall and hydrometric network: Rainfall is highly variable. Its extensive observation is needed also at short intervals of time. Sampling locations need to be decided based on orography as well as the data needs at all stations. Thus, in the review of the network, IMD, State Surface Water and CWC offices need to coordinate, keeping the above in mind. 1.4 Groundwater Groundwater observation network. Sites for the key wells are yet to be selected. Staff. Sanction for 122 posts of incremental staff and the "Head of the Office" order for the Director of the Ground Water Department are yet to be issued. Level II Labs: Sites for level II laboratories are yet to be identified. Procurement: Procurement under HP has not yet taken place. Data storage and validation. Historical groundwater data need computerisation and validation. 1.5 Water Quality Network. The Surface Water Department is just starting with water quality monitoring, and a preliminary network has been defined. A review of the network and planned analytical parameters should be made together with CWC and PCB, based on identified mandates and objectives of monitoring. The State has planned 11 stations, CWC has 11 stations, and PCB has 35 stations as part of the MINARS programme.
  • 131. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Orissa Page Annex 2 - 5 Coordination between Departments. As the laboratories for the surface water and groundwater Departments will both be in the same (new) building, it is hoped that there can be close coordination between the two organizations with respect to water quality analyses. Quality control. With two different laboratories in the same building, inter-laboratory quality control should be easy to establish and a programme should be initiated as soon as possible. This will be important to ensure that results from the two laboratories are comparable. Staffing. Qualified staff will have to be brought into the laboratories. These staff are probably not available through redeployment only, thus provisions for recruiting new staff will be necessary. 1.6 Training New staff should be posted. From among them, the staff to be trained needs to be identified. The phasing of the training activities should be reviewed vis `a vis the available staff. The WALMI Institute training facilities appear to be adequate to conduct the proposed staff training. The Institute already provides an introduction course, which includes a module on Hydrology, and in-service training for field staff of the DOWR. Trained staff should be retained.
  • 132. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Andhra Pradesh Page Annex 2 - 6 2. ANDHRA PRADESH Consultants visited Andhra Pradesh from 30th June to 6th July 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 5th July with the Principal Secretary Irrigation. 2.1 Institutional Issues Hydrologic Data Users. The list for the HDUG issued on 29th June 1996 seems incomplete. More awareness of the development of the HIS needs to be spread among potential users. State Coordination Committee. The State Coordination Committee needs to be made more effective with respect to follow-up actions. 2.2 Hydrometeorology Network. The State Irrigation Department (DOICAD) maintains a network of 381 SRG, but rainfall data of only 7 stations are being received by IMD. This implies that the state raingauge network requires thorough inspection and replacement of defective raingauges. Under the Hydrology Project, DOICAD proposes to set up 80 ARG and 8 FCS. The location of these new observatories have been identified and referred to IMD, who suggested changes in the location of 6 stations. The State and IMD have to review this list jointly and finalise locations. Staffing and training. The State has been advised to install the raingauges at new G/D sites so that manning of raingauge stations becomes easy. However, the State has yet to finalise their new G/D sites. The State has been advised that about 20% of the SRG stations may be equipped with ARG in order to get short duration rainfall data for minor and medium irrigation projects. At present the State has no trained staff. It is necessary for the State to identify staff for adequate training in data processing, and monitoring. The State has expressed difficulties in sending their field staff for basic training due to administra- tive problems. IMD will be requested to depute their trainers to the State for training in the local language. Data availability. The State claims that out of a total of 681 raingauge stations maintained by DOICAD and the State Revenue Department, the data of 509 stations are being received by the State and are available from 1965 onwards in manuscript form. The reliability of these data needs to be established. CWC reorganization. CWC Hyderabad has been reorganized after the visit of the Appraisal Mission of the World Bank. Accordingly, the distribution of SRG, ARG and FCS network has been finalised by CWC. This revised network needs to be examined by IMD in order to avoid duplication. Therefore, there is a need for close interaction between IMD, CWC, and the State to finalise the network, keeping in view the spatial distribution and operational needs. 2.3 Surface Water
  • 133. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Andhra Pradesh Page Annex 2 - 7 Organization. The organization for the Department is not yet in place. The post of the SE is not yet sanctioned though it was requested on 9th February 1996. For manning the site stations, the number of posts have been identified, but names are not yet given. Supplementary staff for new stations are not yet planned. Guidelines. In the Surface Water Department, hydrometry is being introduced at many locations, and there is a need for having guidelines on many aspects of hydrometric observations, including selecting hydrometric stations, gauge-discharge relations and river controls. Sampling and computational aspects are also to be given in such guidelines. Guidelines have to be available to all field officers. Field forms for data record need also to be updated. Equipment/Procurement plan. Sites have not yet been inspected so far and there is no information about the present status of site equipment or about the specific requirements for new equipment or site plans. Thus there is insufficient planning of sites and required equipment. Since 1994 there has been no revision of the action plan. Site specific design. The planning of AWLR's needs to be site specific and as per standard type designs, based on the range of gauge variation. Locations need also to avoid approach velocity effect, etc. In addition, cableways or any structures such as crump weirs or notches need site specific design. Types of instruments. Autographic recorders for rainfall or Automatic Water Level Recorders are planned in the SAR, primarily as drum, chart, and float types. There are difficulties associated with such instruments and thus there is a need to integrate and use other types of sensors too. Computerization. There is a need to shift data handling from hard copies to magnetic media and this can only be achieved by creating computer literacy in the operating staff of JE's, AE's and EXen's as well as lab assistants and research assistants. Hands-on training on PC's, DOS/Windows, spread sheet software is also necessary. Data flow between stations, sub-division, division, and state data centre has to be identified and prescribed. Validation procedures are to be identified, as well as related software. The operating officers have to be made conversant with basic data validation and data processing. Transport. There are problems with transport as there is a ban on vehicle purchases. There is permission to hire vehicles, but no funds are available. Observer training. Observer training (formal courses and on-the-job training) on the improved instruments and procedures, have to be provided before the stations are set up or upgraded. These activities have to be well coordinated with instrument procurement, civil works required, etc. Research and Development Projects. For each of the R&D projects (reservoir sedimentation, return flows, management/forecast setups) the following actions are necessary: • the task needs to be identified; • the broad goals for information gathering have to be set • the data analysis procedure has to be evolved with the involvement of a research institute and • the necessary manpower and funding has to be budgeted.
  • 134. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Andhra Pradesh Page Annex 2 - 8 Budget. Rs 3.5 crores for procurement of special packages has not yet been cleared. 2.4 Groundwater Network. The extension of the network is justified by the growing use of groundwater in the last 20 years from 20% to 40% of the total amount of water used for irrigation. Implementation. Plans have been prepared, but funds are required for implementation. For procurement of AWLRs, no decision has yet taken place. Procurement of DWLR's will be so phased as to tie up with the availability of constructed and completed purpose built tubewells. Procurement: Procurement under HP has not started yet. Purchase of new vehicles has not been contemplated due to the ban imposed by the Government on purchase of vehicles. It is therefore planned to carry out the work by hiring of vehicles whenever needed. Drilling rigs: The existing fleet of rigs are proposed to be upgraded to cope with the additional drilling activity under HP. The drilling operations of state and central ground water organisations are well coordinated and good cooperation exists between the two. 2.5 Water Quality Monitoring objectives and network. The State and Central agencies should together review the water quality monitoring network, as well as the objectives of the monitoring and the subsequent use of the data. At the groundwater laboratories (State and Central) it was seen that large numbers of samples are being collected, even though there is difficulty in getting them all analysed, and the use of the results of analyses is not clear. Staffing. No staffing arrangements have been made yet. There is a ban on new recruitment so staff will have to come from redeployment. However, redeployment of staff for the laboratories will be a problem because surplus (released from elsewhere) chemistry staff are not available. Already the Groundwater Department has 4 sanctioned posts that are not filled. Additionally, skills of redeployed staff may well be sub-optimal or unsuited. This staffing problem should be solved first before the network is expanded and the number of laboratories is increased. The possibility of obtaining, by fresh recruitment, well trained and experienced chemistry staff needs to be pursued. Laboratory workload. At both the state groundwater laboratory (Hyderabad) and CGWB laboratory, a large backlog of samples was seen, indicating that the existing laboratory capabilities are not matched to the sampling program. This may be partly due to shortage of staff. There is need to review the sampling programs based on monitoring objectives, and priorities for sampling. Staff needed may have to be inducted. Laboratory design. The layout of the buildings should be adapted to the laboratory needs. About 200 m2 are recommended for Level II lab, while 250 m2 are recommended for Level II+ lab, which is consistent with the budget provided in the SAR. The consultant will prepare detailed recommendations for space utilization. 2.6 Training
  • 135. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Andhra Pradesh Page Annex 2 - 9 Water Quality Training. EPRTI located in Hyderabad has a well established laboratory and also regularly conducts various environmental training programmes. Possibilities for conducting some of the water quality training at EPTRI can be further investigated.
  • 136. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Tamil Nadu Page Annex 2 - 10 3. TAMIL NADU Consultants visited Tamil Nadu from 6th to 13th July 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 12th July. 3.1 Institutional Issues Hydrological data users. The HDUG with a composition of 16 members has met during the visit of Consultants. The users do not seem to be very clear about their specific requirements. Action Plan. The month by month action plan for 1996-97 was not yet prepared at the time of Consultants’ visit. Staffing. Staffing requirements for both regular and seasonal staff need to be specified and planned. The SEs and JEs for the project work are not yet available. Redeployment is still pending; 248 staff are to be redeployed, but it is not clear as to where they will come from, and when their postings are planned. The State should view staff postings as supplementing their regular organizations. Viewing redeployment as an exercise under the Hydrology Project can give rise to a situation that after the project they may be shifted. Such a situation will not sustain the HIS being established during the project. State Level Coordination Committee. More frequent meetings for coordination of activities in the organization and with other organizations are necessary. Organization. There is scope for streamlining of the organizational structure. 3.2 Hydrometeorology Network. As per information made available to the World Bank Missions, State Agencies maintain 934 SRG, 155 ARG, and 13 FCS. The Identification Mission has observed that 50% of the existing SRG and all the 155 ARG are not functioning. Furthermore, the majority of the SRGs are of the old Symon type and require replacement by new FRP raingauges. Under the Hydrology Project, the State will upgrade and expand their network by 42 ARG, 20 FCS and 3 AWS (Automatic Weather Station). The list of all these new stations have been sent to IMD. It was found on examination that 22 stations are already equipped with ARG and thus the list of 42 ARG needs revision. The State and IMD should work jointly to finalise the list of new stations. On the eastern side of the western Ghats, new stations are necessary and there is need to re-examine the network due to large spatial variation of rainfall in the area. The State and IMD have been advised accordingly. Of the 3 proposed AWS, the State would set up one at their Divisional Office (Trichi) during 1996- 97. The state has been advised to compare the data recorded by AWS with a manually recording FCS. This would enable the state to decide whether to go for the additional 2 AWS for 1997-98. Data availability and reliability. The State Water Resources Organization (WRO) is collecting daily rainfall and climate data at 149 SRG and 16 FCS. These data are available in printed form from 1972 onwards. The reliability of these data needs to be established through a joint IMD and State inspection program.
  • 137. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Tamil Nadu Page Annex 2 - 11 Coordination between agencies. CWC also plans to set up 2 ARG and 2 FCS under the Hydrology Project. Thus, it is necessary for the State, CWC and IMD to have a close interaction and finalise the network. Training. The State has been advised to plan their training programme in consultation with the Regional Meteorological Center (Madras) where training of observers will be conducted. Fifty staff can be trained by IMD which seems to be sufficient for 1996-97. For manning FCS, the qualified staff should be deputed to the Meteorological Training Center, Pune. Necessary training on AWS should be obtained from the manufacturers. 3.3 Surface Water Network: A total of 100 new G/D stations is proposed by the state and 20 existing stations are proposed for upgradation.The coordination with CWC for joint inspection and site selection seems to have not yet taken off. As Tamil Nadu has a number of existing projects and dams, many of them in the upper sub-catchments, there is need to have some rainguages, i.e. ARG's in those areas. Some of the RG stations need to be so located as to give information on water availability and floods in the hilly areas, to be useful in the operation and in attending to flood reviews etc,. Involvement of the Institute of Water studies (Madras) which has earlier done studies, will help as the field formations are newly taking up hydrometry and hydrological observations. The action plan giving monthwise programmes and linkages is not yet prepared. All the proposed activities need fine tuning so that a smooth progress is achieved. New station sites need specific attention in particular the AWLR locations. Statelevel coordination: A state level steering committee (SLSC) for Tamil Nadu has been formed and the first meeting of SLSC was held on 13th December 1995. Follow up of SLSC decisions is needed as also more frequent meetings of the SLSC. The Government of Tamil Nadu notified the formation of HDUG with 16 members to start with. A meeting of the HDUG took place during the visit of Consultants. It appears that most of the users are not clear of either formats of data or their specific requirements. There is slippage in progress and there is a need for expediting all actions, and placing people in position in particular. Procurement: As the type of equipment is site specific, the procurement can only be for 'safe items' and others have to await the results of joint inspection and site selection, particularly in the case of equipment such as AWLR, cable ways, sediment survey items, and other costly and specialised items. Research projects. It is necessary to identify which reservoirs will be studied for reservoir sedimentation. Boats and equipment specifications will have to reflect drafts likely in the identified reservoirs. Also the locations for the monitoring of return flows needs to be specified. For such items as above, there is need for documentation identifying tasks, manpower, funds, as also approach and methodology to enable monitoring. 3.4 Groundwater Procurement. The procurement and delivery of DWLRs needs to be tuned with civil works. Protection works can only be designed when specifications of the DWLR are finalized.
  • 138. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Tamil Nadu Page Annex 2 - 12 DWLRS: At present 5 DWLRS are functioning in the state and procurement of DWLRs is to be based on performance of the existing ones. Staffing: Government sanction is awaited for recruitement of 14 specified staff required for the project. Drilling: It is proposed to construct tube wells in hard rock areas through private contract, while those in soft rock areas will be done departmentally. Special studies. Special basin studies need to be extended with FCS. Under HP, the State Ground Water plans to upgrade 10 existing FCS and set-up 4 new FCS. This will be done in collaboration with IMD. 3.5 Water Quality Groundwater laboratory. The location of the level II+ lab in Madras needs to be finalized. There was some uncertainty if the existing location at the Institute of Water Studies (IWS) would be upgraded, or if a new building would be built in the city. This will have an impact on the procurement of instruments (GC, AAS). Water Resources Consolidation Project. The WRCP is independent of HP, but could have impli- cations, especially regarding laboratories. Under HP, the PWD decided to combine the surface water and groundwater laboratories. However, under WRCP, there are plans for up to 5 new laboratories (in 5 river basins) for purposes of monitoring drinking water quality, irrigation suitability, industrial pollution and ecological quality. Quite detailed plans for these laboratories have already been prepared, but there is some uncertainty on whether or not plans will proceed. A clear decision of whether or not these laboratories will be constructed should be made soon. If they are proceeding with the matter, then further coordination with the Hydrology Project plans should be made. Organization. The status of the new post of senior chemist in the organization is not clear. This person should have direct overview of all the laboratories, but may not be able to do so due to his proposed organization location. Objectives. Some clear identification of monitoring program objectives is necessary. With the large number of groundwater water quality investigations being conducted, the increase of wells under HP, and additional parameters to be analyzed with new laboratory equipment, and an increasing future attention to pollution studies, the scope of the water quality monitoring is perhaps increasing too quickly and without proper planning. There should be a review of the goals of water quality monitoring and the priority given to the different studies being conducted (perhaps more coordination of the specific studies). The consultants can give input in this matter, especially regarding the selection of the network for the regular observations, and the parameters of concern. Unused equipment. It was reported that the Madras laboratory at IWS obtained a GC in 1992, but that it has never been regularly used, due to a variety of problems, including insufficient training (from the supplier) and lack of standards and pure solvent, both of which are very expensive. This example illustrates fears of what could potentially happen under HP if expensive laboratory equipment is purchased without sufficient attention to proper training, and purchase of necessary accessory equipment. 3.6 Training
  • 139. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Tamil Nadu Page Annex 2 - 13 A unit for training of surface water and groundwater is required for implementation of training. Some staff have been deputed to the computer course for Data Base Management at NIH (30th July 1996 and 9th August 1996). The selection of staff with suitable background, viz. whether they were computer literate or not, was not clear. There is a proposal to depute typists for computer courses (36 for SW and 8 for GW). The training should also include data entry and word processing. Hydrometry training should be given after the standardization workshop to be held in Delhi.
  • 140. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Karnataka Page Annex 2 - 14 4. KARNATAKA Consultants visited Karnataka from 15 to 20 July 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 20 July with Mr. S.M. Panchagatti, Secretary to the Government, Irrigation Department. 4.1 Institutional Issues Hydrological data users. A meeting of the HDUG was attended by the Consultants. Generally, the data users are unaware of the type of data that can be obtained from a HIS. It is advocated that a small group is established by the state to approach the potential data users with specific questions, laid down in a questionnaire for uniformity reasons. Data collectors and data users together should fill in the questionnaire to assess the data needs. Staffing. It is understood that the grass root level staff is counted against supernumerary posts. Sanction of posts for incremental staff is also to be accorded by the Government. Filling of posts may be considered from year to year depending on the requirements. State Coordination Committee. The State Coordination Committee has recently been formed. Meetings are required to be held regularly to tune the activities of the various agencies involved. Sofar no meetings took place. 4.2 Hydrometeorology Network. A dense rainfall network of 721 SRGs & 126 ARGs is being maintained by the State. The rainfall network needs to be reviewed, including site inspections, in collaboration with IMD. 83 FCS maintained by the State seems to be large. A re-examination of the requirement on the spatial distribution is necessary before embarking on the installation of 4 new FCS under HP. Daily rainfall records. The daily rainfall charts in respect of 161 ARGs are stored in WRDO but no hourly tabulations of rainfall intensities are made at present. The Consultant has advised the State to start hourly tabulations as this data will be useful for designing minor and medium irrigation projects. However, the data of 76 FCS are being published every year since 1977-78. Data reliability. The reliability of all the meteorological data is yet to be established because no systematic scrutiny of data is made. This is very necessary under the existing set-up, as all daily rainfall data are recorded by part-time observers (who are not under the administrative control of WRDO). Data is sent directly to Tehsildar (Block Officer), who in turn sends them to the Bureau of Economics and Statistics without any check on the reliability of data. Training of staff. The State has a problem in regard to the training of field staff as these part-time observers cannot be deputed for training out of state. IMD will train the field staff in local language by deputing their trainers.
  • 141. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Karnataka Page Annex 2 - 15 4.3 Surface Water Network. In total 40 stations will be upgraded and 22 new stations will be established. In 1996-97, 10 stations will be upgraded and 6 new ones will be established. Sites for sediment laboratories need to be identified. Procurement.. Equipment that is simple is being procured (current meters, counters, derricks) and buildings are being given on contract. The procurement of sediment sampling packages needs to wait until reviewed standards are available. Database. The data collected in the basins of the west flowing rivers by the Karnataka Power Corporation should also be included in the database to be developed under HP. Data validation. With respect to the measuring procedures and particularly with respect to data validation there is considerable scope for improvement. Reservoir instrumentation and management (activity by KERS). One AWLR is to be installed but this will need examination as to location and range. Also, at two sites, the calibration of outlets and spillways are contemplated. In addition to prototype tests, it may be necessary to conduct field tests physically. The State was informed that Consultants could provide input in this area. Reservoir sedimentation surveys (KERS). NCC has to decide on specifications. In view of drafts needed for vessels, further information on this aspect is required to be collected . Surveys can be combined with satellite surveys of water surface. It is stressed that satellite pictures alone will be insufficient for this purpose as the latter gives no information about siltation in the dead storage. Reservoir life estimates will still need traditional surveys. Monitoring of return flows. Specific areas for these studies need to be identified and procedures need to be designed for such studies. Detailed plans should be specified in a report. Real-time Water Resources Management: This activity has the following requirements to be fulfilled: • obtain frequency clearance as necessary from WPC (GOI) • update the radio communication network plan. For the Cauvery River a report is reported to be available but needs to be reviewed and augmented with plans for other areas. In addition to the communication system, a management plan for efficient water resources manage- ment would be required. 4.4 Groundwater New borewells. Hundred borewells are planned for this year. This should be achieved in 5 months time by deploying two rigs, assuming 10 wells/month/rig. Procurement. Procurement will be finalized by the end of November (DWLR's, 5 field monitoring kits and a portable compressor). At the end of March 1997 all DWLR's would be in place. DWLRs: No decision has yet been taken on the type of DWLRs to be procured.
  • 142. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Karnataka Page Annex 2 - 16 Staff: Proposals for recruitment of 15 Nos of specialist staff required under HP are yet to be forwarded for government sanction. Tube wells: Site selection of purpose built tubewells is yet to take place. Drilling and construction of observation tube wells will be carried out by deploying departmental rigs. Data Centre. The data centre of SGW is in a fair state. Data validation procedures have to be included in their processing. 4.5 Water Quality Water quality network. For the selection of surface water quality stations, coordination with the PCB and CWC is required. The PCB has now 56 sites and will expand with 42 more, and CWC has 28 stations in the Cauvery basin. Water quality parameters. Clear guidelines are necessary as to which parameters are to be sampled and what equipment is required for that. Lab II+ (SGW, CWC, CGWB) labs will be getting GC and AAS, but do not have clear ideas of what parameters they want to monitor and where. These decisions require clear identification of WQ monitoring goals. Coordination between agencies. Coordination of WQ activities between SGW and CGWB is required. Level I laboratories. The State Surface Water Department should decide this year (1996-97) on the locations for level I labs. Procurement. SGW/SSW/CGWB are ready to receive the equipment for the level II labs in Bangalore. CWC currently has limited space to upgrade its lab to level II+, but no provision is made for expansion of the building. 4.6 Training Training Institutes. WALMI (Dharwar) has experience in providing computer training, but should develop experience towards water resources management and surface and groundwater hydrology. The Engineering Staff College (KERS) also regularly gives hydrology training to State engineers. KERS should also interact with professionals of CWC/IMD/CGWB to develop experience in solving problems related to hydrology. An infrastructure is to be developed and a library has to be set up. Water quality training. The CFTRI WQ lab in Mysore has been used as a training facility by the PCB and could potentially be used as a facility for the HP.
  • 143. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Kerala Page Annex 2 - 17 5. KERALA Consultants visited Kerala from 22 to 28 July 1996. The issues identified in the State were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 27 July with the Honourable Mr. Baby John, Minister of Irrigation and Water Supply of Kerala State. 5.1 Institutional Issues Progress to date: Consultants are interested to learn the status of plans for the establishment of a combined Surface Water/Groundwater/Data Centre building. Hydrological Data Users. At present, the number of organizations participating in the HDUG is too limited and during the meeting additional potential members were identified. It is advocated that a small group be established by the data collection agencies, to approach the potential data users with specific questions, laid down in a questionnaire for uniformity reasons. Data collectors and data users together should fill in the questionnaire to assess the data needs. The interest taken by various potential data users may seem small at the moment, but will certainly grow in the future when the HIS is properly functioning. Procurement Coordination Committee. The SPCC has been set up and has met, but frequent or monthly meetings are not yet organized. Frequent meetings of the State Project Coordination Committee should also lead to the HIDAP for the next year. Budget. Funds for the Hydrology Project to the amount of 2 crores have been sanctioned by the Government. The balance of 7 crores will be progressively made available through the ID. The Government assured that funds will not be allowed to be a constraint. Retaining of Staff. To ensure sustainability of the HIS, trained staff should not be removed from hydrological activities. This is essential on the one hand to get maximum benefit from the cost and effort spent on training and on the other hand to develop and maintain the hydrological cadre, well capable in providing reliable data. 5.2 Hydrometeorology Network. With respect to the hydro-meteorological network, special attention has to be given to proper coverage in the upper areas in view of water resources development, e.g. mini-hydro schemes. The unrepresented areas of the Western Ghats should be reviewed. IMD and State ID should jointly review the hydro-meteorological network. Data availability and reliability. The Kerala Irrigation Department is maintaining 82 SRGs but their daily rainfall data are not published. As the data are recorded by part-time observers, the reliability of data is not established. Coordination among agencies. Under the Hydrology Project, the State Surface Water Department will have 30 SRG, 20 ARG, and 9 FCS, while the State Groundwater Department will have 8 FCS. The Surface Water Department has sent the list of additional stations to IMD for examination, but the Groundwater Department has yet to send the list of 8 FCS to IMD. The Consultant has advised the State to have joint discussion with IMD and finalize the stations.
  • 144. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Kerala Page Annex 2 - 18 Staffing. Deployment and posting of staff should be expedited by the State so that a joint inspection and installation programme with IMD may soon be taken up. Training of staff. The State has difficulty in training their field staff in a basic course, as the existing part-time observers are not under the administrative control of the State Irrigation Department. IMD will depute their trainers to train the field staff in local language. 5.3 Surface Water Network inspection. The new and existing hydrometry stations to be upgraded should jointly be in- spected by the State and Central organizations. Inspection for locating AWLRs should also be conducted by a joint team of state and central organisations with consultant input. Staffing. Posts have to be created to operate the planned 25 upgraded/new stations for 1996-97. Some 34 staff will be urgently required. To solve the problem of staffing at remote locations in the upper areas, manning of stations by the Kerala Electricity Board staff could be considered. As soon as JE’s and lab. assistants are identified they need to be trained in observational work. Acion plan: A detailed activity plan was not available. Consultants held discussions in this regard and advised the state officials on tuning of all activities. Procurement: It was stressed that simpler items may be purchased intially. There is a need for standardization in respect of sediment packages, water quality packages and reservoir survey equipment. Layouts of AWLRs, site laboratories and site stores have to receive adequate attention and technical input from local officers as well as Consultants. Difficult locations need expert attention. Data flow and validation: Field data are published in year books after arithmetic checking. Validation procedures at the earliest data handling point are required to be applied. Internal consistency checks are also required between rainfall and run off. In the western ghats, the State Electricity Board is also carrying out hydrometry and is also maintaining some meteorological stations. Some of those stations, and staff manning these stations, could take advantage of locating ARGs to get a better picture of orographic rainfall and short period rainfall distribution. 5.4 Groundwater Activities. At present, the work envisaged under the Hydrology Project has not yet been started. A detailed action plan for 1996-97 is ready, of which only 75% will be achievable if staff is appro- ved/sanctioned by early August. An additional staff of 15 is required. Tubewells: Sites for observation tube wells have not yet been selected. Shallow observation tube wells upto 30 m depth will be constructed through private contract and deeper observation wells will be constructed by deploying departmental rigs. Site selection for “Key wells” will be done by a joint site selection committee. Funding: The Government has assured that additional funds required will be provided during the current fiscal year.
  • 145. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Kerala Page Annex 2 - 19 Organization. To increase the operational efficiency of the organization, the proposed formation of 3 regions should be sanctioned. Vehicles. The number of required vehicles should be reviewed. 5.5 Water Quality Surface water monitoring. At present SSW has no experience with water quality monitoring. It will set up a level II lab at Trissur and 8 level I labs for which the locations have to be decided. Efforts should be undertaken to co-operate closely with the CWC and SPCB, as they both have expertise and operate an extensive WQ network. Groundwater monitoring. The GWD will upgrade its lab in Trivandrum to Level II+ and will establish 2 additional level II labs. The need of the two new labs is not clear and it is advised that the state should not rush in setting up these labs in temporary quarters, especially as staffing is uncertain. The new GC and AAS equipment should not be procured for the Level II+ until some plans are there as to what will be done with these items and well qualified (senior) staff is obtained. It is recommended to move the GWD-lab temporarily into the old CGWB building. The existing lab has enough space if some of the old and unused equipment can be discarded. The State and CGWB should have more regular discussion/coordination on WQ issues. Objectives. Generally, the objectives of the monitoring programme should clearly be specified, which has received little or insufficient attention for both surface water and groundwater. The type of parameters to be analyzed have to be reconsidered and should be linked to the objectives. It is strongly advised to hire some good water quality (chemistry) staff to set up/improve the water quality monitoring activities. In this respect the following staff is recommended: 1 sr. chemist, 2 chemists (M.Sc) and 1 asst. chemist (B.Sc). These skills cannot be obtained by promotion or transfer from within the organisation. Training of existing staff will be very important to optimally utilize the existing and new equipment. 5.6 Training Training plans. The Mission learned that detailed training activity plans have not been made yet. Only tentative/indicative plans are available. Considerable training needs exist. Training of nodal officers in Project Management should also be considered to support the implementation of the pro- ject. G/D training site. The stream-gauging site on the Karamana river (to be upgraded) is very well suited to be used for training of field staff and is to be equipped accordingly. Vehicles for training. The need for procuring a training van should be reviewed against hiring of transport in view of the limited use.
  • 146. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 20 6. MAHARASHTRA Consultants visited Maharashtra from 5 to 12 August 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 12 August 1996 with the Secretary Irrigation and the Secretary Water Supply and Sanitation. 6.1 Institutional Issues Hydrology Data Users. No meeting of the HDUG has yet taken place and the consultants were not able to meet the HDUG for Maharashtra. In addition, the composition of the HDUG seems to be very limited. It is recommended to expedite the functioning of the HDUG, as the type and character of data to be collected depends on the user requirements. It is advocated that a small group is established by the state to approach the potential data users with specific questions, laid down in a questionnaire for uniformity reasons. Data collectors and data users together should fill in the questionnaire to assess the data needs. Staffing. Sanction of posts for incremental staff in MID and GSDA is a matter of urgency and needs to be expedited. To ensure sustainability of the HIS, trained staff should be retained and continued with hydrological activities. This is essential on the one hand to get maximum benefit from the cost and effort spent on training and on the other hand to develop and maintain the hydrological cadre, well capable in providing reliable data. State Level Coordination Committee. The State Project Coordination Committee has been formed. However, the Secretary of the Department of Water Supply, under whom GSDA functions is not a member of this committee. Such an arrangement may not confer Government approval on matters pertaining to GSDA and cleared by this committee. The functioning of the Committee could be hampered by widely scattered duty stations of members and their organisations (Mumbai, Pune, Nashik, Nagpur, Amravati). Regular meetings will be required to tune the activities of the various agencies involved. Generally, the coordination and management of HP activities deserves strengthening. The rationale and justification for proposed activities and procurements is not well documented. 6.2 Hydrometeorology Network. The State Irrigation Department maintains a network of 648 SRG, 547 ARG and 113 FCS. Data of the SRG are published by the State, but IMD is using the rainfall data of only 194 SRG. The remaining 454 SRG and 547 ARG are required to be inspected for reliability of their data and their working conditions. Under HP, 18 new FCS are to be established. The State has been advised to review the network of FCS in consultation with IMD, keeping in view the spatial and operational needs. Site inspections. All State ARG and FCS need thorough inspection for upgrading and replacement of defective instruments. It is not known how many ARG stations are functioning, as no rainfall intensity analysis is being carried out.
  • 147. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 21 Training. The State is advised to identify persons to be trained at the IMD Training Center, Pune. IMD proposes to start the training in December 1996 or January 1997 and is ready with training material for the Observer's course. Training material for Supervisor and Advanced Course will be available by the end of December 1996. 6.3 Surface Water (IMD) Organization. The current institutional arrangements within Maharashtra Irrigation Department MID may be sub-optimal, as many of the key players are located in different cities: • The Secretary is based in Mumbai; • The CE-Hydrology is in Nashik, thus coordination and cooperation with GSDA (based in Pune) is not optimal; • The SE-Data Collection is based in Amravati; • The WQ lab under MERI is not under the CE-Hydrology; • Procurement Coordination Commission: member Secretary (SE) in Pune; • State Project Coordination Commission: member Secretary (SE) in Nashik; • HDUG: member Secretary from outside MID/GSDA. These arrangements do not promote proper coordination and smooth management of all activities. It is recommended that the matter be reviewed and streamlined. The SE - Data Centre may be given a central role. It may be considered to locate the office of the CE-Hydrology and the Data Centre of MID at Pune. Sanctioning of posts. Sanctioning of the posts for two SE's and one EE (Nagpur) should be expedited. Appointment of a SE-Data Centre, with a drive and ability to stay several years on this post, is recommended in view of the crucial role of this post in the successful completion of HP- targets. Network. It appears that MID has not yet reviewed its monitoring network, while guidelines for the selection of stations etc. are not available. Equipment for AWLR stations as proposed in the SAR needs to be reviewed. Coordination between agencies. Coordination of IMD, CWC and MID needs to be enhanced. Procurement. Procurement of equipment appears to be in advance of network design, standar- dization, staff posting, construction of buildings, etc. Therefore, procurement should focus first on 'safe' items, while purchase of “high-tech” equipment should be postponed. The procurement of computers and telecommunication facilities may be postponed until an adequate plan has been drafted, with which Consultants will assist. Meanwhile, basic computer training may be performed. Research programs. Concepts and action plans for research components (return flows, real-time monitoring and reservoir instrumentation and sedimentation) need to be drafted prior to procurement of related equipment. 6.4 Ground Water (GSDA)
  • 148. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 22 Well construction. A total of 325 wells are to be constructed this year (1996/97). The required budget needs to be sanctioned as a matter of urgency (August), lest the programme would be delayed. The differences in the unit cost of observation tubewells are to be taken up by GSDA with the World Bank. The programme for construction of wells spelled out in the SAR was misunderstood. Therefore, a re-identification of wells to be constructed this year is required. The selection of sites is to be coordinated closely with CGWB. Budget: The budget needed for HP is yet to be sanctioned by Government of Maharashtra. Tubewells: Of the observation tube wells of 30 m depth, 411 are “replacement wells” and only 89 are new wells. The action plan is proposed to be modified and fresh sites should be finalised accordingly. Procurement. The procurement of computers and telecommunication facilities may be postponed until an adequate plan has been drafted, with which Consultants will assist. Meanwhile, basic computer training may be performed. Procurement of equipment earmarked for ground water recharge studies is to await preparation of plan of studies. Staffing. Sanctioning of additional staff posts (43 for this fiscal year) needs to be expedited to allow actual posting later this year. This action also must be linked with training programmes. Research programme. Proper plans have to be worked out for GW recharge studies envisaged under HP. 6.5 Water Quality Organization. The existing situation for surface water quality monitoring is not well coordinated, with one lab at Nasik (in MERI) conducting some special WQ studies on request and apparently several laboratories under the Water Resources Divisions. The MERI-lab will ultimately not be under the CE-Hydrology. It appears that little thought has been given to the objectives, scope and arrangements for WQ monitoring within MID. This issue deserves urgent attention at policy and managerial level, including staffing. Monitoring objectives. Review of MID's WQ monitoring mandate, monitoring objectives, net- works and sampling programs, required technical support for the laboratories, etc. is urgently required. Level I laboratories. The locations for the new Level I labs is not yet determined. Again, this will require someone in the administration to have some overview of the surface water quality monitoring needs of the state. New GSDA building: laboratory. GSDA plans to build in Nasik a new water quality laboratory, training centre and hostel, each with an area of about 650 m2, at a cost of 180 lakh, against a budget provision under HP of 30 to perhaps 40 lakh. The level II lab would accommodate only 3 professional staff, for which the SAR provides 200 m2. Even less space is provided for the level II+ lab in Pune. Consequently, it would seem necessary to justify the construction of this building (objectives and anticipated use). The State should be aware that some 80% of the costs may have to be funded from a non-HP budget
  • 149. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 23 Groundwater monitoring. The WQ monitoring programme is better than observed in several other states due the initiative and dedication of existing staff. A good basis for extension is available. Recruitment of incremental staff should be expedited. Coordination with CGWB is important. Input of Consultant. Consultants consider starting their services on WQ in the states with GSDA (labs) in a pilot plan in terms of defining how they should work together with the states to help improve WQ monitoring programs (i.e. review of mandates, monitoring objectives, networks and sampling programs, technical support for the laboratory, establishing detailed training needs, etc.). 6.6 Training Training Sub-Committee. It is to be commended that the Training Sub-Committee has been formed and a training proposal prepared. However, the proposed training programme needs to be reviewed, e.g. the proposed training with respect to WQ is fully inadequate. Training programmes will be coordinated at the central level. Identification of trainees. New staff should be posted before the start of the training. Staff to be trained needs to be identified soonest, while the phasing of the training activities should be reviewed vis a` vis the available staff. New GSDA building: training center. GSDA plans to build in Nasik a new water quality labora- tory, training centre and hostel, each with an area of about 650 m2. The training centre is designed for 30 trainees. It seems possible that the building would rarely be used. Training could also take place in other government buildings, e.g. at WALMI and Engineering Staff College. Retaining of staff. Trained staff should be retained for several years. This may be taken into account, while selecting candidates for training. Preference may be given to candidates with some computer literacy.
  • 150. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 24 7. GUJARAT Consultants visited Gujarat from 13 to 17 August 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the State were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 16 August with the Secretary NWRD. The mission has commended the Department that it has taken several steps towards a timely implementation of the programme. At the same time it expressed its opinion that several planned activities need to be reviewed, justified and documented. 7.1 Institutional Issues Organization. The anticipated institutional arrangements within NWRD for HP are promising. Key staff (Circles), data centres and laboratories will be placed in the same building. All HP related activities in SW and GW are under the same Secretary. It is recommended to consider further integration of the GW/SW data centres and level II+/II laboratories, in order to promote further coordination and integration of all SW/GW monitoring activities and reduce the operational costs. New Building - Gandhinagar. The Mission appreciates the new building to be erected in Gandhinagar, but the cost of the building (about 3,500 m2 floor space) may substantially exceed the budget provisions in the SAR (about 106 lakhs). In addition, its internal lay-out deserves review. A very large space has been provided for the level II+ laboratory to be operated by GERI, having a likely workload under HP in the order of only 1,000 samples per year. GWRDC with a likely workload of 5,000 samples per year has been assigned instead less than 50 m2 for its level II+ laboratory. It is recommended that both laboratories be located at the same floor and be integrated as much as possible. It will be interesting to estimate the average costs of chemical analyses vis à vis commercial rates. Coordination between agencies. It is reported that the cooperation between CWC, IMD and WRIC should be improved. IMD and CWC were said to have been invited only once for a meeting of the State Level Coordination Committee (Nov. 1995). These agencies did not participate in the combined discussions with the Secretary WRD during the visit of the Mission. Justification of procurement. The rationale and justification for proposed activities and procurements appears not to be well documented. The tendency appears to be to procure whatever is provided in the SAR, without a critical review. Tuning of various procurement activities is still required, for example the design of the level II+ laboratories is not commensurate with the expected workloads. Incremental staff may be justified vis à vis expected work load. Data Centres. The State proposed three sub-data centres: SW-quantity, SW-quality and GW quantity and quality. It is recommended to join the two sub-centres for SW into only one, to reduce staff requirements and promote integration of surface water quality and quantity. WRIC will not become really involved in WQ if the data centre for WQ is left to GERI. Additionally, the Hydrology Project only provides for 2 data centres with computer package B (as in SAR). The proposed staffing for each sub-centre is the same is substantially oversized (in total 21 professionals) and should be reviewed in relation to the expected work loads. Consultants will provide guidance for the set-up, staffing, equipment and software for the Data Centre(s). Computer
  • 151. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 25 terminals should be placed with the individual professional staff rather than in a separate computer room. Staffing. SW has proposed substantial additional incremental staff requirements for field work, etc. (about 11 crores). Justification is required vis à vis requirements and budget provisions. Transfer of such staff to the regular budget towards the end of HP should also be planned, perhaps in phases. In addition, The motivation of staff through incentives in order to enhance the quality of monitoring results should be a matter of concern. Hydrological Data Users. The Mission could meet only some members of the HDUG, due to short notification. HDUs appreciated the openness with which data are being made available by WRIC and requested an overview of the data availability. The Mission recommended incorporation of the state PCB and Forestry Department in the HDUG. HDUs have not yet worked out their data requirements. The type and character of data to be collected depends on the user requirements. It is advocated that a small group be established, which approach the potential data users with specific questions, laid down in a questionnaire for reasons of uniformity. Data collectors and data users together should fill in the questionnaire to assess the data needs. The interest taken by various potential data users is expected to increase substantially in the future, once the HIS is properly functioning. 7.2 Hydrometeorology Network. The State Water Resource Department maintains a network of 418 SRG, 249 ARG and 300 FCS plus 5 AWS. The existing network needs review and thorough inspection as it is not known how many stations are functioning. The State has been advised to review the network of FCS in detail with IMD, keeping in view the spatial and operational needs. CWC may also be consulted while reviewing the network. Maintenance of network. On advice from the World Bank Appraisal Mission (September 1994), the State WRD reduced the number of FCS from 300 to 201. Additionally, the State brought the stations under the Hydrology Project from different other projects. By doing so, they created large incremental staff requirements for the take-over of the 201 FCS for which no budget provision exists in SAR. As the climatic conditions remain homogeneous over large areas, the Identification Mission feels that the State could further reduce the number of FCS substantially and try to locate these where G/D staff are available for manning the stations without extra cost. The Mission is of the opinion that the required number of FCSs is much less than 201. Discussions with IMD also confirm this view. Placement of a limited number of new FCSs (mainly) at G/D sites should therefore be considered, which would nearly eliminate the need for incremental staff for FCS. Reliability of data. The reliability of collected data needs to be established.
  • 152. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 26 Coordination between agencies. IMD and CWC have stated that more frequent contacts by the State WRD are necessary for a coordinated implementation of the programme under the Hydrology Project. Coordination is necessary for network planning, joint inspections, installation and training of staff. The Identification Mission has therefore advised the State to have close coordination with IMD and CWC and also to have frequent State Level Coordination Committee meetings with participation of Central agencies. 7.3 Surface Water (WRIC) Network. It appears that the SW monitoring network deserves further review in close coordination with CWC and IMD (including site inspections). Presently proposed equipment packages may not be commensurate with the actual needs. The number of bed material samplers can be reduced, while the provision of echo sounders without providing boats serves little purpose. Consultants have reviewed equipment specifications and submitted the same to PCS/CWC. Consultants plan a review of sediment sampling and sediment lab items. Procurement. Procurement of equipment appears to be in advance of monitoring network review, standardization, staff posting, construction of buildings, etc. Therefore, procurement should focus first on 'safe' items, while purchase of 'high-tech' equipment should be postponed. The procurement of large of computers and telecommunication facilities may be postponed until an adequate plan has been drafted for the data centres etc., with which Consultants will assist. Meanwhile, a limited number of computers may be procured, while basic computer training for providing computer familiarization may commence as soon as possible. Operational costs. Operational costs of the monitoring network may be considerably reduced by adjusting the frequency of discharge measurements and the combination of hydrometric and meteorologic stations. Discharges at stations with a stable rating curve need not to be measured every year. Data processing. Data processing practises need to be revised, and data validation included. It is recommended to start as soon as possible with the entry onto computers of historical field data, i.e. meteorological data, water level data and condensed stage-discharge data. Data Centre. In the future, data entry will take place at sub-division level and in the WQ-lab(s). A typical staff composition of the SW Data Centre may be: 2 post-graduate professionals (in hydrology and water quality), one data base expert and two support staff (data entry, routine computer work). Reservoir sedimentation surveys. Concept, action plan, survey methodology and equipment specifications for the reservoir sedimentation surveys (GERI) need to be drafted prior to procure- ment of the related equipment. Consultants will assist GERI with the same, in line with similar activities in other states (standard model for equipment, staffing, operation, etc.). Sediment inflows to the reservoirs also need to be monitored.
  • 153. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 27 7.4 Groundwater (GWRDC) Few issues have emerged from the discussions with GWRDC. Budget, administrative and technical sanctions are reported to have been received. Execution of the programme for this year would commence after the monsoon. Tubewells: Construction of all observation tubewells will be carried out through private contract. Procurement: Procurement action has been initiated and 3 tender documents (NCB) are ready for forwarding to the World Bank. Procurement action for the level II + laboratory at Gandhinagar will be taken after the building is ready. R&D: Selection of typical basins for water balance studies is yet to be finalised. Staffing. Sanctioning of additional staff/posts needs to be expedited to allow actual posting later this year; ref. also to link with training programmes. A WQ expert (non-chemist) should be included in the staff of the data centre. Water balance studies. GW and SW use in the state has a tremendous impact on water balances, GW levels, etc. Monitoring of water use (particularly for irrigation) is not yet addressed under HP and may require reconsideration. This is particularly so in Saurashtra and Kutch regions, where there is an acute shortage of water due to low rainfall and often drought conditions. Plans for water balance studies proposed in the SAR have yet to be worked out. Network and site selection. GWRDC and CGWB will form a site selection committee to decide on the locations for AWLRs. Consultants are available for review and advice. Data Centre. In the future, data entry will take place at regional level and in the WQ-lab(s). None of the historical GWL data are currently computerized. A typical staff composition of the GW Data Centre may be: 3 post-graduate professionals in water resources and water quality, one data base expert and two support staff (data entry, routine computer work). 7.5 Water Quality Water quality monitoring objectives. More thought needs to be given to the objectives and scope of WQ monitoring. This issue deserves attention at policy and managerial level. Review of monitoring mandate, monitoring objectives, networks and sampling programs, required technical support for the laboratories, etc. is required. Consultants will assist in this. The mandate should also take into account the pollution caused to the total environment in the future. Laboratory buildings. The construction of the new building at Gandhinagar may last till the end of 1998. This requires temporary arrangements to be made for the anticipated level II+ laboratories and data centres. Otherwise the WQ component of HP would be seriously delayed, particularly for SW. The space allotted to the Level II+ laboratory needs to be substantially increased. Maximum integration with the laboratory for SW is recommended. Procurement of new laboratory equipment should not be postponed till the new building is ready. Temporary arrangements need to be made.
  • 154. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: Gujarat Page Annex 2 - 28 Consultants will also provide a 'blue print' for a standard laboratory, containing guidelines for designs, equipment specifications, operation procedures, staffing, quality control, required training, etc. Water quality staff. A WQ expert should be included in the staff of the Data Centre. 7.6 Training Training coordination. Central agencies will provide training of state trainers (SW, GW, and data base management), as well as advanced courses. State trainers will train observers and Jr. professional staff. The trainers for water quality have not yet been identified. IMD will depute their own trainers for training of observers. Training of Supervisors and Advance Course participants will be arranged at the IMD Training Centre, Pune. WALMI will co-ordinate the training in Gujarat. Consultants will provide assistance with the development of a consolidated training programme and syllabus. Training needs to be oriented to practical aspects of hydrometry and should not be overloaded with theory. Staff to be trained. Staff to be trained needs to be identified soonest, while the phasing of the training activities should be considered vis à vis the available staff, and taking into account the posting of new staff. Preference may be given to candidates with some computer literacy. Retaining of staff. Trained staff should be retained for several years. This may be taken into account, while selecting candidates for training.
  • 155. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 29 8 MADHYA PRADESH Consultants visited Madhya Pradesh from 19 to 26 August 1996 as part of the Inception Phase of the Hydrology Project. The issues identified in the state were discussed in the wrap-up meeting on 24 August with the Secretary. 8.1 Institutional Issues Organization. The formation of a single entity for SW and GW monitoring under one CE is taking place, which is a positive development. WQ laboratories and data centres will also be integrated. This puts MP as such in a favourable position compared to several other participating states. Sustainability of the Hydrology Project. The mission learned that many of the SW stations which started under the Major Irrigations Project are no longer operational, while during the past two years no GW samples have been taken. As lack of funds for O&M were said to be an important reason, this raises certain doubt regarding the sustainability of the investments taking place under HP. Lack of transport. Site selection of new SW and GW stations has not yet taken place for lack of staff and means of transport. Procurement of vehicles has not yet been approved by the Finance Department. Renting of vehicles may be considered to overcome the temporary transportation problems. Expeditious action is required in this respect. Staffing. Redeployment and recruitment of incremental staff has not yet been sanctioned. In addition, the question why a large number of incremental staff is required, while at the moment no monitoring activities take place needs to be addressed. Task analysis, man power planning, review of staff requirements, optimization of monitoring activities and placement of 'willing' and motivated staff are recommended as means to achieve a more effective project organization and management at lower costs. Transfer of such staff to the regular budget towards the end of HP should also be planned, perhaps in phases. The motivation of staff through incentives in order to enhance the quality of monitoring results should be a matter of concern. The posting of willing and interested staff, which is retained after adequate training, should be seriously considered. Coordination between agencies. Coordination of SW stations between SSW and CWC has also not yet taken place. The coordination between CWC, IMD and WRD should be improved for meteorological and other measurements. Meetings. The Mission welcomes the intention of the Minister of Water Resources to convene monthly progress review meetings. His instruction to prepare detailed monthly action plans is considered crucial in this respect. Additionally, the State Level Coordination Committee should meet regularly. It is recommended that the State Management Consultant be invited to these meetings. Land acquisition for laboratories. So far land has only been acquired for one laboratory building (Raipur). Given the required time for preparation and construction of the 9 new buildings under the project, it is likely that the new laboratories will not be completed before the end of 1998. The Mission urges the WRD to arrange temporary accommodation (rented or internal relocations), otherwise the actual start of the WQ monitoring programmes will be seriously delayed.
  • 156. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 30 Release of project funds. It is recommended to discuss with the Finance Department how the release of project funds (immediately reimbursable by the WB) can be accelerated. To alleviate the problem of constant lack of funds the option of a rolling fund (2 to 3 crores) may be considered. Justification of activities. The justification for proposed activities and procurement is not well documented. The tendency appears to be to procure whatever is provided in the SAR, without a critical review. Tuning of various procurement activities is still required, for example the design of the laboratories is not commensurate with the expected workloads. Incremental staff should be justified by the expected work load. Data Centre. Consultants will provide guidance for the set-up, staffing, equipment and software for the Data Centre. The proposed staffing for the Data Centre should be reviewed in relation to the expected work loads. Hydrological Data Users. The Mission met only 4 members of the HDUG as other agencies were not represented. It is recommended to include central agencies (CWC and CGWB) as well as several other potential data users in the HDUG. Coordination between WRD and PCB with respect to WQ monitoring has been recommended in the meeting. The representative of the Department of Agriculture expressed the importance of sediment measurements. The meeting stressed the urgent need to improve data accessibility and communication between data providers and users. Most HDUs have not yet worked out their data requirements. Type of data to be collected will depend on the user requirements. It is recommended that a small group be established, which approaches potential data users with specific questions, laid down in a questionnaire for uniformity reasons. Data collectors and data users together should fill in the questionnaire to assess the data needs. The interest taken by various data users is expected to increase substantially in the future, once the HIS is properly functioning. 8.2 Hydrometeorology Network. The existing network of 116 SRG and 3 ARG requires review in close coordination with CWC and IMD (including site inspections). Such review and coordination has not yet taken place. IMD informed the mission that it is ready for joint inspection field visits. Apparently, the site selection of 44 SRG and 36 ARG new stations has not yet taken place for lack of staff and means of transport. Staff for site inspection should be put in place as soon as possible. The lack of vehicles also needs to be addressed urgently. Many of the raingauge stations which started under the Major Irrigation Project of Madhya Pradesh are no longer operational. Coordination between agencies. Coordination between WRD, IMD, and CWC should be improved for meteorological measurements. Data processing and validation. Entry of historical data should only start after improved validation procedures are in place. 8.3 Surface Water
  • 157. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 31 Network. It appears that the SW monitoring network deserves further review in close coordination with CWC (including site inspections). Such review and coordination with CWC has not yet taken place. Staff for site inspection should be put in place as soon as possible. The lack of vehicles also needs to be addressed urgently. Coordination with CWC is hampered by the remote locations of the relevant CWC divisions. Equipment specifications. Consultants have reviewed equipment specifications and have submitted the same to PCS/CWC. Procurement plans. Planning of equipment procurement should be tuned to the review of the monitoring network, standardization, staff posting, construction of buildings, etc. Therefore, procurement should focus first on 'basic' items, while purchase of 'high-tech' equipment should be postponed. Organization and management aspects of advanced equipment like AWLRs should be duly considered prior to procurement. The procurement of large computers and telecommunication facilities may be postponed until an adequate plan has been drafted for the data centres, with which Consultants will assist. Meanwhile, a limited number of computers may be procured for entering historical data, while basic computer training may commence as soon as possible. Operational costs. Operational costs of the monitoring network may be considerably reduced by adjusting the frequency of discharge measurements and the combination of hydrometric and meteorological stations. Discharges at stations with a stable rating curve need not to be measured every year. Data processing. Data processing practises need to be introduced, including data validation. Entry of historical field data, i.e. meteorological, water-level and condensed stage-discharge data, should only start once improved validation procedures are in place. Special studies. The WRD has not formulated special studies under HP. Studies on return flows and reservoir sedimentation may still be considered. Concepts, action plan, survey methodology and equipment specifications need to be drafted prior to procurement of the related equipment. Consultants are available to assist with the same, in line with similar activities in other states (standard models for equipment, staffing, operation, etc.). 8.4 Groundwater (SGW and CGWB) Progress of SGW. The main observation concerns the lack of activity and progress within SGW. No site selection has taken place yet. The Mission is concerned about the situation encountered. Tubewells: Geohydrological supervision and back-up for guiding well construction at site requires strengthening. Selection of “Key well” locations is yet to take place by a joint site selection committee. Procurement: Procurement and delivery of DWLRs is required to be synchronised with construction of key wells. The constraint of funds and field vehicles requires quick solution for effective project implementation. Progress of CGWB. CGWB has started its site selection and construction in the field. Consultants are available for review and advice. CGWB is reminded that all well/piezometer construction
  • 158. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 32 works should be completed in the third year of the project, and not in the fourth year as currently planned. New Raipur office for CGWB. CGWB has opened a new regional office at Raipur. It is recommended that this new region will also be included under the HP, and a data centre and level II+ laboratory be provided from contingency funds. The matter will be taken up with PCS and CGWB-Faridabad. 8.5 Water Quality Objectives of water quality monitoring. More thought needs to be given to the objectives and scope of WQ monitoring. This issue deserves attention at policy and managerial level. Review of monitoring mandate, monitoring objectives, networks and sampling programs, and required technical support for the laboratories, is required. Estimated workload. The State Surface Water Department has estimated an annual workload of 39,000 samples to be analyzed in 9 laboratories. The rationale for this is not clear, while a realistic estimate would be the analysis of 1,000 to 2,000 samples (for SW). Laboratory design. The consultants will provide a 'blue print' for a standard laboratory, containing guidelines for design, equipment specifications, operation procedures, staffing, quality control, required training. The current building plans for laboratories require some review. Staffing. Staff of the laboratories have little career prospect, are given only futile resources, and yet demonstrate an eagerness and enthusiasm towards their profession. This results in frustration. Strengthening of the technical management of the laboratories, residing under several divisions, will be required. In addition, a water quality expert (not necessarily a chemist) should be included in the staff of the data centre. Sustainability of the water quality monitoring. It appears that for the past 2 years no samples were delivered to the laboratories. In all, an intensive strengthening programme is required, as well as attention at policy and managerial level for the issue of WQ monitoring. 8.6 Training Identification of trainers. Central agencies will provide training of state trainers (SW, GW, and data base management) as well as advanced courses. State trainers will train observers and junior professional staff. The trainers for water quality have not yet been identified. WALMI may co- ordinate the training in MP. Special care should be taken in the selection of state trainers. Identification of staff for training. Staff to be trained needs to be identified very soon, while the phasing of the training activities should be in line with the actual availability and posting of new staff. It is recommended to extend observer and supervisor training activities to staff of all Divisions. This will allow future lateral transfer of staff and would avoid that two parallel data collection systems are operating within the WRD. Development of training programmes. Consultants will provide assistance with the development of a consolidated training programme.
  • 159. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 33 Computer training. Basic courses in computer use (mainly DOS, spreadsheet, word processing and Windows) should be started soonest at state level. This training should be completed when com- puters become available and trained staff can start with the input of historical data. Private computer training institutes and NIC faculty may be charged with this task. Retaining of trained staff. Trained staff should be retained for several years. This may be taken into account while selecting candidates for training. Preference may be given to candidates with some computer literacy.
  • 160. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 34 9 CENTRAL WATER COMMISSION 9.1 Background The Central Water Commission (CWC) under the Ministry of Water Resources plays a vital role in the Water Sector at National level. It oversees all major and medium irrigation projects that are primarily implemented by individual States. Such a role acquires added responsibility when a project is located on an inter-state river. The CWC has been and continues to be an apex technical organization in the field of water resources planning and development. It has been maintaining gauge-discharge stations on inter-state rivers. It is also maintaining for purposes of flood forecasting gauge and gauge-discharge stations on inter- state rivers. A regional spread in the CWC took place subsequent to the SAR. The CWC now functions with a Chief Engineer located at five regions, as also at the central training unit (CTU) at Pune, as well as with a Chief Engineer at CWC head-quarters at New Delhi. CWC will be responsible for co-operating with state SW departments and the IMD, through its various regional formations, in seeing to the evolution of optimal networks for meteorology and hydrometry. 9.2 Infrastructure and staff CWC while maintaining hydrometric stations spread over the peninsular India, undertakes in respect of its own stations inspections, installation, data collection and data management. Training of staff is done locally as also at the CTU, Pune. As part of infrastructural strengthening provision has been made for additional accommodation in the SAR to change the situation of working from hired accommodation to one of working in a permanent departmental building. One of the existing difficulties, viz. the lack of staff quarters, is proposed to be alleviated by providing such quarters at five places. Incremental staff by way of new appointment is envisaged for the Data Centre and for the laboratories and is not critical in the initial stages of the project. A National Water Academy is to be set up by converting the CTU in Pune. This is supported in the SAR. The NWA will conduct in-service training for middle level officers, policy seminars and workshops and State level training programmes. The identification mission visited CTU Pune and discussed the modalities of evolving training modules, and actual conduct of training programmes to match with the existing facilities. The CTU is also to supply faculty for training programmes to be organized in State WALMIS for the Hydrology Project. 9.3 Implementation of Hydrology Project The Identification Mission visited the CWC offices located in the capitals of seven participating states and those located in Pune. During discussion the following emerged. i) While the state level coordination committee includes a member from the local CWC formation, the committee in most cases has met only once. There has been no frequent technical interaction between the state surface water, CWC and IMD. Thus the coordination has remained weak.
  • 161. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 35 ii) While the state SW department in some cases prepared lists of existing and proposed stations for hydrometry and formally sent the same to CWC, the matter has not been pursued and there was no formal review of the network stations or site inspections for choosing stations for upgradation or for establishing new stations. The Mission advised the states and central agencies on closer coordination. iii) Locational aspects for AWLR installation, both at RG stations as also at reservoir locations, are dependant on water level fluctuations, site conditions and type of sensors and instruments. Such ground work involving CWC officers locally needs to be encouraged. In some cases Consultants’ input is necessary. iv) CWC is a premier technical organization in the field of water resources in the country. It needs to take a leading role in updating guidelines; e.g. for site selection, for hydrometry, for sediment sampling and analysis, for water quality sampling and analysis and for data validation aspects. During inspection, such guidelines are often unknown and unavailable at sites. Consultants’ inputs are available and need to be utilized so that this process attains momentum. v) Madhya Pradesh State at Bhopal does not have a senior CWC officer in-charge of RG stations of Mahanadi, Upper Godavari, Tapi and Mahi basins. This has come about after the SAR and needs to be remedied. The Director River Data Directorate in Delhi is otherwise preoccupied and may not be able to devote enough time. vi) CWC has to organise formal meeting of its HDUG. An activity similar to the one organized by states for filling questionnaires to know the user needs has to be undertaken. CWC has to formally work out the flow of hydrologic data from station to subdivision and so on. The validation checks need to be done through computer software, starting at the subdivision level/ division level. Conceptualisation of the directory of availability of data, the data base itself and peripheral activities for validating data are areas, where CWC has to play a lead role along with the Consultants. Computer to computer data transfer needs to be conceived and specified through floppy, dial-up lines, dedicated lines and satellite linkage. NIC involvement is envisaged in the SAR. CWC needs to take a role in the above so that the computer architecture is identified and national standards are evolved with Consultants’ participation. vii) Introduction of new instruments and software would also need initial demonstration of use, and time to time inspections and interactions in state organisations. The SAR envisages joint inspections by officers of CWPRS and CWC. It is suggested that Consultants need to be involved in such teams. Statewise inspection and maintenance teams are to be established and trained by the above central team.
  • 162. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 36 9.4 Procurement in CWC CWC indicated that this activity will be channelled as follows. Description Allocation of Work Training Equipment Chief Engineer, CTU, Pune Navigational Equipment Chief Engineer, NTO, Vadodara Hydrological Equipment & Chief Engineer, M&ERO, Material Bhubaneshwar Survey Equipment Chief Engineer, Monitoring (Central), Nagpur Sediment Sampling & Chief Engineer, KGO Lab. Equipments Hyderabad Hydrometeorological Chief Engineer, KGO, Equipment Hyderabad Water Quality Chief Engineer, C&SRO Equipment Coimbatore Computer Packages River Data Directorate, New Delhi Vehicles River Data Directorate, New Delhi CWC has indicated the budget of the seven formations, i.e. CWC Hq, C&SRO, CTU, KGO, MERO, NTO, MCN. There is, however, need for relating the budgets to physical targets in the various regions/ formations. The physical targets have to emanate from inspections and requirements at site. The SAR can at the most be a guide and reconciliation from time to time may be necessary. This is evident from the change in the total number of stations from 235 to 261. 9.5 Training Training is an important component of HP. CWC has to impart training to its observers at its RG stations in the reading of hydromet instruments, use of wading rods, current meters, counters, bridge derricks, moving boats, and filling-in of data in pocket dairy and transfer thereafter to regular forms. Computational aspects of discharge, stage-discharge relations, hydraulics and controls affecting S-D relations, and of validation aspects have to be imparted to the junior engineers and assistant engineers. Site selection, types of installations for AWLRs etc and guidelines thereto are to be familiar to AEs/AEEs and EEs/DDs. Basic computer familiarisation in DOS, MOS and spread sheet needs to be started immediately among JEs, AEs etc.
  • 163. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 37 CWC needs to work out regional training programmes and is to organise its faculty from CTU and from within its own officer cadre. CTU has to organise training interaction with the states.
  • 164. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 38 10 CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD 10.1 Background The Central Ground Water Board, under the Ministry of Water Resources, is the national apex organization responsible for all aspects relevant to groundwater. It is responsible for regional hydrogeological surveys, exploration, groundwater resource evaluation, maintaining nation wide groundwater level and groundwater quality monitoring network, publication of hydrogeological information in the form of reports, maps and atlases. It plays a vital national role in the scientific development of groundwater resources in the country to meet the ever growing needs of the irrigated agriculture. The Board has 16 Regional Offices spread all over to cover the whole of the country. Nine of the Regional Offices are located in the 8 participating states under H.P. These Regional Offices are extending cooperation to respective State Ground Water Organizations and providing effective coordination for the speedy implementation of the hydrology project activities. CGWB plays the nodal role for the groundwater component of the project. It encourages the framing of proposals from the groundwater organization of the participating States. The Board got formulated similar proposals for each of its Regional Offices covering the project area. After detailed discussions with the State GW organizations it finalized the dimensions of the total programme (groundwater component). 10.2 Action plan of CGWB The Board has inherited two major responsibilities under the project implementation i.e. i) the role of a national nodal authority for the groundwater component and ii) implementation of its programme in its regions and headquarter office at Faridabad. One of the main tasks under project implementation was to ensure appropriate specifications for the wide range of equipment and materials to be procured by the State Groundwater Organizations and CGWB. Four Special Committees were constituted by CGWB for the purpose of finalizing specifications i.e. i) hydrogeological equipment including design of observation tubewells ii) chemical equipment iii) computer hardware and software and iv) procurement procedures. On all these committees the participating State GW organizations were the members and in the Committee on computer hardware and software, NIC and NIH were also members. The recommendations of these committees were duly circulated to the participating agencies for adherence and implementation. The action plan of the CGWB takes effect from 1996 and most of the physical activities are planned to be completed before 1998. However, construction of observation wells in hard rocks, alluvium and pollution areas extend upto the beginning of 1999. Similarly, procurement of DWLRs and the works for their protection have been planned for completion by the end of 1999. This requires modification and efforts to complete these work by 1998 should be made.
  • 165. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: CGWB Page Annex 2 - 39 10.3 Training The training facilities available with CGWB are planned to be effectively used for the implementing part of the envisaged training programme for the GW staff under HP. CGWB conducts three training courses annually utilizing the facilities and expertise available with the Department, i.e. i) groundwater and water well techniques (3 months course) ii) drilling technology (3 months course) and remote sensing and digital image processing (6 weeks course). It also conducts courses on specific subjects from time to time. CGWB has established the Rajiv Gandhi National Groundwater Training Institute at Raipur for training of in-service officers to meet the needs for creating a service of trained professionals and sub-professionals for handling the various works connected with groundwater development in the country. A Committee for trainers and trainees has been constituted by CGWB (MOWR). The Committee members are from IIT Delhi, NABARD and NEERI. The Committee has met recently under the Chairmanship of the Secretary (WR) and Chairman CGWB, and identified two courses to be run, one of 6 weeks duration and the second of twelve weeks duration. Spadework in this regard has started. A group is working to come up with necessary curriculum and the recommendations of the Committee will be implemented through the Raipur Institute. 10.4 Implementation of Hydrology Project The identification Mission during its visit to the Regional Offices of CGWB (except Raipur) in the 8 participating States and to the Central HQ office located at Faridabad, identified the following issues : • Procurement action has been centralized for all items required under the Hydrology Project by the CGWB HQ as well as by Regional offices. • All the purpose built observation tubewells in hard rocks will be drilled by private contracts, where as all the purpose built observation tubewells in soft rocks and alluvium will be constructed by deploying departmental rigs. • Specifications of the hardware and software required for the data centres have been drawn by a Committee, but the same are to be reviewed by the Consultant before finalisation. • `Key wells' on which DWLRs are to be installed form the back bone of the monitoring network system. For avoiding duplication and achieving integration a joint site selection committee (Hydrogeologists of SGO and CGWB) should pin point locations in the field. • Computerization of data has a large scope for strengthening. Uniform formats and software are needed for the development of groundwater data bases in all the Regional and HQ offices. Similarly standard data validation procedures and monitoring techniques are to be introduced in all the GW data centres of CGWB. • Incremental staff requirements of 200 staff (scientific, technical and sub-professional) has been approved. Redeployment orders have been issued to 160 staff members. Proposals for creation of 40 new posts are awaiting government sanction.
  • 166. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: IMD Page Annex 2 - 40 11 INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 11.1 Background IMD is one of the oldest central departments (about 120 years old) and is charged with the responsibility of rainfall registration in the entire country. In the early days the practice for the States Revenue Departments was to collect rainfall data mainly for the purpose of collecting taxes from farmers. As the agricultural operations expanded and irrigation facilities increased, the state Agricultural, Irrigation and Water Resources Departments became the main data collectors and users as well. As the network of raingauges increased in the States, the management of rainfall registration in the States became more onerous. The IMD with its limited inspectorate and with its own operational inspection programmes, found it increasingly difficult to maintain the frequency of inspection of state raingauges. Further, the IMD had only the technical authority as the administrative actions and follow-up rested with State Governments. As a result, many of the State raingauge station became non-operational for varying reasons, and the state hydromet set-up needed revamping. The present project provides an excellent opportunity for all concerned to remedy the situation. It provides scope to set mechanisms for proper up-keep of instruments and quality rainfall data collection in the States. The role of the Consultants is to facilitate interaction in the technical areas between IMD and the States or the CWC and CGWB in providing assistance to States to speedily update rainfall data collection programmes. This needs to be counted as an opportunity to make available more user - friendly services. 11.2 Additional infrastructure and staff IMD activities pertaining to inspection, installation, data collection, data management and training in 8 participating States are likely to increase enormously under the Hydrology Project. To meet the additional quantum of work, the minimum incremental staff worked out by IMD is about 100 (in different cadres). The Department of Science and Technology, which is the administrative Ministry of Government of India has sanctioned 59 posts in different cadres during the financial year 1996-97 for the above purpose. Sanction for the remaining posts in IMD is expected to be issued during the financial year 1997-98. In addition, necessary civil works for modifications to existing buildings will be undertaken for installation of computer systems, accommodation of incremental staff, installation of Observatory and equipment for training purposes at state meteorological offices, which are located in all the participating States. 11.3 Implementation of Hydrology Project The Identification Mission visited the State Meteorological Offices and Regional Centres located in the state capitals of the 8 participating States. During discussions, the following issues were brought to the notice of Consultants. • Although an IMD representative has been made member of the State Level Coordination Committee, the meeting of this Committee has taken place only once in the majority of the States. This has led to weak interaction between the State and Central agencies like IMD, CWC and CGWB.
  • 167. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: IMD Page Annex 2 - 41 • For planning and design of meteorological networks, the State Authorities are required to send a list of the existing and proposed (under HP) raingauge and climate stations to IMD for examination. Some States have done so but the list has not yet been finalized due to lack of coordination between IMD and State agencies. • IMD and States have not done any initial planning for joint inspection due to non- availability of incremental staff and vehicles for both IMD and the States. In case of IMD, incremental staff has now been sanctioned but the vehicles have not yet been provided. • State Meteorological Offices and Regional Met. Centres have got the estimates for civil works prepared and sent to IMD Headquarters, New Delhi for approval. Approvals are awaited. • For calibration and certification of meteorological instruments, the IMD workshop at Pune is to procure and install additional calibration equipments. For this purpose, the Pune Workshop has finalized the specifications, but the procurement process is yet to start in IMD. It is understood that the Central Purchase Office of IMD will shortly float the tender on global basis. This may cause some delay in the calibration program of IMD. • For meteorological data management and storage, the incremental staff earmarked at State Met. Offices may be given adequate training. This will ensure uniformity in data processing. The procedure that will be adopted in States for the flow of the meteorological data is as follows. State observers recording Gauge and Discharge data will also record the rainfall/climate data. The entry verification will be carried out at Sub-Division or Divisional level and data on floppies will be sent to the State Met. Centre/Regional Met. Centre of IMD. The IMD office will send these floppies to the National Data Centre, Pune, where data will be stored after carrying out the Electronic Data Processing and Quality Control. Duplicate floppies will be returned to State Data Centre for storage. On the other hand, the National Data Centre, Pune, suggested that for data communication the compatibility of computer hardware and software at Central and State level should be same. • Training is an important component of the Hydrology project. IMD is ready to start the Basic training to the field Observers. Three Training Centres of IMD are located at Pune, Madras and Calcutta. The basic course is of 4 weeks duration, but can be condensed into 3 weeks. The States of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh have expressed administrative difficulties in deputing their field staff at observer level for Met. training outside their States. For field staff (Observers), therefore, it is desirable for IMD to depute their trainers to these 6 States for training in the local language. Facilities for boarding and lodging and lecture rooms will be provided by WALMIs of each State. Training material and faculty will be provided by IMD. IMD is taking the necessary action for timely commencement of training programs. IMD will also circulate training schedules to all participating States, to enable the States to plan their training programs and earmark persons for training well in advance.
  • 168. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: IMD Page Annex 2 - 42 Supervisory training of 6 weeks and Refresher Courses for Senior Officers of one week will, however, be conducted in Pune. Further details on training programs are given in Annexure 3 on Training.
  • 169. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: N I H Page Annex 2 - 43 12 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY 12.1 Introduction NIH will be involved in the Hydrology Project for both training and research activities. The institute was visited by Consultants on 2nd and 3rd August, 1996, to discuss both aspects. a. Training of "Trainers" in the area of data processing procedures, as well as development of skills in the use of applied software, has been left to NIH. b. NIH also accepted to train Senior professionals of States in hydrological procedures, c. In Applied Research, which is to be demand driven, even though the areas useful to specific regions and projects are listed out in the SAR, NIH needs to identify research tasks for taking up. 12.2 Training Component The training aspects that can be conducted at NIH were discussed. The Consultant indicated that areas of training identified are hydrometeorology, hydrometry, groundwater, water quality and data base management. It was discussed and agreed upon that NIH, with the assistance of the Consultants, will develop, organise and conduct data base management training at basic, intermediate and advanced level for all State and Central agencies involved. Other Central agencies for training are IMD and CWC-CTU in Pune, CGWB in Faridibad and NEERI in Nagpur. The central agencies are expected to develop syllabus, lecture contents and lecture modules, on the basis of standardized methods, procedures and formats. The Consultants will be available to give the required inputs. Areas like sediment sampling, sophisticated instrument specifications like Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) or reservoir sediment survey equipment or other items like automated sensor and automated data loggers have to be finalized, so that use of such equipment is included in the training modules. Central agencies need to concentrate on training of trainers. The States need to concentrate on organizing and imparting practical knowledge of handling equipment, maintenance, entering in pocket diaries and forms. They need to look into the auditoria, hostels and teaching aids at state institutes like WALMIs. The Faculty can be guest faculty and available infrastructure like computer terminals have to play a role in the activity, such as computer familiarization for Data Centre staff. The consensus was that separately Data Centres with computers and peripherals have to be set up and brought into working condition. There is need for on-the-job training to staff to whom ultimately they can be handed over. Provisions for installation, making the centre operational and training have to be made obligatory by suppliers. Data Center managers have to be persons suitably qualified for such work. Such persons have to be identified by concerned organizations. NIH also raised administrative aspects such as the cost of boarding, lodging, course materials etc. for trainees. There may be need for registration fee to be deposited by sponsoring agencies. This
  • 170. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: N I H Page Annex 2 - 44 needs to be sorted out by NIH internally, as training activities ought not to be a burden and a disincentive to the participants. 12.3 Research Component The NIH scientists indicated in discussions the various disciplines and problems they are working on. They tried to place before the team their areas of interest. The team leader stated that NIH could profitably be specific and frame demand driver research proposals, detailing manpower available, costs and time frames, so that they can be examined and placed before an empowered committee for funding. It was pointed out that there are areas delineated in the SAR for R&D, for example: • Improvement to Reservoir Instrumentation & Management, (including reservoir sedimentation monitoring surveys) • Monitoring return flows in identified projects and commands, • Improvement to real - time Water Resources Management, (including forecasting of floods in some basins) • Observation network review for Surface Water, criteria and guidelines • Effect of tidal lockages on stage discharge rating Some of the laboratories and instruments installed have also been inspected by the team during the visit.
  • 171. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: C W P R S Page Annex 2 - 45 13CENTRAL WATER AND POWER RESEARCH STATION 13.1 Introduction Areas for involvement of CWPRS are briefly as follows. • Current meter calibration is an area, where CWPRS is providing services to all state and central agencies. Workshops associated with current meter calibration need strengthening. Inventory of current meter spares are better maintained for attending to repairs alongside calibration. • Inspection teams with CWPRS and CWC officers for inspecting river gauging stations is envisaged. During pendency of project, a consultant or consultants from the DHV need to be on this inspection team. • Testing and certification is an area in respect of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), sediment survey boats, DGPS systems, computers with software, echosounders for sedimentation surveys or equipment using sensors for water level or rain sensing, including accompanying data loggers. Experience of CWPRS needs to be not only passed on to other agencies but also documented. • Faculty supply in Training of Trainers (TOT) in disciplines such as hydrometry, monitoring water levels, sampling testing of sediments and related instrument maintenance. • R&D Tasks which are on demand from CWPRS. 13.2 Findings of the Identification Mission Discussions centred on special equipments such as sensor-data logger for rain and level sensing, reservoir sedimentation survey sets in the SAR, and radio reporting rain gauges (RRRGs). The electronics laboratory in CWPRS was visited. A water level recorder is developed in CWPRS, which has not yet gone into production on large scale. CWPRS had used different makes of a tipping bucket type of automated rain gauges along with data logger for collection of rainfall information in a telemetry station. It is reported that the rainfall sensors sometimes failed to function when the rainstorm was raging. During thunder storms and intense weather phenomenon the data logger exhibited a tendency to hang on and not proceed further without outside intervention. It may thus be prudent to further try out the type of sensors and data loggers used in the CWPRS prototype on pilot scale. There is need to resort to sensors using rain gauges and data loggers in catchments having orographic effect at remote locations and specifications have to include these items if they are not included in the document on specifications. Work has been noticed to be in progress on the development of software for computerised systems for sediment survey boats. In this system the boats are planned to shift along predetermined transects, when at grid points record the depth and keep it in a file in the computer. The computer file can then be used for plotting the bed contours, giving the current silted bed situation. This
  • 172. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: C W P R S Page Annex 2 - 46 enables a faster survey and plotting of the survey outcome is quickly achieved. However, still this is under development and will need integration of all the components, viz. the computer needs to be stable or unaffected during runs, it has to work for periods on battery, positioning systems and computers need integration, etc. This experience will be valuable in dealing with the planned reservoir sedimentation survey boats. It is necessary to go for instruments rugged in design and manufacture, to survive in harsh field conditions and provide trouble free service, by appropriately specifying them and by proper procurement. The Hydrology Project envisages simultaneous action around the country in eight states. CWPRS alone may not be able to provide all inputs at the rate and at the scale needed. There is need to supplement CWPRS efforts in respect of instruments, specification, installation, certification and trouble shooting. The need for consultant teams to do trouble shooting and make things work is foreseen.
  • 173. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hydrology Project Inception Report Annex 2: C W P R S Page Annex 2 - 47
  • 174. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 1 Annex 3 Supplementary Training Information 3.1 Special State training requirements page 3 - 2 3.2 Staff numbers to be trained page 3 - 3 3.3 List of hydrology training modules page 3 - 4 3.4 List and profiles of Central Training Institutes page 3 - 7 3.5 List of State training coordinators and institutes page 3 - 9 3.6 State training budgets page 3 - 11
  • 175. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 2 3.1 Special State training requirements Andhra Pradesh • The Department of Irrigation and Command Area Development (DOICAD) has proposed the establishment of 8 Full Climatic Stations (FCS). Training of hydromet supervisors is needed. • The DOICAD has proposed reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment package is necessary. • The DOICAD has proposed studies on the estimation of return flows from surface water irrigation. Special training on water balance studies, drainage and modelling would be required. • The Ground Water Directorate (GWD) has proposed to undertake baseflow and catchment area studies. Training on surface water hydrometry for GWD personnel is necessary. Special training on water balance studies for GWD professionals is needed. • In order to undertake groundwater pollution studies, specialised training on groundwater pollution would be required for GWD professionals. Gujarat • The Narmada and Water Resources Department (NWRD) has proposed to undertake reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment package is necessary. • The Ground Water Investigation Circle (GWIC) has planned water balance studies on typical basins by installing the necessary instrumentation. Special training on water balance studies for GWIC professionals is required. Madhya Pradesh All basic training needed, no special training is required. Maharashtra • The Maharashtra Irrigation Department (MID) has proposed upgradation of nine existing FCSs and establishment of 18 new FCS. Training of hydromet supervisors is needed. • The MID has proposed reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment package is necessary. • The MID has proposed studies on the estimation of return flows from surface water irrigation. Special training on water balance studies, drainage and modelling would be required. • The Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency (GSDA) established the observation network rationally watershedwise with due emphasis to the valley slopes and discharge sites. HP will support GSDA's on-going recharge studies. Special training on groundwater recharge and water balance studies would be required. Orissa • The Water Resources Department (WRD) has proposed the establishment of 9 FCSs at the new and existing river gauging sites. Training of hydromet supervisors is needed. • The WRD has proposed reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment package is necessary. • The WRD has proposed studies on the estimation of return flows from surface Water Irrigation. Special training on water balance studies, drainage and modelling would be required. • The WRD has planned the development of real-time flood forecasting system for the Brahmani river utilising historical rainfall and flow data. Specialised training on catchment modelling for flood estimation is required. Tamil Nadu • The State Surface Water Organisation (SWO) has proposed the establishment of 20 FCSs and the CWC 5 another 5 FCSs. Training of hydromet supervisors of these two organisations is needed. • The SWO has proposed sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment package is necessary.
  • 176. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 3 • The SWO has proposed studies on the estimation of return flows from surface water irrigation. Special training on water balance studies, drainage and modelling would be required. • The SWO has planned the development of improved flood forecasting technique for Tambraparani river system. Specialised training on catchment modelling for flood estimation would be required. Kerala • The Irrigation Department (ID) has proposed the establishment of 9 FCSs and the State Groundwater Department (SGD) another 8 FCS. Training of hydromet supervisors of these two organisations is needed. • The ID has proposed reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment is necessary. • The SGD and CGWB lay great emphasis on pollution studies. Specialised training on groundwater pollution would be required for the professionals of these two organisations. Karnataka • The Water Resources Development Organisation (WRDO) has proposed the establishment of 4 FCSs and CWC another 5 FCS. Training of hydromet supervisors of these two organisations in needed. • WRDO has proposed reservoir sedimentation surveys. Specialised training on reservoir sedimentation and operation of equipment is necessary. • WRDO has proposed studies on the estimation of return flows from surface water irrigation. Special training on water balance studies, drainage and modelling would be required. • WRDO has proposed the installation of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at a major river site in Karnataka. Special training is to be provided by the supplier with support from CWPRS in the operation of the equipment. 3.2 Staff numbers to be trained (as per SAR, incl. Karnataka) SW GW WQ Total (1) Surface water (hydrology) - hydrometry course for observors 3595 - 3595 - supervisors & junior staff 782 - 782 - training of trainers (ToT) in Hydrometry 75 - 75 - specialized equipment training 48 - 48 4500 (2) Ground water (hydro-geology) - course for field observors - 1776 1776 - training of trainers (ToT) in Hydrometry - 120 120 - groundwater modelling (India) - 39 39 1935 (3) Water Quality monitoring (for SW and GW) - basic course for chemical assistants 60 184 244 - middle level course for chemists 20 91 111 - advanced level course for Chief chemists 22 28 50 405 (4) Hydro-meteorology - basic course for 1observors 2640 - middle level course for supervisors 432 - advanced level course for senior staff 83 3155 (5) Computers and data base management - basic computer course 374 272 249 893 - advanced computer course 221 195 56 472 - advanced data base management course 55 32 - 87 - water quality experts at data centres 28 28 1480
  • 177. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 4 (6) Other training (for SW, GW, WQ staff) - study tours within India 128 41 27 196 - post-graduate training within India 68 52 38 158 - overseas study tours, training 60 59 55 24 IMD 198 552 (7) Workshops at NIH - Seminars 210 - Technical workshops 211 - Refresher courses 274 - PCs in management 280 975 Grand Total : 13.002 Trainees Total State Central Surface Water 5196 4493 703 Ground Water 2279 1815 464 Water Quality 843 500 343 Meteorology 2659 2519 140 Workshops NIH 815 295 520 Total: 11.792 9622 2170 3.3 List of training modules (per September 1996) Below, hydrology training modules are listed which will be prepared under the HP to cover the total training needs.. It is important to note that a training module is not the same as a training course. A training course is defined as a series of modules, which are selected on the basis of the training needs identified for a particular target group at a particular point in their professional career. Thus, the provision of a comprehensive library of HP training modules remains the same, whereas the configuration of a training course may differ according to observed needs. The present list is rather broad and requires a further breakdown, by the CTIs, in smaller modules to create more flexibility in training course delivery. Differentiation is needed: • per topic, for instance separate modules for basic software skills are prepared, rather than the whole range of basic software; • per job level, to accomodate for similar tasks at skills level (“how to....”) and supervisory level (“understanding ...”). In training delivery, successful completion of one series of modules (in institute A) could be conditional as entry requirement to follow a next series of modules (in institute A or another). For instance, basic computer skills should be mastered before a trainee can start a specialized course in hydrology data management. Having an overview of all training modules, it is the HP’s task to guide training planners and human resource development staff, to schedule sequential training courses in an appropriate way. It is generally noted that staff training should not be limited to participation in HP training modules. Beneficiary organisations should also allow staff to study course materials prior to training and assist trainers to apply in practice what they have learned. These pre and post training arrangements are to be promoted by the Water User Training Cells. Training TR 1 Training management Duration 1 week Topics understanding training concepts and systems, training logistics and resources, administration, reporting TR 2 Training development
  • 178. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 5 Duration 1 week Topics training systems, training needs analysis, curriculum development, evaluation, training methods and skills TR 3 Educational design Duration 1 week Topics software application in desktop publishing, information mapping, technical text writing, readibility Surface Water Hydrometry SW 1 Basic hydrometry Duration: 1 week Topics hydrometry practices, reliable observations, recording, operation & maintenance of equipment SW 2 hydrometric practice Duration 1 week Topics: sediment and surface water sampling, on-site analyses, recording, operation and maintenance SW 3 hydrometry for officers-in-charge Duration 3 weeks Topics computaton of hydrological variables, primary validation, significance of reliable data in water resources evaluation Groundwater Hydrometry GW 1 (title) Duration: 1 week Topics: principles of geo-hydrology, processes influencing gw levels and chemical composition, gw level & quality monitoring network, recording, operation & maintenance of equipment Hydrometeorology HM 1 (title) Duration: 3 weeks Topics: principles of SRG & ARG, installation, operation and maintenance, recording hydrometeorology SRG & ARG HM 2 (title) Duration 6 weeks Topics installation, operation and maintenance of all hydromet instruments, self-recording intruments, recording, computation and validation of data Water Quality WQ 1 (title) Duration 1 week Topics surface water sampling, on-site analyses, recording, operation and maintenance of level 1 lab equipment
  • 179. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 6 WQ 2 (title) Duration 1 week Topics ground water sampling, on-site analyses, recording, operation and maintenance of level 1 lab equipment WQ 3 (title) Duration 6 weeks Topics basic aquatic chemistry, laboratory chemical analyses, recording, operation & maintenance of equipment WQ 4 (title) Duration 12 weeks Topics aquatic chemistry, water polution, microbiological analysis, data validation, recording, interpretaton of water quality data, laboratory management, significance of water quality data in water resource management, operation & maintenance of equipment WQ 5 (title) Duration 3 weeks Topics advanced instrument analysis, operation & maintenance of specialised equipment : AAS, GC & ICPS WQ 6 (title) Duration 20 weeks Topics wq network design, statistical methods, quality control procedures, identification of problem areas Data management DM 1 Basic computer skills Duration 3 weeks Topics hardware, DOS, Windows, word processing, spreadsheet, virus, data base software, data entry) DM 2 Surface water data entry Duration 3 weeks Topics basics of data management, understanding and using surface database software DM 3 Ground water data entry Duration 3 weeks Topics basics of data management, understanding and using ground water database software DM 4 Water quality data entry Duration 3 weeks Topics basics of data management, understanding and using water quality database software DM 5 Surface water data management Duration 3 weeks Topics application of specialized analysis software DM 6 Ground water data management Duration 3 weeks Topics application of specialized analysis software
  • 180. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 7 DM 7 Water quality data management Duration 3 weeks Topics application of specialized analysis software DM 8 Data management at surface water data centre Duration 3 weeks Topics -- DM 9 Data management ground water data centre Duration 3 weeks Topics -- 3.4 List and profiles of Central Training Institutes CWC-Central Training Unit (CTU), Pune Organisational set-up and staffing The CTU was established in 1988, under the USAID funded Water Resources Management Project, which also inaugurated the WALMIs in eleven States. At present two courses are conducted each year; a three- months appreciation course and a nine-month offering training to course 50 persons. The CTU has a faculty of 9 lecturers. Limited accommodation is available up to 20 persons, who can stay at a hostel facility of CWPRS. A directorate of training at CWC HQ, Delhi coordinates all the departmentally conducted training programmes. Building. The CTU is planned to be developed into a National Water Academy in three phases, by the year 2002. By then there would be a faculty of 30 and some 925 persons per year shall be trained. The project document is under finalisation with a total budget of Rs 110 million. Under the Hydrology Project there is a provision of Rs 33 million for the building, the salaries and operational costs will be provided by the GOM. The CWC-CTU requested assistance through short-term comsultancy for: (a) NWA landscaping, architecture, preparation of tender documents (Rs 33 million), (b) library documentation system, state-of-the- art books, recommended journals (Rs 5 million), (c) computer equipment for training, software (Rs 5 million). Out of these, (a) is required immediately, while (b) and (c) would be have to be in position by approximately half year before completion of the new building complex. Training programme. It was agreed that with the existing faculty of the CTU, the unit would concentrate on organising and coordinating all hydrometry training (data collection for hydrology). The training courses on water quality for laboratory staff should be organised and conducted at a specialized national training centre, e.g. NEERI in Nagpur. The training courses on computers and data base management would be developed and coordinated by NIH in Roorkee. The intermediate and advanced level courses will be conducted at Roorkee. The basic computer training (and basic data base management training) and SW software would be carried out within the States. However, the course curricula and training materials for these basic courses will be prepared and provided by NIH. The ToT would be organised for some 48 trainers (6x 8 States) in two batches. the duration could possibly be reduced from 10 to 6 weeks. Thus, in three months two ToT. courses could be organised. CTU would draft the syllabus, curricula and training materials for ToT and for the supervisior and the observor training. These would be sent to the PCS and the Consultant very soon. Curricula and materials could then be discussed and finalized in a workshop in November, where procedures and formats will be standardized. It is expected that ToT. could start in January 1997. contactpersons - Dr. S.A. Bhanagay, CE and Director CTU
  • 181. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 8 - T.S. Patil, Director Hydrology - S. R. Gaikwad, Addl Director CWPRS 2 Central Ground Water Board - Central Training Institute, Faridabad The CGWB is building a new training institute at Raipur. CGWB's Training Director is based in Faridabad. A Principal for the training institute has been appointed. The Consultant was informed that approximately 75% of the works has been completed by early August 1996, and that as a consequence, training for 1996-1997 would take place at Faridabad. The name National Institute for Groundwater Research and Training (NIGRT), as mentioned in the SAR, will change as Rajiv Gandhi Institute. It will be outside the scope of the Hydrology Project to establish this as a fully operational research and training institute. Such assistance would require additional funding and expertise. contactpersons (to be decided) 3 National Institute for Hydrology (NIH), Roorkee The NIH in Roorkee conducted two courses in March and August, 1996 on computer operation and one course on software applications for surface water data in August 1996. contactpersons: - Dr. S.M. Seth, Director - Dr. K.S. Rama Sastry, Coordinator for HP activities - Dr. S.K. Jain, Water Resources Systems and database training 4 India Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune with Regional Training Centres, in Madras and Calcutta Observer training. The contents and duration of the training was discussed at length. The IMD proposes to train rain gauge readers in 4 week courses. Upon request by the Consultant, IMD prepared a shortened version of 3 weeks, which probably could be reduced to 2 weeks for which the trainers could go to the States. It was assumed that the training of 2640 observor level staff for SRG and ARG is to be delivered at IMD’s Training Centres in Pune, Madras and Calcutta. Alternatively, IMD trainers could also come to the State WALMIs, if a nearby meteorological station is available. For this purpose, IMD would contract retired senior IMD staff, who would be able to teach in the local language. The Consultant strongly suggests observor training to take place in the States. Supervisor level FCS staff training. This training will take place in Pune and require 6 weeks. A new building for Training will be constructed in Calcutta. Budgets for meteorological training are proposed by IMD as well as participating States. contactpersons: - Dr. U.S. De, DDG (weather forecasting) - Mr. V.K. Raman, Director IMD Training Institute
  • 182. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 9 5 National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) Nagpur Final decision on status of this as HP Laboratory is pending. contactpersons: (to be decided) 6 Universities for post-graduate courses in Hydrology Candidate hosting universities include the University of Roorkee, Anna University in Madras and the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 7 Central Water Power Research Station (CWPRS), Pune Training. It was discussed that training for special equipment will be organised for divisional and sub- divisional heads (AEEs and AEs) and site-in-charges and observors (JEs) in three stages: • introduction on the principles, incorporated in the ToT: by CTU and CWPRS • operation & maintenance, during the installation: by suppliers • application and data analysis, after initial operation: by CWPRS, possibly in combination with inspection. CWPRS would liaise with the CTU to present an aggregated plan for staff training in surface water hydrology. Faculty. Four lecturers specialized in stream gauging are available to contribute to the Training-of-trainers. Three lecturers are specialized in Reservoir instrumentation and management, who will give training. The CWPRS would send its staff to the various States to conduct the training at WALMIs or similar training venues. contactpersons: - Mr. B.U. Nayak, Director CWPRS - Mr. S.R. Gaikwad, Additional Director, CWPRS 3.5 List of State training coordinators and training institutes Orissa SSW: S.S. Patnaik, Deputy Director, DOWR SGW: R.C. Rout, Executive Engineer, GWSI Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI), Bhubaneshwar Andhra Pradesh SSW: Rosaiah, Engineer-in-Chief (Nodal Officer) SGW: Babu Rao, Director GWD (Nodal Officer) WQ: Environmental Protection Training and Research Institute (EPTRI) Engineering Staff College of India (ESCI), Hyderabad Water And Land Management Training And Research Institute (WALAMTARI), Hyderabad Tamil Nadu SSW: Badruddin, Chief Engineer WRDO (Nodal Officer) and SGW: M.S. Hariharan, Joint Chief Engineer (establishment) Irrigation Management Training Institute (IMTI) WQ: Institute for Water Studies (IWS), Taramani, Madras
  • 183. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 10 Karnataka SSW: Cap. Raja Rao, Engineer-in-Chief (Nodal Officer) SGW: Bappadu Reddy, Joint Director, DMG WQ: Engineering Staff College (ESC) and Central Food Technology Research Institute Computer: Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI) Computer: National Information Centre (NIC) Karnataka Engineering Research Station (KERS) Kerala SSW: G. Ravindran Nair, SE, Director (Design) SGW: P. Radhakrishnan Nair, Superintending Hydrogeologist WQ: Kerala State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) Central Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Calicut Maharashtra SSW+SGW: M.R. Dighe, CE and Director WALMI (and chairman of Training Committee) Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI), Aurangabad Maharashtra Engineering Research Institute (MERI), Nasik Gujarat SSW: SGW: Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI), Baroda Madhya Pradesh SSW: V.S. Sarma, CE (Investigation, Nodal Officer) SGW: same Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI)
  • 184. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________H ydrology Project Inception Report Annexes 3: Supplementary Training Information Page Annex 3 - 11 3.6 State training budgets (x Rs 1,000) Training Budget Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Madya Pradesh Maharastra Orissa Tamil Nadu Kerala Karnataka Total: 1. Surface water - hydrometry - water quality 3721 1762 5822 719 3406 - * ) 5828 1210 4025 806 3442 - * ) 3600 - * ) 3984 465 33,828 4,962 2. Groundwater - hydrometry - water quality 1881 954 1904 1814 2470 1998 3336 2611 4198 1324 1642 1407 2514 661 1624 616 19,569 11,385 3. Hydro- Meteorology 722 4110 1980 3998 1050 2474 722 3710 18,766 4. Post-graduate courses - SW - SWQ - GW - GWQ 1000 400 1200 400 1780 534 890 356 1000 - 1200 400 2000 400 1200 400 1000 600 890 356 1000 - 1200 600 1000 - 1200 400 1000 400 1200 400 9,780 2,334 8,980 3,312 5. Study tours (overseas) - SW - SWQ - GW - GWQ 786 157 786 157 1000 600 1000 800 786 - 786 157 786 314 1258 472 786 157 600 400 3160 - 1580 2206 2366 - 1734 789 - - - - 9,670 1,228 7,744 4,981 6. Study tours (in India) - SW - SWQ - GW - GWQ 84 - - - 132 55 66 110 84 - - - 84 - - - 84 22 110 44 84 - 786 - 84 - - - 84 - - - 720 77 962 154 7. NIH seminars - SW - SWQ - GW - GWQ 135 135 250 250 250 250 135 135 250 250 - 240 - 135 245 250 1,265 1,645 8. Trng equipm - SW - GW 850 200 850 850 - 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 - 850 200 5,950 4,650 9. Mini-bus + running costs 350 300 500 300 350 300 350 300 500 300 350 300 350 300 350 300 3,100 2,400 Total : 15,980 24,692 16267 26,517 19,452 22,171 16,705 15,678 157,462 Percentage: 10.2 % 15.8 % 10.4% 17.0 % 12.5% 13.3 % 10.7 % 10.0 % 100 % * ) Surface water quality monitoring; water analysis done at laboratories of State GW Department
  • 185. Staffing barchart Task Group 2 DATABASE AND COMMUNICATION No Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Equipment specialist/Hydrometrist J. van der Pot 6.5 2 Database management specialist B.W.G Blok 8.5 3 Information Specialist tbn 14 4 IT assistant tbn 6 5 DCS-MIS services P. Mukherjee 4 6 Database designer tbn 1.5 7 General database specialist tbn 13 8 GIS designer tbn 2 9 GIS and userinterface specialist tbn 12 10 Communication specialist tbn 2 11 Communication specialist tbn 6
  • 186. Staffing Barchart Task Group 2 SURFACE WATER & HYDROMETEOROLOGY No. Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Data Processing Expert D.R Archer 5 2. Sr. Hydrologist H.J.M. Ogink 12 3. Data Processing Expert tbn 12 4. Site Selection & Network Expert S.C. Child 5 5. Sr. Hydrologist DVLN Rao 14 6. Network Design tbn 10 7. Sr. Hydrologist Dharma Rao 14 8. Advisor Hydromet S.D.S. Abbi 5
  • 187. Staffing barchart Task Group 3 INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT No Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 ID Specialist R. van Ommen 12 2 ID Specialist P.K Kongari 13 3 ID Specialist tbn 13 4 ID Specialist tbn 13 5 Financial Expert tbn 7 6 MIS Expert P.Mukherjee 10 7 MIS Expert tbn 13
  • 188. Staffing Barchart Task Group 2 GROUNDWATER No. Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Sr. Hydrogeologist A. Bein 13.3 2. Sr. Hydrogeologist T.S. Raju 13.8 3. R & D Expert (Water Balances) J. Bear 1.5 4. Design /Monitoring Manuals Expert H. Michelson 1.5 5. Data Processing Expert tbn 3 6. Data Processing Expert tbn 12 7. Advisor GW D.K. Dutt 8.7
  • 189. Staffing Barchart Task Group 2 WATER QUALITY No. Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. WQ monitoring Expert R.H. Siddiqi 14 2. Senior Chemist tbn 9 3. WQ monitoring Expert P.M.A. Boderie 12.5 4. Chemical lab. specialist J.A.C van den Broek 2.5 5. WQ data processing expert tbn 10 6. WQ monitoring SW C.Hoggart 3 7. WQ monitoring GW A.Mercado 1.5
  • 190. Staffing Barchart Task Group 4 TRAINING SERVICES No. Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 General training support 1. Team Leader H. J. Wittenberg 12.5 2. Training Institutions/ Dep. TL tbn 13 3. Training Database Programmer tbn 6 4. Training Management Specialist tbn 1 5. Training Management Specialist tbn 4 6. Training Systems Specialist tbn 1 7. Training Systems Specialist tbn 4 8. Educational Design Specialist tbn 1 9. Educational Publishing Specialist tbn 6 10 - 13 Translators tbn 4 x 1 3 x 2 Hydrology training 14. Computer and Basic Software Trainer tbn 4 15 - 17 Information/Data Management Trainers D.R.Archer,S.R.Brown,tbn 3 x 2 18 - 20 Information Management Trainers tbn, tbn, B.P.Parida 3 x 2 21. Surface Water Hydrology Trainer R.Harpin 2 22. Surface Water Hydrology Trainer B.P.Parida / S.Chandra 6 23. Groundwater Geohydrology Trainer J.Bear 1 24. Groundwater Geohydrology Trainer D.Kasyap 5 25. Groundwater Quality Trainer J.Bear 1 26. Groundwater Quality Trainer D.Kasyap 2 27. Surface Water Quality Trainer C.Hoggart 1 28. Surface Water Quality Trainer tbn 4 29. Hydrometerology Trainer tbn 1 30. Hydrometerology Trainer S.D.S. Abbi 4.5 31. OOPP Specialist A.W.Rijneveld 1
  • 191. Staffing Barchart Task Group 1 GENERAL COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT No. Designation Name National Foreign 1996 1997 mm mm 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Team Leader J.G. Grijsen 12 2. Dpty. Team Leader R.K. Visvanath 13.5 3. SMC - Andhra Pradesh P.S. Murthy 14 4. SMC - Gujarat S.C. Sharma 14 5. SMC - Karnataka N.R. Venkatesha Prasad 14 6. SMC - Kerala V.N. Vapicha 14 7. SMC - Madhya Pradesh B.B. Ghosh 14 8. SMC - Maharashtra Simpi 14 9. SMC - Orissa G.N. Padhi 14 10. SMC - Tamil Nadu S.M. Krishnan 14

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