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Title of Project : Techno Economic Feasibility Of Artificial Recharge Of
Aquifer As A Mitigatory Measures In Fluoride Af...
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1.3 Location and Demographic Information
The area selected for the above mentioned project under Hydrology Project – Pha...
3
Study Area at Glance
Sr.no. Name of Village Dharna Sakhra Bk. Konghara
1 District Yavatmal Yavatmal Yavatmal
2 Taluka Pa...
4
1.4 Drainage
Khuni river is the main drainage of the study area which is a major tributary of
Painganga basin. The study...
5
1.6 Soils
Soil in the study area is the typical residual type Black Regur originating from the trap
of Deccan Basalt. Am...
6
The generalized stratigraphic succession of the area is as below:
Age Group Formation Lithology
Quaternery Alluvium
Cret...
7
Depth of wells ranges between 6.00 to 11.00 meters. Depth to water level in
pre monsoon season are deeper ranging betwee...
8
Table showing Rainfall data of last 11 years
Sr.
no.
Year Annual
Rainfall
(mm)
Rainfall as compared
with Annual Average
...
9
1.11 Drinking Water Status
The project area is having total population of 2819 as per 2001 census, it is a
rural populat...
10
1.13 Socio Economic Aspect
The people residing in study area are marginal farmers or farm labour. The
economic status i...
11
9. Chemical analysis and thin section reports reveal about the petrology and mineralogy
of the core sample from the stu...
12
2.2 Piezometers construction –
In all ten number of Piezometers constructed for monitoring of groundwater
quality at va...
13
found 1.7 to 3.00 ppm are minimal and manageable for dilution to achieve the desirable
limit of 1.00 ppm to permissible...
14
depth from the surface and drastically decreases with depth. The general amygdales
recorded in this flow are zeolites v...
15
Basalt is fine grained comprising calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene viz. augite.
These are texturally porphyritic in...
16
slightly medium grained and exhibits inequigranular appearance because of the
phenocrysts
and glomeroporphyritic aggreg...
17
3.2 GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS :
Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method is used for determination of fluorine in
rocks of the s...
18
3.3 FLUORIDE CONTENT IN THE ROCK SAMPLES OF CORE :
As per the petrographic study, fluoride bearing minerals viz. fluori...
19
Sr.
no.
Formation Content of Fluoride in rock
Sample
Depth in mtr
1 Ist flow 422 ppm GL to 6.45 mtr
Fluoride Content in...
20
4.0 Geophysical Investigation
In order to study the pilot area, geophysical surveys have been carried out to
delineate ...
21
Vertical electrical soundings were conducted across and along the main drainage
of the pilot area i.e. from village Kon...
22
the electric layers. Otto Koefoed method (1979) has been used for the interpretation of
the geoelectric layers.
The ana...
23
Iso resistivity map AB/2 – 16 m
The dark blue color is observed in Konghara, Dharna and sum part of Sakara
villages of ...
24
Iso resistivity map AB/2 – 60 m
The light blue color is observed in Konghara, Dharna and sum part of Sakara
villages of...
25
4.2 b. Quantitative Analysis:
All soundings data has been interpreted for different electric layers and based on
these ...
26
CROSS SECTION L11
The section L11 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Kongar...
27
The section L2 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Kongara of the project. T...
28
CROSS SECTION L3
The section L3 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Kongara ...
29
CROSS SECTION L4
The section L4 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Sakara o...
30
CROSS SECTION L5
The section L5 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers villages Sakara ...
31
CROSS SECTION L6
The section L6 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Sakara a...
32
CROSS SECTION L7
The section L7 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which
covers village Sakara o...
33
Kongara single point resistance log data, apparent resistivity graphs correlation
and interpretation
At Kongara piezome...
34
Sakhra single point resistance log data, apparent resistivity, factor and reciprocal
graphs Trend and interpretation
At...
35
Sakara sinlge point resistance log data, apparent resistivity graphs correlation
and interpretation
At Sakara piezomete...
36
APP.RES.CURVE
1
10
100
1 10 100 1000
AB/2 in Mts
App.Res.Vvalues
Apparent resistivity cure at Sakara piezometer sitePla...
37
Dharana single point resistance log, apparent resistivity graphs correlation and
interpretation
At Dharana piezometer s...
38
APP.RES.CURVE
1
10
100
1000
1 10 100
AB/2 in Values
App.RES.Vlaues
Apprenst resistivity cure at Dharana piezometer site...
39
TREND OF GSI PETROGRAPHIC REPORT AND GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING
REPORT
GSI PETROGRAPHIC DISCRIPTION GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGIN...
40
Dharna normal down log in piezometer 1Plate No 23
Plate No 24 Dharna normal down log in piezometer 2
41
Plate No 26 Dharna normal up log in piezometer 2
Plate No 25 Dharna normal up log in piezometer 1
42
TREND OF GSI GEOCHEMICAL REPORT AND GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING
REPORT
GSI GEOCHEMICAL DISCRIPTION GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING
...
43
4.3 Conclusions of Geophysical Investigation
Conclusions as per AB/2 = 16 m, AB/2 = 30 m, AB/2 = 60 m of Iso resistivit...
44
7). Dharna normal up and down logs in piezometers 1 & 2 having fluoride mineral may
filled as a secondary deposition in...
45
5.0 Chemical Analysis of Groundwater
Figure 1 Dental fluorosis
Figure 2 - Skeletal Fluorosis
It is considered to undert...
46
Chemical analysis
Water samples from above said villages were collected in polyethylene bottles between
the year 2009-2...
47
Graphical presentation of trend of Fluoride concentration in HP, Konghara village
Graph 1. Month versus fluoride concen...
48
Chemical data interpretation of Dharna village
In the technology of HP, the fluoride concentration varies from 1.0 to 6...
49
Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in DW, Dharana
village
Graph 4 Month versus fluoride concen...
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Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in Sakhara for HP
Graph 5 - Month versus fluoride concentra...
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Trend observed in groundwater of study area.
Graph 7 - Trend of Calcium & Fluoride in Hand-pump
Graph 7 exhibits the Tr...
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Graph 9 - Trend of Calcium & Fluoride in Dug-well
Graph 9 exhibits the Trend between calcium and fluoride. As the conce...
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Variation of Fluoride in case of Piezometer in study area : Graphical
representation of trend of Fluoride concentration...
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Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration.
Graph – 12 Depth wise Fluoride concentration of Dharana vi...
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Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration.
Graph – 13 Depth wise Fluoride concentration of Sakhara vi...
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Calcium, Fluoride and Sodium Trend observed in Piezometer of study area.
Graphical representation of calcium ,Sodium an...
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Graphical representation of calcium ,Sodium and Fluoride Co- relation in
Dharana Peizometer.
Graph 17 – Calcium trend o...
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Graphical representation of Calcium , Sodium and Fluoride trend in Sakhara
Peizometer.
Graph 20 – Calcium trend of Sakh...
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Overall Chemical analysis of groundwater reveals following findings;
Area under study reveals following points during a...
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Aluminum dissolution
Al2(SO4)318H20 ↔ 2Al3+ + 3SO4 2- + 18H20
Aluminium precipitation
2Al3+ + 6H20 ↔ 2Al(OH3) + 6H+
Co-...
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Schematic diagram and domestic TERAFIL water filter.
Three most common domestic units for sorption de-fluoridation.
Bon...
62
The TDS and Fluoride removal plant, based on Ion exchange and
Reverse osmosis process.
Introduction :
• In collaboratio...
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6.0 Artificial Recharge Structures proposed for Fluoride mitigation
The major aim of the artificial recharge projects i...
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Dharna and Sakhara Bk. there are present a number of existing Cement Plug/Check
Dam/Nala Bund. In village Dharna there ...
65
new vasti are proposed for recharge. In village Sakhara Bk. the Dual Pump near the
National Highway at the entrance of ...
66
porosity. This technique creates a ‘Cut-Off-Wall’ or ‘Underground Bandhara’ in hard
rock formation where conventional ‘...
67
whereas rainfall in year 2011 was 839 mm the fluoride conc. was 2.2 ppm in the
month of June 2011).
4) Dilution can be ...
68
REFERENCES:
1) N.V.Ramamohana Rao, N.Rao, K.Suryaprakash Rao, R.D. Schuiling (1993)
Fluorine distribution in waters of ...
69
12)Gonnade G. & Joshi C., 2007: Geochemical Studies in parts of Yavatmal District
Maharashtra for Assessment of Water Q...
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Photographs
IEC Workshop at PDS Village Dharna on 28/03/2011 under Hydrology Project –II aided
Purpose Driven Study Pro...
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Core Drilling at village Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hydrology Project –II aided
Purpose Driven Study Project by ...
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Piezometer construction at village Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hydrology
Project –II aided Purpose Driven Study P...
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Piezometer Nest and its monitoring for chemical quality of groundwater at village
Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hyd...
RECORDING OF BOREHOLE DATA
: 1 Unit No. : 414
: North of Dharna village R.L. of Borehole Collar : +273 m(GPS)
: 20° 06' 36...
15 3/15 4.7 5.0 0.30 0.15 50 0.15 50
16 3/16 5.0 5.4 0.40 0.31 77.50 0.15 37.50
17 3/17 5.4 6.45 1.05 0.96 91.43 0.70 66.6...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge  of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride  affected  area ...
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Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride affected area of yavatmal district, maharashtra india1

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Transcript of "Mh gw techno economic feasibility of artificial recharge of aquifer as a mitigatory measures in fluoride affected area of yavatmal district, maharashtra india1"

  1. 1. 1 Title of Project : Techno Economic Feasibility Of Artificial Recharge Of Aquifer As A Mitigatory Measures In Fluoride Affected Area Of Yavatmal District, Maharashtra India 1.1 Introduction- Government of India implemented the hydrology project phase II with financial aids provided by International Development Association (World Bank). Under these project, Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India has approved 13 purpose driven studies of ground water (vide let no MOWR/12/94/2005-B & B /vol-V/922-953 Dated 3/09/2008) And that of three purpose driven studies are with Ground water surveys and development agency . Among these three, PDS project of Yavatmal district is sanctioned. For this purpose, three villages were selected on pilot basis where fluoride contamination is above permissible limits. Consumption of 20 – 80 mg/l of fluoride over a period of more than 10 years produces crippling fluorosis (skeletal damage) 50 mg/l produce thyroid changes, 100 mg/l produce growth retardation, more than 125 mg/l or 25 grams (single dose) produce kidney function changes or even death. Thus, fluoride consumption in excess is detrimental to the health of humans and animals. Hence, it is considered to undertake Purpose Driven studies in the chronically affected Yavatmal district of Maharashtra State. 1.2 Objectives Of Project : 1) Identification of litho units associated with fluoride content. 2) Assessment of ground water quality with special reference to fluorides. 3) Socio- economic impact including health hazards in the study area. 4) Influence of different kind of artificial schemes on fluoride reduction. 5) Feasibility studies for artificial recharge for fluoride mitigation. 6) Develop action plan to tackle the issue of fluoride contamination in the study area. 7) Undertaking widespread awareness campaign to mitigate causes and effects of fluoride.
  2. 2. 2 1.3 Location and Demographic Information The area selected for the above mentioned project under Hydrology Project – Phase II comes in mini watershed PGK-4 (2/8) from Pandharkawada taluka, Yavatmal District. This area falls in Survey of India Toposheet no.55 L/12 having quadrant A-2, A-3, B-2 and lies along the co-ordinates N200 04’30’’/E780 33’00’’ to N200 07’50’’/ E780 35’25’’. The study area consists three villages viz, Sakhra, Dharna and Konghara of mini watershed PGK–4 (2/8) located about 7 kms due North-West of Pandharkawda city on Nagpur- Hydrabad Highway no.7. All the three (3 )Villages of the mini watershed are accessible throughout the year by tar road. Location of Study Area Map-1
  3. 3. 3 Study Area at Glance Sr.no. Name of Village Dharna Sakhra Bk. Konghara 1 District Yavatmal Yavatmal Yavatmal 2 Taluka Pandharkawda Pandharkawda Pandharkawda 3 Watershed no. PGK-4 (2/8) PGK-4 (2/8) PGK-4 (2/8) 4 Toposheet no. 55 L/12 55 L/12 55 L/12 5 Quadrant no. B – 2 A - 2 A -2, A - 3 6 Co-Ordinates N 200 06’ 20’’ E 780 35’ 20’’ N 190 57’ 30’’ E 780 32’ 28’’ N 200 04’ 30’’ E 780 33’ 00’’ 7 Altitude 272 m 268 m 260 m. 8 Population (as per Census 2001) 1072 1053 694 9 Geographical Area 578.33 Ha 400.00 Ha 619.00 Ha 10 Cultivable Land 512.5 Ha 362.00 Ha 524.2 Ha 11 Forest Area 0.0 Ha 25.00 Ha 75.4 Ha 12 Waste Land 65.5 Ha 12.9 Ha 19.4 Ha 13 Public Drinking Water Supply Well 1 no.+ Aqui. Of Irrg. BW in Summer. 1 no. 1 no. 14 Drinking water Dug Wells 4 no./ 3 Use 1 no./ 1 use 2 no./ 2 use 15 Drinking water Hand Pumps 7 no. / 3 Use 3 no. / 1 use 7 no./ 7 use 16 Irrigation wells 20 no./ 15 Use 23 / 12 use 10 no. / 7 use 17 Irrigation Borewells 00 no. 03 no. 00 no. 18 Water conservation Structures Percolation Tank 00 no. 1 no. 00 no. K.T.Weir 00 no. 00 no. 1 no. - Disuse Cement Plug 3 no. 2 no. 00 no. 19 Croping Seasons Crop Type Kharif Cotton, Soyabean, Jawar Rabbi Wheat, Gram, Vegetables Perennial Other
  4. 4. 4 1.4 Drainage Khuni river is the main drainage of the study area which is a major tributary of Painganga basin. The study area is drained by a third order stream which is a main tributary of Khuni river. Lower order drainages from the adjoining hilly area to North and NE region of the study area drain the seasonally flowing stream thus forming a dendritic drainage pattern. Valley cuttings along the main stream are shallow. Drainage map of study area is shown below : 1.5 Geomorphology The mini watershed PGK-4 (2/8) is situated in hilly, gently to moderately slopping terrain. As per the previous analysis report out of 6 villages of the mini- watershed, 3 villages are affected with fluoride contamination. These three(3) villages are selected for study purpose. The thickness of capping of basalt ranges between 45 to 55 m. The general slope is towards south. The highest elevation of mini watershed is 290 m above MSL and minimum is 273 m above MSL. The mini watershed is located in moderately dissected plateau i.e. MDP, the morpho index is B. No lineament are observed passing through the area.
  5. 5. 5 1.6 Soils Soil in the study area is the typical residual type Black Regur originating from the trap of Deccan Basalt. Amygdules of quartz, calcite, zeolites are also recorded in the soil indicating its insitu nature. In general the soil is poorly developed.It is a clayey granular soil commonly known as Black Cotton Soil present in layer of 0.50 mtr to 2.50 mtr. Highly calcareous kankar in the soil is a common feature in the study area. 1.7 Geology As per the earlier systematic hydrological survey work the traverses taken along the nala cutting and road cutting shows that the area is covered by vesicular basalt. Local patches of exposed massive trap are also noticed in North – West part of the area. Unit R.L. (m) Thickness in (m.) Geological Formation III 287 to 293 6.00 High to mod. Weathered and fractured massive basalt II 280 to 287 7.00 Weathered vesicular basalt II 271 to 280 9.00 Moderately weathered fractured massive basalt I 264 to 271 7.00 Moderately weathered fractured horizontally jointed massive basalt Geologically, the study area is a part of the Deccan Volcanic province, trap is present only as a capping over the basement. Deccan Volcanic province is comprising of hard rock formation. It is characterized by volcanic basalt mainly belonging to Ajanta, Chikhli, and Karanja formations of the Sahyadri Group ranging in age from Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene. The basaltic lava flows are piled one above the other with horizontal disposition. From the depth of 3.6m to 85.25 m four distinct basaltic flows are encountered in borehole followed by Gondwana sediments up to the depth of 100m and is continuing.
  6. 6. 6 The generalized stratigraphic succession of the area is as below: Age Group Formation Lithology Quaternery Alluvium Cretaceous to Eocene Sahyadri Group Karanja Formation 2 to 5 flows (160m thick) ‘aa’ flow (50m thick) Chikhli Formation 11 ‘aa’ and 1 compound flow (90m thick) Ajanta Formation 5 ‘aa’ and 9 pahoehoe flows (154m thick) Permian to Triassic Gondwana Supergroup Motur Formation Sandstone (After: Prembabu & Bhai, 2008) 1.8 Hydrogeology During field investigation in all 35 wells were examined for collecting information pertaining to hydrology of the study area. Depth of wells, static water levels, annual fluctuation of static water levels, well yield, general water quality, cropping pattern etc were investigated for assessing hydrogeological characteristics of the study area. The vesicular basalt and weathered jointed zones of the massive basalt act as moderately productive phreatic aquifer in the wells of the study area.
  7. 7. 7 Depth of wells ranges between 6.00 to 11.00 meters. Depth to water level in pre monsoon season are deeper ranging between 6.20 to 10.70 meters i.e, most of the wells are dry in summer season. During post monsoon season the depth to water levels of the wells range between 0.80 to 5.60 meters. 1.9 Landuse The study area is characterized by undulating topography, low level plateaus, isolated denudational hills, conical hills, ridges and mounds which have resulted due to weathering and erosion of Deccan basaltic rocks. The plateau and isolated hills are bounded by steep to moderate slopes. The general slope is towards south The nature and extent of land utilization under different types in the village is as follows ; Total Geographic Area - 1597.42 ha Area under forest - 100.5 ha Cultivable Area - 1408.7 ha Culturable Wasteland - 97.8 ha 1.10 Rainfall and Climate As per the analysis of rainfall data from the nearest rainguage station at Pandharkawda located due south of study area at distance of 5km, The average rainfall of the study area is 954 mm. The monsoon rains occurs during the months of June to October. Most of the total annual rainfall occurs due to southwest monsoon. The rainfall is not uniform in all parts of the Yavatmal districts. Wani taluka in the eastern part of district receive 1125 mm of rainfall. Darhwa taluka in the western part of the district receive 889 mm of rainfall. Yavatmal located in central receive 1099 mm of rain. Study area falls due eastern part of the district. Rainfall data analysis of the study area of last eleven years from 2001 to 2010 shows that out of 11 years the deficit rainfall occurred for four years and deficiency varies from - 8.79 % to - 35.37 % while seven years has excess of rainfall which varies from + 6.36 % to 19.16%.
  8. 8. 8 Table showing Rainfall data of last 11 years Sr. no. Year Annual Rainfall (mm) Rainfall as compared with Annual Average Rainfall (901.63mm) % Rainfall as compared with Annual Average Rainfall (901.63 mm) Deficit/ Surplus % Rainfall 1 2001 1061 + 159.37 117.68 + 17.68 % 2 2002 1053 + 151.37 116.79 + 16.79 % 3 2003 742 - 159.63 82.3 - 17.7 % 4 2004 830 - 71.63 92 - 8 % 5 2005 1052.3 + 150.67 116.71 + 16.71 % 6 2006 967.9 + 66.27 107.35 + 7.35 % 7 2007 989.02 + 87.39 109.69 + 9.69 % 8 2008 588.13 - 313.50 65.23 - 34.77 % 9 2009 648.55 - 253.08 71.93 - 28.07 % 10 2010 1084.4 + 182.77 120.27 + 20.27 % 11 2011 1002.30 + 100.67 111.17 + 11.17 % Average 901.63 The climate of study area is tropical. The average maximum temperature attained in summer is 45c and average minimum temp in winter is 080 C. Temperature rises rapidly by beginning of March till May which is the hottest month with mean maximum temperature 45.80 C and the mean minimum temperature 28.30 C. The heat in summer is intense. Winds are generally light to moderate with some strengthening during May to August. In post monsoon and cold season winds generally flow from east to NE. By March southwester lies and westerlies blow. In rest of summer season and SW monsoon, winds are mostly from directions between SW and NW. Humidity - Normally the humidity level is moderate throughout the year. Dryness of the air goes increasing with onset of extreme summer, it gets worse if the previous monsoon is scarce. In monsoon, the humidity levels are moderate to normal. Cloudiness - Cloudiness is in the season of monsoon from July to September. Rest of the year sky is clear. Sometimes, non monsoon clouds with thunder and lightining are observed in month of October and December followed by showers. In month of January and March the non monsoon clouds are with heavy winds, thunder, lightining followed by hail.
  9. 9. 9 1.11 Drinking Water Status The project area is having total population of 2819 as per 2001 census, it is a rural population. The drinking water supply is provided through 3 pipe water supply source wells one each to the villages of study area, 6 public wells along with 11 handpumps. Village Dharna PWS Source well and most of the domestic wells of the study area are reported dry in the month of January to February end, except those wells, which are located in the downstream of surface water bodies. Out of 11 handpumps, 2 handpumps are working seasonally and 9 handpumps are working perennially. As most of the sources are contaminated due to fluoride and are above permissible limit, the population is facing safe drinking water problem throughout the year. The water requirement is made available by requisition of irrigation wells and borewells located within the project area. The water requirement for domestic purpose is given below : Sr. No. Type of requirement Population Requirement per unit (liter per day) Total requirement (ham per annum) 1. Domestic (Rural) 2819 40 4.12 2. Animals 1500 20 1.10 Total 5.22 1.12 STATUS OF IRRIGATION The entire economy of the area is based on agriculture. The irrigation practice is conventional i.e. flood irrigation. The cultivators use manures and chemical fertilizers to some extent. It is observed that area under Rabbi crop is confined to areas adjoining the drainages and canal. The village wise cultivable area under different crop types is as below- (Source – Revenue Department) Kharif Crops - 1408.7 ha Rabbi Crops - 225.0 ha From the above statistics it is observed that the area under rabbi crop is approximately 16 % as compared to Kharif Crop. It is due to non-sustainability of sources depending on groundwater, revealing the picture of water availability in the project area.
  10. 10. 10 1.13 Socio Economic Aspect The people residing in study area are marginal farmers or farm labour. The economic status in general is poor which affects their standard of living and also on the eating habits. Food taken is not a balanced diet and is devoid of rich dairy products. Result is Calcium devoid nutrition which might have resulted in minimizing the effects of fluoride contaminated water intake. Also, the cheaper filtration methods of deflouridation were not known to the people. Dental fluorosis is observed in most of the population of wide range of age from children of 5 years to the elder peoples. In some old aged peoples there signs of start of early skeletal fluorosis. Awareness of the population was done by IEC campaign. A special workshop has been carried in the Village Dharna. All the villagers, Mahila Bachat gats and students residing in the affected study area were invited. In brief different mitigatory measures were discussed to tackle the issue. 2.0 Methodology Methodology (detailed with proposed design, manpower equipments, consultancy, etc.) for undertaking the proposed study is as below : 1. Collection of secondary data to determine hydrological parameters. Other Technical data collection related to this project. 2. Preparation of hydrological base maps and data delineation of hydrological units in the three villages selected. 3. Collection of Ground water and rock sample for laboratory analysis to identify the source of contamination of fluoride in water. 4. Socio-Economic survey to collect information on health hazard due to water quality problem. IEC Campaigns. 5. Piezometers construction – In all ten number of piezometers constructed for monitoring of groundwater quality at varying depths . 6. Monthly Water Sample collections – 34. Monthly Static Water Levels of observation wells & Piezometers. 7. Geophysical Survey Work carried in the study area. 8. Conceptualization of the aquifer system to enable modeling studies.
  11. 11. 11 9. Chemical analysis and thin section reports reveal about the petrology and mineralogy of the core sample from the study area carried by Geological Surveys of India. 10. Compilation of Collected Field data. 11. Techno-economic feasibility of artificial recharge structure for Fluoride mitigation. Distribution of work among participating agencies GSDA is the sole implementing agency. However, the analyses of soil/rock and other related activities have been outsourced. Duration of the project The project has completed in three years period (2009-2011). 2.1 Monitoring Network Conceptualization of the aquifer system to enable modeling studies and Techno- economic feasibility of artificial recharge structure for Fluoride mitigation the aquifer behavior studies were carried out regarding pre and post monsoon static water levels fluctuation and their effect on the contamination of fluoride a monitoring network was established. Along with existing monitoring stations, subsurface flow wise aquifer system was identified by following methods : 1. Core drilling and its Petrographic and Geochemical studies. 2. Geophysical Survey studies. 3. On field logging of the Piezometers drilled. Monthly Water sample collection from the study area is as follows ; Sr. no. Water Samples Collected from Month Remark 1 36 no. Sept – 09 From starting of project. 2 10 no. Dec-10 From Piezometers. In open circulating system where the groundwater is mixing in shallow and deeper aquifers, the lowering of fluoride in water may take long time, till then the desired results can be achived by targeting the aquifer with lower concentration of fluoride as seen from the piezometer net water sample analysis.
  12. 12. 12 2.2 Piezometers construction – In all ten number of Piezometers constructed for monitoring of groundwater quality at varying depths. Accordingly, the identified aquifers were sealed so as to quantify the contamination thus resulting into systematic planning for preparing action plan for suggesting Artifical Recharge structures for mitigation of fluoride in the study area. The information about the Piezometers constructed in the following villages Dharna, Sakhra and Konghara, of Tehsil Pandharkawda, District Yavatmal (M.S.). Details are given below ; The groundwater sample analysis from the piezometers net constructed in study area the piezometer tapping aquifer beyond 25 mtr depths have upper soil and weathered thickness sealed by MS Class casing. At this depth of aquifer the fluoride values are Sr. no. Name of Village Total no. of Piezometers Drilled 1 Dharna 4 no. 2 Sakhra 3 no. 3 Konghara 3 no. Details of all the ten Piezometers drilled are as given below : Sr. no. Name of Village Piezometer Depth (mtr) Depth of casing (mtr) Station Code Depth of Aquifer traped 1. Dharna 1. Piezometer 2. Piezometer 3. Piezometer 4. Piezometer 75 58 32 16 58 32 16 6 DPz-1 DPz-2 DPz-3 DPz-4 58 to 75 mtr 32 to 58 mtr 16 to 32 mtr 6 to 16 mtr 2. Sakhra 1. Piezometer 2. Piezometer 3. Piezometer 75 51 26 51 26 6 SPz-1 SPz-2 SPz-3 51 to 75 mtr 26 to 51 mtr Upto 26 mtr 3. Konghara 1. Piezometer 2. Piezometer 3. Piezometer 75 60 35 60 35 6 KPz-1 KPz-2 KPz-3 60 to 75 mtr 35 to 60 mtr Upto 35 mtr
  13. 13. 13 found 1.7 to 3.00 ppm are minimal and manageable for dilution to achieve the desirable limit of 1.00 ppm to permissible limit of 1.5 ppm. Thus, the aim of purpose driven study is achieved by pinpointing the manageable aquifer that can be targeted to acquire the desired result of controlling leaching of fluoride in the groundwater and facilitate the people by providing them safe drinking water. The rural population residing in the three fluoride villages can benefit from the study. The findings of the study can be used to scale up similar studies not only in other villages affected by fluoride from Yavatmal district, but also in villages from other districts of Amravati and Nagpur region. 3.0 Core drilling and its Petrographic and Geochemical studies for identification of Litho units associated with Fluoride Core Logging and Sampling: Run wise core logging was carried out from surface to 100m depth. The detailed run wise borehole logging is given in the Annexure 1. Sampling was done at an interval of about 1 m and wherever mineralogical variation is observed. A total of 100 nos. of core samples was collected for petrographic and geochemical studies. The borehole logging of Dharna village, Pandarkawada Taluka. Is given in plate. Four distinct basaltic flows are encountered in the borehole followed by the Gondwana sediments. The different flows are demarcated either by their typical top and bottom flow characteristics or by the presence of red bole bed. Sharp contact is recorded between the bottom most flow and Gondwana sediments. On the surface dark grey colored soil is recorded persisting to a depth of 3 m. It is mainly kankary, calcrete rich loose soil (with clay) spread over the basaltic flow. Amygdales of quartz, calcite, zeolites are also recorded in the soil indicating its insitu nature. In general the soil is poorly developed. The top flow (Flow I) is characterized by the presence of large sized plagioclase phenocryst measuring up to 5 cm in length and about 0.5 cm width and is termed as Giant Plagioclase Basalt (GPB). The top flow is encountered at depth of 3.6m and continued up to 6.45 m depth. Amygdales and vesicles density is more up to 5.7 m
  14. 14. 14 depth from the surface and drastically decreases with depth. The general amygdales recorded in this flow are zeolites viz., green apophyllite and stilbite and honey yellow colored fluorite. The second basaltic flow (Flow II) is intersected at depth of 6.45m and continued up to 32.82m.It is dark grey, fine grained, massive, porphyritic in nature. Secondary fracture fillings are mainly chlorophaeitic material fluorite. At the depth of 32.82m, a sharp contact is observed between massive, porphyritic basalt and greenish black, fine grained, friable, vesicular basalt. The third basaltic flow (Flow III) is intersected at depth of 32.82m up to 5.60m. It is medium grained, black to greenish black, vesicular in nature. Vesicles are irregular in shape, vary in sizes and filled with quartz, calcite, zeolite etc. Red bole bed is recorded from 55.60 to 57.25 m. and brecciation between 57.25 m to 57.50 m. and is followed by massive basalt upto 85.25m. (Flow IV). A contact is demarcated by red bole bed between vesicular basalt (flow III) and massive basalt (Flow IV). Massive basalt is very hard, compact, grayish black colored, fine grained with fracture fillings and poorly vesicular. Vesicles are recorded marking the base of the basaltic flow. At the depth of 85.25m a sharp contact is recorded between the massive basalt and sandstone of Gondwana Supergroup. Sandstone of the Gondwana Supergroup is fine grained, brownish to greenish in colour. It is gritty, pebbly in nature along with grey to brownish colored, medium to coarse grained unsorted sand and reddish to greyish clay and are recorded up to 100m. depth and beyond. 3.1 PETROGRAPHIC STUDY: From the depth of 3.6m to 85.25m, four distinct basaltic flows are intersected in a borehole followed by Gondwana sediments up to the depth of 100m. The petrographic characteristics of these rocks are as follows : Basalt of the top flow (Flow I) is mainly composed of calcic plagioclase (labradorite to bytownite composition (approx.39% by visual estimation) + pyroxene (approx.20%) (augite ± hypersthene), ± apatite(1%)+opaque minerals(20%)+glass( with secondary minerals(20%) viz. palagonite+ fluorite ± calcite ± zeolite.
  15. 15. 15 Basalt is fine grained comprising calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene viz. augite. These are texturally porphyritic in nature and exhibits inequigranular appearance because of the phenocrysts. Phenocrysts of plagioclase and augite/hypersthene often exhibit ophitic to subophitic texture (Fig.23). Plagioclase phenocrysts are subhedral and embedded in very fine grained groundmass constituting essentially subhedral laths of plagioclase and subhedral grains of augite with opaque minerals and glass. Some of the olivine and interstitial glass shows intergranular to intersertal textures. Phenocryst of hypersthene is observed at places (Fig.12). The length of plagioclase phenocryst varies from 10µm to 300 µm, and width varies from 8 µm to 200µm termed as Gaint Plagioclase Basalt (GPB). Zoned plagioclase phenocryst is observed at some places (Fig.19). Inclusion of apatite within plagioclase phenocryst is recorded (Fig.3). Density of vesicles is more at the top of the flow and filled with fluorite, zeolite, and calcite along with rim of palagonite. Glass is generally altered to yellow to dark brown palagonite. Fluorite occurred as secondary fillings in fractures (Fig.14, 21 & 22) and vesicles (Fig.1, 2 &8) along with palagonite which shows two sets of cleavage and isotropism. The concentration of fluorite mainly occurred at the core part of yellow to dark brown palagonite in the vesicles. The more concentration of fluorite in vesicles is recorded from the rocks at depth of 4.5m to 6.0m. Fractures are filled with fibrous calcite and vesicles are filled with zeolite (viz. stilbite) and calcite along with palagonite. The density of opaque minerals within the groundmass is more in the form of needles/grains/clots. Basalt of the second flow (Flow II) is mainly composed of calcic plagioclase (labradorite to bytownite composition (approx.36% by visual estimation) + pyroxene (approx.23%) (augite ± hypersthene), ± apatite(1%)+opaque minerals(22%)+glass( with secondary minerals(18%) viz. palagonite+ fluorite ±calcite. Basalts of this flow are fine grained, porphyritic in nature exhibits inequigranular appearance because of the phenocrysts of plagioclase. In general it shows ophitic to subophitic texture, phenocrysts of plagioclase are embedded in fine grained groundmass constituting plagioclase and augite with opaque minerals and glass. Fluorite occurs as secondary filling in cavities and fractures along with palagonite. Basalt of the third flow (Flow III) is mainly composed of calcic plagioclase (37% by visual estimation) (labradorite to bytownite composition)) + pyroxene (21%) (augite ± hypersthene), ± apatite(1%)+opaque minerals(18%)+glass(12%) with secondary minerals(11%) viz. palagonite + fluorite ± calcite ± apophyllite ±zeolite (stilbite (Fig.6), natrolite) ±quartz. Basalt of this flow is sparcely porphyritic and vesicular in nature. It is
  16. 16. 16 slightly medium grained and exhibits inequigranular appearance because of the phenocrysts and glomeroporphyritic aggregates (Fig.11). In general it shows ophitic to subophitic texture. Phenocrysts of plagioclase and augite are subhedral and embedded in very fine grained groundmass constituting plagioclase and augite with opaque minerals and glass. Glass is generally altered to yellow to dark brown palagonite and green chlorophaeitic material (Fig.15). Apophyllite(at some places)occurred as secondary filling in vesicles with the rim of palagonite. Fluorite occurrs as secondary filling in cavities and fractures along with palagonite and apophyllite at places Fig.16). The density of opaque minerals is more in the form of needles/grains/thick masses. Basalt of the bottom flow (Flow IV) is mainly composed of calcic plagioclase (33% by visual estimation-labradorite to bytownite composition)) + pyroxene (23%) (augite ± hypersthene), ± apatite(1%) + opaque minerals (21%) + glass (10%) with secondary minerals(12%) viz. palagonite + fluorite ± calcite. The basalt is massive, compact, fine grained, ophitic to subophitic texture in general. Phenocrysts of plagioclase and augite/hypersthene are subhedral and embedded in very fine grained groundmass of plagioclase and augite with opaque minerals and glass. Interstitial glass exhibits intersertal textures. Opaque minerals viz. magnetite is subhedral, fine to medium grained in the top and bottom portion of the flow however in the middle portion of the flow, opaques occur in the interstitial spaces of plagioclase and pyroxene. At places glomeropophyritic texture is observed. Inclusion of apatite within plagioclase phenocryst is recorded. Fluorite occurrs as secondary filling in cavities and fractures is the characteristic feature of this flow (Fig.4).Fractures are filled with fibrous calcite along with palagonite (Fig.7&9). The density of opaque minerals is more in the form of grains and its altered products as clots. The rocks intersected after the basaltic flows, at the bottom level of the borehole, are calcareous sandstone with ferruginous stains (Fig.17). The characteristics of this rock is that they are medium to coarse grained, sub rounded to sub angular in nature. The cementing material is calcareous and ferruginous and the main grains are mostly quartz, feldspar (plagioclase, microcline), calcite, lithic fragments, fluorite and opaque minerals. Fluorite is medium grained, two sets of cleavage intersecting at 110° and isotropic in nature (Fig.18).
  17. 17. 17 3.2 GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS : Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method is used for determination of fluorine in rocks of the studied borehole. The analytical procedure involves a simple sintering of sample with fusion mixture. The sintered mass after cooling is taken into solution in water. Proper buffer solution is added and fluoride activities are measured from electrochemical potential created by a fluoride ion selective electrode relative to standard electrochemical cell. The reading is directly related to free fluorine content of the sample solution. The detection limit is 100ppm. Geochemical data (Annexure 2) reveals that the fluorine content varies from 101 ppm to 796ppm in rocks of the studied borehole. The high fluorine concentration ~Av. 422 ppm is presents in the top most basaltic flow, which is Gaint Plagioclase basalt with a few amygdales of fluorite at places. The second flow is characterized by massive, pophyritic with fracture filling; it is reported as ~Av. 402 ppm of fluorine content. The high concentration of fluorine i.e. 796 ppm is reported at the contact between IInd and IIIrd basaltic flow. The average fluorine content in this contact is 468 ppm. In the IIIrd flow it is low as ~Av 187ppm which is sparsely porphyritic and vesicular in nature. The vesicles are mainly filled with palagonite, fluorite, calcite, zeolite and apophyllite. The fluorine content in ~Av. 266 ppm in the bottom most flow (Flow IV), where the characteristics of basalt are massive, compact with fracture filling and less vesicles. At depth of 32.8-33.57m, at the contact of massive, pophyritic basalt and vesicular basalt, the high concentration of fluorine i.e.1000ppm is reported due to the density of vesicles is more and filled with fluorite along with palagonite. At the contact between bottom most flow (Flow IV) and Gondwana sediments, the average of fluorine content is ~Av 476 ppm is reported. The total of 15 nos.of samples are analysed from Gondwana sediments. The top portion of Gondwana sediments having fluorine concentration is as low as ~Av.147 ppm while the bottom portion from 96.85 m. to 100 m. fluorine content is ~Av. 384 ppm. Graphical representation of the fluorine content in the rocks of the borehole upto 100m depth, Dharna village is given in the Plate 3. Fluorine content in average, in borehole core samples, Dharna village is given in Plate 4.
  18. 18. 18 3.3 FLUORIDE CONTENT IN THE ROCK SAMPLES OF CORE : As per the petrographic study, fluoride bearing minerals viz. fluorite, apatite and apophyllite are present in rocks of the studied borehole. Two types of possible sources of fluorine concentration are recorded i.e. primary and secondary occurrences. i) Primary Occurrence: Fluorite is occurred in sandstone of the Gondwana Supergroup. ii) Secondary Occurrence: Fluorite occurred as secondary fillings in vesicles (cavities) and in fractures of plagioclase phenocryst along with devitrified glass/palagonite (altered glass)in the basaltic flows. During petrographic studies it is noticed that, the fluorite concentration is significant especially in amygdales of basaltic flows. It varies from 6 to 14 % in volume within amygdales of all basaltic flows. However, apatite is recorded in all the flows up to 1 % of the sections studied. Presence of apophyllite up to 2 % in volume as secondary filling is recorded within the third basaltic flow (Flow III). Chatterjee et al., 1987 has reported apatite with up to 0.80% of normative composition of basalt in Yavatmal district, where as apatite up to 0.5% has been reportedfrom basalts of North China by Liuyong Zho Wan Hua 1990. Geologically, the area covered by Deccan basaltic flows of the Ajanta, Chikhali and Karanja Formation of the Sahyadri Group of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene age. From the depth of 3.6m to 85.25m four distinct basaltic flows are encountered in borehole followed by Gondwana sediments up to the depth of 100m and is continuing. From the petrographic study, it is evident that The more concentration of fluorite occurrs as secondary fillings in vesicles (cavities) and in fractures of plagioclase phenocryst along with devitrified glass / palagonite (altered glass). Apophyllite also occurrs as secondary fillings in vesicles. Apatite is recorded as an inclusion within plagioclase phenocryst of basalt. Fine to medium grained fluorite occurrs in sandstone of the Gondwana
  19. 19. 19 Sr. no. Formation Content of Fluoride in rock Sample Depth in mtr 1 Ist flow 422 ppm GL to 6.45 mtr Fluoride Content in rock Samples at I&II flow contact is 468 ppm. 2 IInd flow 402ppm 6.45 to 33 mtr Fluoride Content in rock Samples at II & III flow contact is1000ppm. 3 IIIrd flow 187ppm 33 to 55 mtr. Fluoride Content in rock Samples at III & IV flow contact is 796 ppm. ------------------------ Red Bole ---------------------------- 4 IVth flow 266 ppm 55 to 57mtr Fluoride Content in rock Samples at IV flow and Gondwana contact is 476 ppm 5 Gondwana (Top) 147 ppm 86 mtr Gondwana (Bottom) 384ppm 100mtr Petrographic and Geochemical analysis of the rock samples and the chemical analysis of the water samples from the study area reveals following inferences ; 1)Core drilling studies revealed that the Deccan trap capping is upto 86 meters and beneath the formation is Gondwana (viz. Sandstone) 2)Water quality analysis reports show that Ca mg/lit content in groundwater inversly proportional to the content of Fluoride in ppm. Also, same findings with increasing Total Hardness. 3)Depletion of water table during late summer and decrease in percentage rainfall has affected the quality of groundwater resulting in detoriation by increase of Fluoride content. 4)Significantly the Fluoride Content is more in the deeper aquifer than in shallow one.
  20. 20. 20 4.0 Geophysical Investigation In order to study the pilot area, geophysical surveys have been carried out to delineate the subsurface weathered mantle, vesicular/joints/fracture and impervious basaltic rock formation and gondwana formation. Electrical resistivity soundings are taken to investigate the variations in the resistivity with depth. Measurements of the resistivity are taken with the help of Mc Ohm resistivity meter (Japan). Schlumberger configuration was utilized to measure the resistivity of the substrata. The project area is comprised three villages. The main drainage is flowing from east to west in the pilot area. In the pilot area total 41 vertical electrical soundings (VES) were conducted. Sr. No. Name of the village Total no. of VES conducted Sr. No. of VES 1 KONGARA 19 VES1,2,3, W7S6, W6S6, W5S6, W8S5, W7S5, W6S5, W5S5, W8S4, W7S4, W6S4, W5S4, W4S4, W01, W6S2, W5S2, W4S2 2 SAKHARA 9 VES1,2,3, W4, W2, W0, N2W4, N2W2, N2 3 DHARNA 13 VES1,2,3, N2E2, N2E4, N3E6, N4W4, N4E2, N4E4, N4E6, N6E2, N6E4, N6E6 TOTAL 41 A total 32 VES were conducted in grid pattern with 500 m interval INDEX Village boundary VES point locations Plate No 1
  21. 21. 21 Vertical electrical soundings were conducted across and along the main drainage of the pilot area i.e. from village Kongara, Sakhara to Dharana. Soundings were conducted along west to east direction. The sounding points were selected at every half kilometer distance. The locations of all the sounding points are shown in plate no.1. Total 8 lines are carried out in Kongara, Sakhara and Dharana villages i.e., L1, L11, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7 are shown in plate no. 2. 4.1 Interpretation of the Geophysical Data The geophysical data has been plotted on double logarithmic graph for the interpretations. Auxiliary point chart and two layer master curves prepared by Orellana and Moony (1966) have been used to calculate the true resistivity and true thickness of L7 L6 L5 L4 L3 L2 L11 L1 VES TAKEN LINES VES taken line Plate No 2
  22. 22. 22 the electric layers. Otto Koefoed method (1979) has been used for the interpretation of the geoelectric layers. The analysis of field data has been carried out in two ways namely a) Qualitative and b) Quantitative. 4.2 a. Qualitative Analysis & Iso Resistivity Studies: Iso- resistivity maps of different depth levels are useful to study the horizontal variations of the project area. Four types of three Iso - resistivity maps of apparent resistivity values at three different half current electrode separation (AB/2) of 16 meters, 30 meters and 60 meters were generated by using software Map info 10.5 programmed (Plate No. 3,4,5). Main object of the study area is to find the fluoride affected subsurface formation. Geophysical methods can not be detecting directly fluoride mineral of subsurface area. It is known that fluoride mineral is filled as secondary deposition in weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt, contact zones and sandstone. Hence here object is to find weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt, contact zones and sandstone area, which is affected by fluoride mineral. These iso-resistivity maps show high resistivity zone, moderate resistivity zone and low resistivity zone, which are helpful in delineating potential and non potential zones in groundwater point of view, in the pilot area. The maps indicate concentration of high resistivity contours broadly in northeast, west and in some part of southwest portion of the pilot area. I The maps of AB/2 = 16, AB/2 = 30 and AB/2 = 60, indicate that the central part is covered by the area having high resistivity values,which indicates massive basalt. The area covered by shades of light blue, green colors are interpreted as potential zones . Light blue color range 40 – 60 Ohm.m, it indicates fractured, vesicular and jointed basalt. Green color range 20 – 40 Ohm.m, it indicates weathered basalt. The description for colors is given as follows. Pink - Moderately resistivity zone - Top soil with sum clay Green - Medium resistivity zone - Weathered Basalt Light blue - Low resistivity zone - Fracture, vesicular and jointed basalt Red - High resistivity zone - Compact, massive basalt
  23. 23. 23 Iso resistivity map AB/2 – 16 m The dark blue color is observed in Konghara, Dharna and sum part of Sakara villages of pilot project showing very good groundwater potential. The northeast part is covered with dark blue, which indicates good groundwater potential zone. The green color is surrounded to blue color region, which indicates poorly weathered and fractured basalt. There is red colored patch is observed in north-east part of pilot having high resistivity zone with poor to nil ground water potential zone (Plate no 3). Iso resistivity map AB/2 – 30 m The light blue colour is observed in Konghara, Dharna and some part of Sakhra villages of pilot project showing very good groundwater potential. The southwest is also covered with light blue, which indicates good groundwater potential zone. The green colour is north, south and southwest region, which indicates poorly weathered and fractured basalt. There is red colore is observed in north-east and central part of pilot having high resistivity zone with poor to nil ground water potential zone (Plate no 4). Konghara Sakra bk Dharna 1-20 ohm m (Top soil) 20-40 ohm m (Weathered basalt) 40-60 ohm m (Vesicular/fractured /jointed basalt) 60-100 ohm m (Massive basalt) INDEX Plate No 3
  24. 24. 24 Iso resistivity map AB/2 – 60 m The light blue color is observed in Konghara, Dharna and sum part of Sakara villages of pilot project showing very good groundwater potential. The green color is south and southwest region, which indicates poorly weathered and fractured basalt. There is red colored patch is observed in north-east and central part of pilot having high resistivity zone with poor to nil ground water potential zone (Plate no 5). 1-20 ohm m (Top soil) 20-40 ohm m (Weathered basalt) 40-60 ohm m (Vesicular/ Fractured /jointed basalt) 60-100 ohm m (Massive basalt) INDEX Dharna Sakra bk Konghara Plate No 4 1-20 ohm m (Top soil) INDEX 20-40 ohm m (Weathered basalt) 40-60 ohm m (Vesicular, Fractured/jointed basalt) 60-100 ohm m (Massive basalt) Konghara Sakra bk Dharna Plate No 5
  25. 25. 25 4.2 b. Quantitative Analysis: All soundings data has been interpreted for different electric layers and based on these layers eight geo-electric cross sections have been prepared, namely L1, L11, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7. Brief discussion of each cross section is given below. Geo electrical cross sections: CROSS SECTION L1 The section L1 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Kongara of the project. This section exhibits seven electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 5 – 12 ohm m indicates top soil with some clay. Grey color range 20 – 30 ohm m indicates less kankar soil with more clay, Light biscuit color range 4 – 10 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with clay. Light blue color range 25 – 35 ohm m indicates amygdaloidal basalt with sum quartz, zeolite. Gray color range 30 – 40 ohm m indicates prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured. Pink color range 40 – 70 ohm m indicates poorly fractured basalt. Red color range 80 – 160 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 6). LINE 1 CROSS SECTION W7S6 257.026 W6S6 258.070 W5S6 257.650 255.726 254.226 252.726 249.726 216.726 256.15 255.15 246.15 233.15 200.15 Plate No 6 INDEX 5 -12 Ώm Loose soil with clay 20 - 30 Ώm Less kankar, soil with more clay 4 - 10 Ώm Weathered basalt with sum clay 25 - 35 Ώm Amygdaloidal basalt with sum quartz, zeolite 30 – 40 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured 40 - 70 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt 80 – 160 Ώm Massive basalt
  26. 26. 26 CROSS SECTION L11 The section L11 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Kongara of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 6 – 10 ohm m indicates top soil with some clay. Coffee color range 20 – 30 ohm m indicates less kankar soil with more clay, Light biscuit color range 2 – 8 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with sum clay. Yellow color range 10 – 20 ohm m indicates amygdaloidal basalt. Light blue color range 6 – 10 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with sum clay. Gray color range 20 – 30 ohm m indicates prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured. Light pink color range 30 – 50 ohm m indicates porphyritic, fractured basalt. Pink color range 50 – 70 ohm m indicates poorly jointed basalt. Red color range 80 – 160 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 7). S SECTION L2 LINE 11 CROSS SECTION W8S5 258.324 W7S5 258.021 W6S5 257.71 W5S5 257.081 256.824 255.824 254.824 242.824 231.824 220.824 195.824 255.881 252.881 245.881 235.881 235.881 210.881 197.824 Plate No 7 6 -10 Ώm Loose soil with clay 20 - 30 Ώm Less kankar, soil with more clay 2 - 8 Ώm Weathered basalt with sum clay 10 - 20 Ώm Amygdaloidal basalt 20 - 30 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured 30 - 50 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, fractured 50 - 70 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt 80 – 160 Ώm Massive basalt INDEX
  27. 27. 27 The section L2 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Kongara of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 5 – 10 ohm m indicates loose soil with sum clay. Coffee color range 20 – 45 ohm m indicates less kankar soil. Light biscuit color range 4 – 10 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with sum clay. Yellow color range 2 – 3 ohm m indicates clay. Light blue color range 6 – 10 ohm m indicates weathered with sum clay. Gray color range 50 – 60 ohm m indicates prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured. Pink color range 90 – 140 ohm m indicates poorly jointed basalt. Red color range 300 – 500 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt. (Plate no 8). LINE 2 CROSS SECTION W8S4 259.826 W7S4 258.621 W6S4 258.27 W4S4 259.214 257.826 253.826 245.826 229.826 201.826 188.826 258.114 257.614 238.514 232.514 228.514 202.514 Plate No 8 INDEX 5 - 10 Ώm Loose soil with clay 20 - 45 Ώm Less kankar, soil 4 - 10 Ώm Weathered basalt with sum clay 2 - 3 Ώm clay 6 - 10 Ώm Weathered basalt 50 - 60 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured 90 - 140 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt 300 - 500 Ώm Massive basalt
  28. 28. 28 CROSS SECTION L3 The section L3 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Kongara of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 10 – 12 ohm m indicates loose soil with clay. Brown color range 40 – 60 ohm m indicates exposed massive basalt. Light biscuit color range 2 – 10 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with sum clay. Light pink color range 10 – 50 ohm m indicates amygdaloidal basalt. Gray color range 40 – 80 ohm m indicates prophyritic basalt, fractured. Light blue color range 20 – 40 ohm m indicates porphyritic basalt, poorly fractured. Pink color range 90 –140 ohm m indicates poorly jointed basalt. Red color range 200– 400 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 9). LINE 3 CROSS SECTION W01 271.868 W6S2 271 W5S2 270.892 W4S2 271.683 270.668 263.668 270.183 261.183 256.83 201.83 258.668 230.668 183.668 Plate No 9 INDEX 10 - 12 Ώm Loose soil with clay 40 - 60 Ώm Exposed massive basalt 2 - 10 Ώm Weathered basalt with sum clay 10 - 50 Ώm Amygdaloidal basalt 40 - 80 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, fractured 20 - 40 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured 90 - 140 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt 200 - 400 Ώm Compact Massive basalt
  29. 29. 29 CROSS SECTION L4 The section L4 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Sakara of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 40 – 120 ohm m indicates Top soil. Coffee color range 60 – 100 ohm m indicates less kankar soil. Light biscuit color range 30 – 40 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with some clay. Red color range 200 – 400 ohm m indicates massive basalt. Gray color range 50 – 80 ohm m indicates weathered fractured, poorly fractured basalt. Light blue color range 40 – 50 ohm m indicates porphyritic, poorly fractured basalt. Pink color range 50 – 100 ohm m indicates massive basalt with poorly fractured basalt. Thick red color range 500 – 1200 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 10). LINE 4 CROSS SECTION W4 265.021 W2 264.54 W0 263.982 263.521 263.021 262.421 258.421 250.421 227.421 262.982 261.982 231.982 218.982 205.982 198.982 Plate No 10 INDEX 40 - 120 Ώm Loose soil 60 - 100 Ώm Less kankar, soil 30 - 40 Ώm Weathered basalt 50 - 80 Ώm Weathered basalt, poorly fractured basalt 40 - 50 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt, poorly fractured 50 - 100 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly fractured basalt 200 - 400 Ώm Massive basalt 500 - 1200 Ώm Hard massive basalt
  30. 30. 30 CROSS SECTION L5 The section L5 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers villages Sakara and Dharna of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising, in that blue color range 9 – 45 ohm m indicates loose soil. Coffee color range 4 – 8 ohm m indicates less kankar soil with more clay. Light biscuit color range 2 – 8 ohm m indicates weathered basalt with some clay. Grey color range 40 – 80 ohm m indicates porphyritic, fractured basalt. Light blue color range 13 – 20 ohm m indicates vesicular basalt with sum clay. Red color range 100 – 1200 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 11). LINE 5 CROSS SECTION N2W4 268.868 N2W2 266.33 N4 272.23 N2E2 269.932 N2E6 264.826 267.368 266.868 260.868 257.868 250.868 N2E4 269.932 263.326 263.326 239.326 Plate No 11 INDEX 9 - 45 Ώm Loose soil 4 - 8 Ώm Less kankar, soil with more clay 2 - 8 Ώm Weathered basalt with sum clay 100 - 400 Ώm Massive basalt 40 - 80 Ώm Massive porphyritic basalt, fractured basalt 13 - 20 Ώm Vesicular basalt with sum clay 200 - 500 Ώm Massive basalt 500 – 1200 Ώm Hard massive basalt
  31. 31. 31 CROSS SECTION L6 The section L6 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Sakara and Dharna of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 10 – 35 ohm m indicates top soil with sum clay. Coffee color range 5 – 20 ohm m indicates kankar with some clay. Light biscuit color range 20 – 40 ohm m indicates weathered basalt. Yellow color range 4 – 6 ohm m indicates clay. Light blue color range 10 – 20 ohm m indicates massive porphyritic basalt with sum clay. Thick blue color range 20 – 40 ohm m indicates poorly jointed, vesicular basalt. Red color range 60 – 650 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 12). LINE 6 CROSS SECTIONN4E4 283.76 N4E2 273.84 N4E2 273.84 N4E2 282.61 282.26 280.76 274.26 269.26 257.26 234.26 281.11 279.11 277.11 271.11 251.11 224.11 Plate No 12 10 - 35 Ώm Loose soil with clay 5 - 20 Ώm Less kankar, soil with more clay 20 - 40 Ώm Weathered basalt 60 - 160 Ώm Massive basalt 4 - 6 Ώm Clay 10 - 20 Ώm Massive prophyritic basalt with sum clay 20 - 40 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt 200 - 650 Ώm Hard massive basalt INDEX
  32. 32. 32 CROSS SECTION L7 The section L7 is drawn along west to east direction of the project area which covers village Sakara of the project. This section exhibits eight electrical layers comprising in that blue color range 20 – 25 ohm m indicates top soil with some clay. Light biscuit color range 20 – 45 ohm m indicates weathered basalt. Grey color range 40 – 80 ohm m indicates massive porphyritic, fractured basalt. Light blue color range 5 – 15 ohm m indicates poorly jointed, vesicular basalt with sum clay. Pink color range 40 – 65 ohm m indicates fractured basalt. Red color range 100 – 2500 ohm m indicates compact massive basalt (Plate no 13). LINE 7 CROSS SECTION N4E2 278.48 N4E2 273.84 N4E2 278.86 277.28 273.28 234.26 269.28 263.76 277.36 257.16 241.16 240.66 250.78 192.66 Plate No 13 INDEX 100 - 110 Ώm Exposed massive basalt 20 - 25 Ώm Loose soil with clay 20 - 45 Ώm Weathered basalt 160 - 165 Ώm Massive basalt 40 - 80 Ώm Massive porphyritic basalt, fractured basalt 5 - 15 Ώm Massive basalt, poorly jointed basalt with sum clay 40 – 65 Ώm Fractured basalt 200 – 2500 Ώm Compact massive basalt
  33. 33. 33 Kongara single point resistance log data, apparent resistivity graphs correlation and interpretation At Kongara piezometer site, single point resistance log and one VES are conducted. Logging data and VES data are correlated and plotted in centimeter graph. Using VES data, apparent resistivity graph was plotted and interpreted. In VES interpretation nine layers are exhibits, in that first layer resistivity 15.5 ohm m having thickness 1.5 m indicates top soil, second layer resistivity 12.5 ohm m having thickness 1 m indicates weathered basalt, soil mix with kankar, third layer resistivity 10.25 ohm m having thickness 3 m indicates weathered basalt, soil mix with clay and kankar, fourth layer resistivity 336 ohm m having thickness 10 m indicates massive basalt, fifth layer resistivity 56 ohm m having thickness 19 m indicates vesicular, fractured, sixth layer resistivity 76 ohm m having thickness 10 m indicates zeolitic trap, seventh layer resistivity 116 ohm m having thickness 20 m indicates massive basalt, eighth layer resistivity 9 ohm m having thickness 0.8 m indicates red bole, ninth layer resistivity 88 ohm m indicates Sandstone (plates 14, 15, 16). Plate No 14 Single point resistance log at Kongara piezometer site App.ResValues. AB/2 in mts
  34. 34. 34 Sakhra single point resistance log data, apparent resistivity, factor and reciprocal graphs Trend and interpretation At Sakhra Piezometer site single point resistance log and three VES are conducted. Logging data and VES data was correlated and plotted in centimeter graph. Using VES data apparent resistivity graph, factor graph, reciprocal graph was plotted and interpreted. In VES interpretation tenth layers are exhibits, in first layer resistance range 90 ohm m having thickness 1.5 m indicates weathered basalt, second layer resistance range 300 ohm m having thickness 7 m indicates massive basalt, third layer resistance range 875 ohm m having thickness 23.5 m indicates hard massive basalt, fourth layer resistance range 501 ohm m having thickness 15 m indicates massive App.Res.CURVE 1 10 100 1 10 100 1000 AB/2 in Mts App.Res.Values Plate No 15 Apparent resistivity cure at Kongara piezometer site Kongara piezometer site VES 1 interpretation Plate No 16 LAYER NO LAYERS TRUE RESISTIVITY LAYERS TRUE THICKNESS CUMULATTIVE THICKNESS (RL – CU TH) RL = 258.627 M PROBABLE LITHOLOGY LAYER 1 ρ1 = 15.5 OHM t1 = 1.5 MTS Ct1 = 1.5 MTS 257.127 Top soil LAYER 2 ρ2 = 12.5 OHM t2 = 1 MTS Ct2 = 2.5 MTS 256.127 Weathered basalt, soil mix with kankar LAYER 3 ρ3 = 10.25 OHM t3 = 3 MTS Ct3 = 5.5 MTS 253.127 Weathered basalt, soil mix with clay and kankar LAYER 4 ρ4 = 336 OHM t4 = 10 MTS Ct4 = 15.5 MTS 243.127 Massive basalt LAYER 5 ρ5 = 56 OHM t5 = 19 MTS Ct5 = 34.5 MTS 224.127 Vesicular, fractured basalt LAYER 6 ρ6 = 76 OHM t6 = 10 MTS Ct6 = 64.5 MTS 214.127 Zeolitic trap LAYER 7 ρ7 = 116 OHM t7 = 20 MTS Ct7 = 64.5 MTS 194.127 Massive basalt LAYER 8 & LAYER 9 ρ8 = 9 OHM ρ9 = 88 OHM t8 = 0.8 MTS t9 = -- -- Ct8 = 65.3 MTS Ct9 = --- --- 193.327 --- ---- Red bole Sandstone
  35. 35. 35 Sakara sinlge point resistance log data, apparent resistivity graphs correlation and interpretation At Sakara piezometer site, single point resistance log and one VES are conducted. Logging data and VES data are correlated and plotted in centimeter graph. Using VES data, apparent resistivity graph was plotted and interpreted. In VES interpretation ten layers are exhibits, in that first layer resistivity 90 ohm m having thickness 1.5 m indicates weathered basalt, second layer resistivity 300 ohm m having thickness 7 m indicates massive basalt, third layer resistivity 875 ohm m having thickness 23.5 m indicates hard massive basalt, fourth layer resistivity 501 ohm m having thickness 15 m indicates massive basalt, fifth layer resistivity 99 ohm m having thickness 16 m indicates fractured basalt, sixth layer resistivity 54 ohm m having thickness 10 m indicates vesicular basalt, seventh layer resistivity 10 ohm m having thickness 0.84 m indicates red bole, eighth layer resistivity 102 ohm m having thickness 14 m indicates fractured basalt, ninth layer resistivity 238 ohm m having thickness 22 m indicates massive basalt, tenth layer resistivity 164 ohm m indicates Sandstone (plates 17, 18, 19). Single point resistance log at Sakara piezometer sitePlate No 17 App.ResValues. AB/2 in mts
  36. 36. 36 APP.RES.CURVE 1 10 100 1 10 100 1000 AB/2 in Mts App.Res.Vvalues Apparent resistivity cure at Sakara piezometer sitePlate No 18 Sakara piezometer site VES 1 interpretationPlate No 19 LAYER NO APP RES LA THICK CU THICKNESS (RL – CU TH) RL = 264.250 M PROBABLE LITHOLOGY LAYER 1 ρ1 = 90 OHM t1 = 1.5 MTS Ct1 = 1.5 MTS 262.75 Weathered basalt LAYER 2 ρ2 = 300 OHM t2 = 7 MTS Ct2 = 8.5 MTS 255.75 Massive basalt LAYER 3 ρ3 = 875 OHM t3 = 23.5 MTS Ct3 = 32 MTS 232.25 Hard massive basalt LAYER 4 ρ4 = 501 OHM t4 = 15 MTS Ct4 = 47 MTS 217.25 Massive basalt LAYERS 5 ρ5 = 99 OHM t5 = 16 MTS Ct5 = 63 MTS 201.25 Fractured basalt LAYER 6 ρ6 = 54 OHM t6 = 10 MTS Ct6 = 73 MTS 191.25 Vesicular basalt LAYER 7 & LAYER 8 ρ7 = 10 OHM ρ8 = 102 OHM t7 = 0.84 MTS t8 = 14 MTS Ct7 = 73.84 MTS Ct8 = 87.84 MTS 190.41 176.41 Red bole Fractured basalt LAYER 9 & LAYER 10 ρ9 = 238 OHM ρ10 = 164 OHM t9 = 22 MTS T10 = -- -- Ct9 = 109.84 MTS Ct10 = --- --- 154.41 --- ---- Massive basalt Sandstone
  37. 37. 37 Dharana single point resistance log, apparent resistivity graphs correlation and interpretation At Dharana piezometer site, single point resistance log and one VES are conducted. Logging data and VES data are correlated and plotted in centimeter graph. Using VES data, apparent resistivity graph was plotted and interpreted. In VES interpretation, eleven layers are exhibits, in that first layer resistance range 26 ohm m having thickness 3 m indicates Soil mix with clay and kankar, second layer resistivity 32 ohm m having thickness 3 m indicates Weathered basalt with amygdaloidal basalt, third layer resistivity 48 ohm m having thickness 7 m indicates Massive basalt with poorly fractured basalt, fourth layer resistivity 115 ohm m having thickness 13 m indicates massive basalt, fifth layer resistivity 88 ohm m having thickness 12 m indicates Massive basalt with poorly fractured basalt. sixth layer resistivity 64 ohm m having thickness 7 m indicates Massive basalt with Poorly vesicular basalt, seventh layer resistivity 284 ohm m having thickness 14 m indicates compact massive basalt, eighth layer resistivity 104 ohm m having thickness 0.8 m indicates Porphyritic basalt with vesicular basalt, ninth layer resistance range 7 ohm m having thickness 0.2 m indicates red bole, tenth layer resistance range 448 ohm m having thickness 28 m indicates compact massive basalt, eleventh layer resistance range 164 ohm m indicates Sandstone (plates 20, 21, 22). Single point resistance log at Dharana piezometer sitePlate No 20 App.ResValues. AB/2 in mts
  38. 38. 38 APP.RES.CURVE 1 10 100 1000 1 10 100 AB/2 in Values App.RES.Vlaues Apprenst resistivity cure at Dharana piezometer sitePlate No 21 Dharana piezometer site VES 1 interpretationPlate No 22 LAYER NO APP RES LA THICK CU THICKNESS (RL – CU TH) RL = 325 M PROBABLE LITHOLOGY LAYER 1 ρ1 = 26 OHM t1 = 3 MTS Ct1 = 3 MTS 322 Soil mix with clay and kankar LAYER 2 ρ2 = 32 OHM t2 = 3 MTS Ct2 = 6 MTS 319 Weathered basalt with amygdaloidal basalt LAYER 3 ρ3 = 48 OHM t3 = 7 MTS Ct3 = 13 MTS 312 Massive basalt with poorly fractured basalt LAYER 4 ρ4 = 115 OHM t4 = 13 MTS Ct4 = 26 MTS 299 Massive basalt LAYERS 5 & LAYERS 6 ρ5 = 88 OHM ρ6 = 64 OHM t5 = 12 MTS t6 = 7 MTS Ct5 = 34 MTS Ct6 = 41 MTS 287 280 Massive basalt with Poorly fractured basalt. Massive basalt with Poorly vesicular basalt LAYER 7 ρ7 = 284 OHM t7 = 14 MTS Ct7 = 55 MTS 266 Compact massive basalt LAYER 8 & LAYER 9 ρ8 = 104 OHM ρ8= 7 OHM M t8 = 0.8 MTS t8 = 0.2 MTS Ct8 = 55.8 MTS Ct7 = 56 MTS 265.20 265 Porphyritic basalt with vesicular basalt Red bole LAYER 10 & LAYER 11 ρ10 = 448 OHM ρ11 = 164 OHM t10 = 28 MTS t11 = -- -- Ct10 = 84 MTS Ct11 = --- --- 237 --- ---- Compact massive basalt Sandstone
  39. 39. 39 TREND OF GSI PETROGRAPHIC REPORT AND GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING REPORT GSI PETROGRAPHIC DISCRIPTION GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING DISCRIPTION As per GSI Petrographic description of core drilling report at Dharna, from 30.00 to 33.57 m depth rock is fine grained, fractured basalt. Few grains of fluoride occurs as secondary fillings in fractures and cavities along with altered glass (palagonite). (Plate no 27) As per GSDA resistivity logging report at Dharna, from 28.00 to 34.00 m depth fracture zone and Cavities demarcated (Dharna normal down log in piezometer 1, Plate no 23). Note: GSDA logger has struck from 28.00 to 35.00 m depth (cavities) while logging. From 33.57 to 38.00 m depth rock is fine grained, vesicular basalt. Fluoride and zeolite occurs as secondary fillings in vesicles. (Plate no 27) From 34.00 to 40.00 m depth vesicular zone demarcated (Dharna normal down log in piezometer 2, Plate no 24). From 39.00 to 47.00 m depth rock is fine to medium grained, vesicular and fracture basalt. Fluoride occurs as secondary fillings in vesicles and fractures. (Plate no 27) From 40.00 to 46.00 m depth vesicular and fracture zones demarcated (Dharna normal down log in piezometer 2, Plate no 24). From 66.00 to 82.00 m depth rock is fine to medium grained, vesicular and fracture basalt. Fluoride occurs as secondary fillings in fractures and cavities along with altered glass (palagonite). (Plate no 27) From 68.00 to 74.00 m depth vesicular and fracture zones demarcated (Dharna normal up log in piezometer 1 & 2, Plates no 25, 26). Note: GSDA logger has struck from 65.00 to 75.00 m depth (cavities) while logging.
  40. 40. 40 Dharna normal down log in piezometer 1Plate No 23 Plate No 24 Dharna normal down log in piezometer 2
  41. 41. 41 Plate No 26 Dharna normal up log in piezometer 2 Plate No 25 Dharna normal up log in piezometer 1
  42. 42. 42 TREND OF GSI GEOCHEMICAL REPORT AND GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING REPORT GSI GEOCHEMICAL DISCRIPTION GSDA ELECTRICAL LOGGING DISCRIPTION As per GSI geochemical data two distinct zones of high concentration >200 ppm of fluoride is presented between depth from 30 to 34 m and 68 to 73 m. As per GSDA resistivity logging data two highly fracture, vesicular zones and cavities demarcated between depth of 28.00 to 34.00 m and 68 to 74 m (Dharna normal down and up logs in piezometer 1 & 2, Plates no 23, 24, 25, 26). Note: GSDA logger has struck from 28.00 to 35.00 m depth (cavities) and from 65.00 to 75.00 m depth (cavities) while logging. Recording of Borewell Data Pandarkawda, Yavatmal, 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Core Recovery Drill in percentage <---LenghofRun(m)indepth Series1 Plate No 27
  43. 43. 43 4.3 Conclusions of Geophysical Investigation Conclusions as per AB/2 = 16 m, AB/2 = 30 m, AB/2 = 60 m of Iso resistivity maps interpretation 1). Iso resistivity map AB/2 = 16 m having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt zones shown in blue and green color of north, northeast side is more in Dharana village, north side is less in Sakara village and south side is medium in Kongara village. 2). Iso resistivity map AB/2 = 30 m having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt zones shown in light blue and green color of north, northeast side is more in Dharana village, north side is very less in Sakara village and south side is less in Kongara village. 3). Iso resistivity map AB/2 = 60 m having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt zones shown in light blue and green color of north side is less in Dharana village, south and south west side is less in Sakara village and south side is less in Kongara village. Finally as per geophysical data, fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in weathered/vesicular/fractured/jointed massive basalt zones in Dharana village is more at 16 m depth, in Sakara village is less at 30 m depth and in Kongara village is more at 60 m depth. Conclusions as per cross sections, logs and VES interpretations 4). Cross sections L1, L11, L2, L3, Kongara log and Kongara VES having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in vesicular, fractured massive basalt 19 m thickness at shallow depth from 15.5 m to 34.5 m and primary deposition in Sand stone at deeper depth from 65.3 m onwards in Kongara village. 5). Cross sections L4, L5, L6, Sakara log and Sakara VES having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in vesicular, fractured massive basalt 16 m thickness at medium depth from 47 m to 63 m depth and 14 m thickness at deeper depth from 73.84 m to 87.84 m depth and also primary deposition in Sand stone at deeper depth from 109.84 m onwards in Sakara village. 6). Cross sections L5, L6, L7, Dharana log and Dharana VES having fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in fractured, vesicular massive basalt 7 m thickness at shallow depth from 6 m to 13 m and 19 m thickness at medium depth from 26 m to 41 m and also primary deposition in Sand stone at deeper depth from 84 m onwards in Dharana village.
  44. 44. 44 7). Dharna normal up and down logs in piezometers 1 & 2 having fluoride mineral may filled as a secondary deposition in fractured massive basalt and cavities 6 m thickness at medium depth from 28 m to 34 m depth, vesicular massive basalt 6 m thickness at medium depth from 34 m to 40 m depth, fractured and vesicular massive basalts 6 m thickness at medium depth from 40 m to 46 m depth, vesicular and fractured massive basalt 6 m thickness at deeper depth from 68 m to 74 m depth in Dharana village. Finally as per geophysical data, fluoride mineral may filled as secondary deposition in fractured & vesicular massive basalt zones in Kongara village from 15.5 m to 34.5 m depth, in Sakara village from 47 m to 63 m depth and from 73.84 m to 87.84 m depth, in Dharana village from 6 m to 13 m depth and from 26 to 41 m depth. Fluoride mineral may filled as primary deposition in Gondwana formation in Kongara village from 65.3 m depth onwards, in Sakara village from 109.84 m depth onwards, in Dharana village from 84 m depth onwards.
  45. 45. 45 5.0 Chemical Analysis of Groundwater Figure 1 Dental fluorosis Figure 2 - Skeletal Fluorosis It is considered to undertake Purpose Driven studies in the chronically affected Yavatmal district of Maharashtra. Capping of Deccan basalt covers the area selected for project.. Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency envisages to undertake the above mentioned project so as to understand and mitigate the root cause of fluoride contamination, in terms of its depth and aerial extension. For this purpose 3 villages are selected on a pilot basis where fluoride contamination is above permissible limits. Due to the weathered nature of the trap, it will be useful to mitigate the artificial recharge of aquifer to delineate the problem
  46. 46. 46 Chemical analysis Water samples from above said villages were collected in polyethylene bottles between the year 2009-2011 and to till days and analysed for, pH, EC, TDS, F- , Cl- , NO3 - , SO4 2- , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Na+ , Fe2+ and K+ as per standard procedures for the examination of water and waste water prepared and published by American public health association, American water work association, Water pollution control federation. The F- , NO3- ,SO4 2- , Fe2+ ions were determined by Spectrophotometerically, F- was also done by ion selective electrode; Ca2+ and Mg2+ were analysed by EDTA method, while Na+ and K+ by emission mode of the atomic emission spectrotometer. Chemical standards and blanks were run and replicate analysis of each sample was done for each parameter and variations were ±5 - 10%. Chemical data interpretation of Konghara village In the technology of HP, the fluoride concentration varies from 0.6 to 3.5 ppm and in case of DW the fluoride concentration varies from 0.2 to 1.7 ppm. The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers The chemical data also exhibits that the pH of ground water in deeper aquifers is higher as compared to shallow aquifers. As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 1 and Graph 2 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the post monsoon in both Handpump and Dugwell. The concentrations of calcium are less where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen in Graph 10 and 12. The concentrations of sodium are mores where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen Graph 11 and 13.
  47. 47. 47 Graphical presentation of trend of Fluoride concentration in HP, Konghara village Graph 1. Month versus fluoride concentration in Hand-pump of Konghara village. The Graph 1 exhibit maximum fluoride concentration in the month of June (3.3 ppm) in kongara village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower in case of post monsoon and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon . Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in DW of village Konghara Graph 2 - Month versus fluoride concentration in Dug-well of Konghara village. The Graph . 2 exhibit maximum fluoride concentration in the month of April (1.6 ppm) in kongara village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower in case of post monsoon and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon .
  48. 48. 48 Chemical data interpretation of Dharna village In the technology of HP, the fluoride concentration varies from 1.0 to 6.9 ppm and in case of DW the fluoride concentration varies from 0.6 to 2.2 ppm. The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers. The chemical data also exhibits that the pH of ground water in deeper aquifers is higher as compared to shallow aquifers. As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 3 and Graph 4 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the post monsoon in both HP and DW technology. The concentrations of calcium are less where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen . The concentrations of sodium are mores where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen . Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in HP, Dharana village Graph 3- Month versus fluoride concentration in Hand-pump of Dharna village. The Graph 3 exhibit maximum fluoride concentration in the month of June (6.1 ppm) in Dharana village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower in case of post monsoon and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon.
  49. 49. 49 Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in DW, Dharana village Graph 4 Month versus fluoride concentration in Dug-well of Dharna The Graph. 4 exhibit maximum fluoride concentration in the month of June 2011 in Dharana village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower i.e. 1.0 ppm in case of post monsoon and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon .i.e.2.2 ppm. Chemical data interpretation of Sakhara village In the technology of HP, the fluoride concentration varies from 1.0 to 2.8 ppm and in case of DW the fluoride concentration varies from 0.6 to2. 4 ppm. The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers The chemical data also exhibits that the pH of ground water in deeper aquifers is higher as compared to shallow aquifers. As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 5 and Graph 6 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the post monsoon in both HP and DW technology. The concentrations of calcium are less where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen The concentrations of sodium are mores where fluoride concentration found higher as can be seen
  50. 50. 50 Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in Sakhara for HP Graph 5 - Month versus fluoride concentration in Hand-pump of Sakhara village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower in case of post monsoon (Sept. 2009 to Feb. 2010) and Jul. 2010 to December 2010 and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon ( March –June 2010). Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration in Sakhara for DW Graph 6 Month versus fluoride concentration in Dug-well of Sakhara village. The trend of fluoride concentration is lower in case of post monsoon i.e.0.8 ppm and higher concentration in case of pre monsoon i.e.2.2 ppm.
  51. 51. 51 Trend observed in groundwater of study area. Graph 7 - Trend of Calcium & Fluoride in Hand-pump Graph 7 exhibits the Trend between calcium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of calcium decreases. This shows that there is inverse Trend . Graph 8- Trend of Sodium & Fluoride in Hand-pump Graph 8 exhibits the Trend between Sodium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of Sodium increases. This shows that there is direct Trend .
  52. 52. 52 Graph 9 - Trend of Calcium & Fluoride in Dug-well Graph 9 exhibits the Trend between calcium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of calcium decreases. This shows that there is inverse Trend . Graph 10- Trend of Calcium & Fluoride in Dug-well Graph 10 exhibits the Trend between Sodium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of Sodium increases. This shows that there is direct Trend .
  53. 53. 53 Variation of Fluoride in case of Piezometer in study area : Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration. Graph – 11 Depth wise Fluoride concentration of Konghara village Graph 11 exhibits that there is the fluoride concentration of Konghara pizometer 1,2,3 (Depth 70 meter,60 meter,35 meter)varies from 3.6 to 4.2,2.0 to 2.4 and 2.2 to 3.1 ppm respectively . The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers .middle aquifer shows slightly lower values than that of upper aquifer. As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 11 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the pos monsoon.
  54. 54. 54 Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration. Graph – 12 Depth wise Fluoride concentration of Dharana village . Graph 12 exhibits that the fluoride concentration of Dharana pizometer 1,2,3 and 4 (Depth 75.2meter,56.9 meter,30 meter and 7.9 meter)varies from 5.1 to 6.1,3.7 to 4.0 ,2.8 to 3.2 and 3.8 to 4.3 ppm respectively . The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers .middle aquifer shows slightly lower values than that of upper aquifer. As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 12 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the pos monsoon.
  55. 55. 55 Graphical representation of trend of Fluoride concentration. Graph – 13 Depth wise Fluoride concentration of Sakhara village . Graph 13 exhibits that there is the fluoride concentration of Sakhara pizometer 1,2,3 (Depth 74.2 meter,49.5 meter,26.3 meter)varies from 4.0 to 4.8,2.8 to 3.4 and 1.7 to 2.7 ppm respectively . The chemical analysis results clearly indicate that the samples from deeper aquifers have higher fluoride as compared to shallow aquifers . As far as seasonal variation is concerned, the fluoride concentration was in the following order, post monsoon < pre monsoon. The Graph 13 clearly indicates that the concentration of fluoride is higher for the pre monsoon and dilution is observed after the pos monsoon.
  56. 56. 56 Calcium, Fluoride and Sodium Trend observed in Piezometer of study area. Graphical representation of calcium ,Sodium and Fluoride Trend in Konghara Peizometer. Graph 14- Calcium trend of Konghara Pizometer Graph 15 - Fluoride trend of Konghara Pizometer Graph 16 – Sodium trend of Konghara Pizometer Graph 14, 15, 16 exhibits the Trend between calcium sodium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of calcium decreases. This shows that there is inverse Co- relation .As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of Sodium increases. This shows that there is direct Co- relation .
  57. 57. 57 Graphical representation of calcium ,Sodium and Fluoride Co- relation in Dharana Peizometer. Graph 17 – Calcium trend of Dharana Pizometer Graph 18 – Fluoride trend of Dharana Pizometer Graph 19 – Sodium trend of Dharana Piezometer Graph 17, 18, 19 exhibits the trend between calcium sodium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of calcium decreases. This shows that there is inverse Co- relation .As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of Sodium increases. This shows that there is direct Co- relation .
  58. 58. 58 Graphical representation of Calcium , Sodium and Fluoride trend in Sakhara Peizometer. Graph 20 – Calcium trend of Sakhara Piezometer Graph 21 – Fluoride trend of Sakhara Piezometer Graph 22– Sodium trend of Sakhara Pizometer . Graph 20, 21, 22 exhibits the trend between calcium sodium and fluoride. As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of calcium decreases. This shows that there is inverse Co- relation .As the concentration of fluoride increases with respect to it the concentration of Sodium increases. This shows that there is direct Co- relation .
  59. 59. 59 Overall Chemical analysis of groundwater reveals following findings; Area under study reveals following points during analysis. 1) Fluoride observed in shallow aquifer have less concentration than deeper aquifer. 2) Concentration higher in case of summer and slight dilution occurs after monsoon. 3) Semiarid climate plays important role for increase the conc. as the temperature rises. 4) Water quality analysis reports show that Ca mg/lit content in GW inversely proportional to the content of Fluoride in ppm. 5) Water quality analysis reports show that Na mg/lit content in GW directly proportional to the content of Fluoride in ppm. 6) Depletion of water table during late summer and decrease in percentage rainfall has affected the quality detoriate of groundwater resulting in increase of Fluoride content . 7) Significantly the Fluoride Content is more in the deeper aquifer than in shallow one. Identified water quality related issue and possible remedial measures Recommendation Nalgonda technique The Nalgonda technique was developed by the National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in Nagpur (India) in the 1960s and has since mainly been implemented in India. The process involves adding aluminum sulphate (Al2(SO4)3) and lime to raw water. Theory The addition of aluminum sulphate to raw water results in the creation of insoluble aluminum hydroxide flocks. Then, by the processes of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation, part of the initial fluorine concentration can be removed from the water as a solid. The addition of lime ensures an optimal removal pH of around 6-7, which allows the complete precipitation of aluminum. The second effect of the lime is to help to form dense flocs for rapid settling. The reactions involved in this process are (WHO, 2006):
  60. 60. 60 Aluminum dissolution Al2(SO4)318H20 ↔ 2Al3+ + 3SO4 2- + 18H20 Aluminium precipitation 2Al3+ + 6H20 ↔ 2Al(OH3) + 6H+ Co-precipitation F- + Al(OH)3 ↔ Al-F complex + undefined product pH adjustment 6Ca(OH)2 + 12H+ ↔ 6Ca2+ + 12H2O The Nalgonda technique can be implemented at a household level with the use of a bucket (Figure 2.1) or at community level with a tank. Nalgonda
  61. 61. 61 Schematic diagram and domestic TERAFIL water filter. Three most common domestic units for sorption de-fluoridation. Bone charcoal is a blackish, porous, granular material. calcium phosphate 57–80 per cent, calcium carbonate 6–10 per cent, activated carbon 7–10 per cent.
  62. 62. 62 The TDS and Fluoride removal plant, based on Ion exchange and Reverse osmosis process. Introduction : • In collaboration with TATA Consultancy Services Ltd., Pune CSV has introduced a low cost water filter made from rice husk ash. The filter is very cheap and can be fabricated at the village level by the women folk, with very little investment. The filter is very hygienic and kills about 98% bacterial in the water and keeps it free from fluorides and arsenic. The Water Purifier consist Three Main Parts 1. Filter Bed 2. Plastic Bucket 3. Mud Pot 1. Manufacturing of Filter Bed Fabrication of Filter Element : The fabrication of the filter bed (cartridge comprises of three main process: Preparation of treatment of rice husk ash Container preparation Casting of filter bed Cost – Rs 350/- Filter Bed Water Filter
  63. 63. 63 6.0 Artificial Recharge Structures proposed for Fluoride mitigation The major aim of the artificial recharge projects is to augment groundwater storage. In study area the recharge measures are planned with an objective of augmenting groundwater storage to improve the water quality by improving water availability. The techno economic feasibility of the recharge projects need to be combined with different schemes like minor irrigation tanks, aforestation, soil conservation, etc thus having a approach of overall drainage basin level development. Phreatic aquifer will be best benefited more easily than the confined aquifer. In the vesicular basalts and jointed basalts, the calcareous material present as secondary filling in vesicles, cavities and joints subsequently get dissolved by recharged water. This tend to accelerate the recharge rate. In rainy season the vesicular basalt and massive basalt with secondary porosity get naturally recharged. With offset of monsoon the water levels of aquifers start depleting which further gets depleted by the winter crop irrigation ( Rabbi cropping season) resulting in drying up of these moderate to poor aquifers. Hence, it is necessary to construct the water conservation structures along with the artificial recharge structures so as to elongate the period of groundwater recharge and its sustainability. Considering source water availability and hydrogeological properties of formations to receive the recharged water play important role in augmenting groundwater recharge. The action plan proposed for runoff conservation and artificial recharge by conventional and unconventional measures is as follows; 1. Rejuvenation of the existing structures. 2. Construction of new conservation and recharge structures. a. Unconventional measures. b. Conventional measures. 6.1.1. Rejuvenation of the existing structures Techno-Economic feasibility is the aim of our project so rejuvenation work is the suited frame for achieving the objective. In two of the three villages of study area viz.
  64. 64. 64 Dharna and Sakhara Bk. there are present a number of existing Cement Plug/Check Dam/Nala Bund. In village Dharna there are three existing cement plugs and in Sakhra Bk. there are two cement plugs. Rejuvenation of these existing structures is proposed so as to increase the storage capacity of these cement plugs which have been affected due to silting. Hence, to get maximum prolonged storage benefit from these structures to upstream side of the structure nala deepening (drainage deepening) by 2.00 meters and straightening upto 400mtrs with width of 4 to 6 meter width approximately as per the field condition is proposed. The proposed measure is expected to store 4.8 TCM water which is 3.8TCM more than the previous storage capacity. Well deepening upto full aquifer depth with the well recharging pits is also proposed. Advantages : 1) It will not involve any land acquisition issue as would have been a case with other conservation structures like Percolation tank, village pond or farm Ponds etc. 2) Co-operation from the beneficiaries for facilitating the rejuvenation work will be there as they are very much aware of the benefits of the existing structures. 3) As mentioned above the utility of the existing structures is increased with increased storage capacity of the rejuvenated structure thus achieving Techno-economic feasibility. 6.1.2. Construction of new conservation and recharge structures The number of recharge structures required to store and recharge the groundwater reservoir have been worked out as follows : 6.1.2.a). Unconventional measures i) Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting In this measure the Rain Water is collected, filtered using proper filtration media and is stored or recharged directly to ground water either in wells or borewells. The Handpumps from the three villages of study area are recommended for Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting. In village Dharna the Handpump near Primary Zilla Parishad School building and other near the Gram Panchayat building and one in the
  65. 65. 65 new vasti are proposed for recharge. In village Sakhara Bk. the Dual Pump near the National Highway at the entrance of village is proposed for roof top rain water harvesting. In village Konghara , all the seven handpumps are recommended for proposed structure. Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency has developed unconventional techniques for strengthen of drinking water sources. These techniques include the following structures; i) Jacket Well Technique (JW) : Well jacketing in hard rock areas increases effective diameter of the well artificially, thereby increase in the storativity and improves transmissivity of the aquifer. Boreholes to a depth little less than of the well to be jacketed are drilled in a circular pattern around the targeted well. Subsequently blasting is carried out so as to create artificial fractures in the compact rock. These bores sometimes are drilled in semi circular (‘Half Well Jacketing’)or any other desired pattern depending on the prevalent topographical and hydrogeological conditions. In study area in village Sakhara Bk. and Konghara the Public Water Supply Source well is on the nala bank. There half well jacketing of both the wells is recommended. ii) Stream Blast Technique (SBT) : This technique is used for those wells which are located on river/nala bank. It is recommended for those wells which become dry or partially dry and the yield is decreased in summer season. It develop a hydraulic connectivity of the groundwater flowing below the nala bed with the source well. In village Dharna, the Public Water Supply Source well is due NorthEast of the nala confluence. It is at a considerable distance from both the nala banks and dries by the end of February or middle of March depending on the rainfall received that year. Stream blast technique is proposed to divert the subsurface flow and to develop a hydraulic connectivity of the groundwater flowing below the nala bed and the source well. iii) Fracture Seal Cementation (FSC) : This technique is applied to stop groundwater movement and increase the sustainability of groundwater in shallow aquifer. It is suitable in disintegrated rock combined with fractures and granular
  66. 66. 66 porosity. This technique creates a ‘Cut-Off-Wall’ or ‘Underground Bandhara’ in hard rock formation where conventional ‘Cut-Off-Wall’ construction is too costly. In this technique two rows of boreholes are drilled to a depth of depth little more than the dug wells of targeted area. Through these bores cement slurry is injected under desirable pressure so as to seal the existing fractures and openings. In village Dharna a FSC structure is proposed on the nala flowing between gat no. 66 and gat no. 67 to arrest the subsurface groundwater movement from the Public Water Supply Source well present due North East of the drainage. 6.1.2.B). Conventional measures i) Cement Plug : A cement bandhara is proposed in village Dharna on the nala flowing in gat no.67 due South West of the Public Water Supply Source well. ii) Storage/Recharge Pits : A number of recharge pits are proposed to the Irrigation dug wells in all the villages of study area. 7.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 1) Core drilling report revealed that Deccan trap is capping the sedimentary Gondwana formation. Thickness of capping at village Dharana in the BW is found to be 86 mtrs. 2) The petrography and geochemical study of the borewell core reveals that more concentration of fluorite occurs as secondary fillings in vesicles and fractures i.e, the weak zones in trap (as per GSI report). 3) The petrography and geochemical study of the borewell core reveals presence of four distinct flows and concentration of fluorite is more in Ist, (0-6.45mt.) II ,(6.45- 32.82)and IVth ,(57.49-85.25) basaltic flow. 4) Study of the rainfall of two rainy season shows that the fluoride concentration in the groundwater depends upon monsoon rainfall of the area. If the rainfall is more fluoride concentration is less. (In dug well of village Dharna when Rainfall was 1153mm in year 2010 fluoride conc. was found 1.4 ppm in the month of June 2010
  67. 67. 67 whereas rainfall in year 2011 was 839 mm the fluoride conc. was 2.2 ppm in the month of June 2011). 4) Dilution can be a solution for the higher concentration of Fluoride. Hence it is recommended to construct various artificial recharge and water conservation structures in the study area. It will dilute the water thus reducing the fluoride concentration and improve the water quality. (In village Dharna Dug well located in down stream of check dam having fluoride conc. 1.8 ppm in the month of April and becomes 1.2 ppm in month of July. 5) The water conservation and groundwater recharge structures together will definitely improve and increase in agriculture and dairy products of the area. With this prosperity Calcium rich diet will be another facilitation to cope up with the effects of Fluoride contamination. 6) Locally made Rice Husk Adsorption Filter, at village - Dattapur available in the adjoining Wardha District can also be used for defluoridation. It is also a cheap filter with minimum maintanence and costs upto Rs. 350/- . It is useful in areas where the fluoride concentration is upto 2.5 ppm. This filter reduces fluoride concentration up to 1ppm.
  68. 68. 68 REFERENCES: 1) N.V.Ramamohana Rao, N.Rao, K.Suryaprakash Rao, R.D. Schuiling (1993) Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental geology Vol.21 pp84-89. 2) V.Ramesam and K.Rajagopalan (1985) Fluoride ingestion into the natural waters of hardrock areas, Peninsular India. Journal Geological Society of India, pp125-132. 3) A.Pekdeger, N.Ozgur, H-J Schneider (1990) High fluorine content in aqueous system of the Golcuk Lake drainage area, Ispatra Western Taurides. The International Earth Sciences Congress on Aegean Regions pp 160-170. 4) Ren Fuhong and Jiao Shquin (1988) Distribution and formation of high fluorine groundwater in China. Environmental Geological Water Science. Vol 12 no.1 pp 3- 10. 5) S.V.B.K.Bhagvan and V.Raghu (2005), Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in groundwater and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers Anantpur District Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health - 27 pp97-108. 6) Vinod Agrawal, A.K.Vaish and Prerna Vaish (1997) Groundwater quality : Focus on fluoride and fluorosis in Rajasthan. Current Science Vol.73 no.9 pp743-746. 7) D.R.Chanda and S.R.Tamta (1999) Occurrence and Origin of groundwater fluoride in phreatic zone of Unnao District Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Applied Geochemistry. Vol 1 pp 21-26. 8) Uri Kafri, Arnon Arad and Ludwick Halicz (1989) Fluorine occurrence in groundwater in Israel and its significance. Journal of Hydrology vol106 pp109-129 9) S.K.Pande ad S.N. Bisen (2009) Seasonal variation of fluoride in the groundwater from Drgapur Coal Mine area, District -Chandrapur, Maharashtra. Gondwana Geological Magazine vol24(2)pp117-121. 10)Chatterji A., Bhai H. Y. and Devashish Saha,1986 – 87: Systematic Geological Mapping in parts of Yavatmal District (55L/8). Unpublished report, GSI, CR. 11)Das Sanjay & Rais Anwar, 2009: The source of Fluoride and its dispersion in land water system around Lathi and Lilya, Amreli district, Gujarat. Journal of Applied Geochemistry, Vol.11, No.2, pp 221-253.
  69. 69. 69 12)Gonnade G. & Joshi C., 2007: Geochemical Studies in parts of Yavatmal District Maharashtra for Assessment of Water Quality vis-à-vis Health Hazard Risk, Unpublished report, GSI, Central Region, Nagpur 13) Liuyong Zhuwan Hua, 1990: Environmental characteristics of Regional groundwaters in relation to Fluoride Poisioning in North China. Environmental Geol. Water Science vol.18; no.13; pp 3-10. 14)Prembabu & Bhai H. Y., 2008: Geoenvironmental studies to detect and delineate the zones of high fluoride and other toxic elements in groundwater and identification of probable source and causative factors of contimination in Yavatmal District, Maharashtra,Unpublished report, GSI, CR.
  70. 70. 70 Photographs IEC Workshop at PDS Village Dharna on 28/03/2011 under Hydrology Project –II aided Purpose Driven Study Project by Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency, District – Yavatmal
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72 Core Drilling at village Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hydrology Project –II aided Purpose Driven Study Project by Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency, District – Yavatmal
  73. 73. 73 Piezometer construction at village Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hydrology Project –II aided Purpose Driven Study Project by Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency, District – Yavatmal
  74. 74. 74 Piezometer Nest and its monitoring for chemical quality of groundwater at village Dharna, Taluka Pandharkawda under Hydrology Project –II aided Purpose Driven Study Project by Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency, District – Yavatmal
  75. 75. RECORDING OF BOREHOLE DATA : 1 Unit No. : 414 : North of Dharna village R.L. of Borehole Collar : +273 m(GPS) : 20° 06' 36" R.L. of Borehole Bottom : 173 m : 78° 35' 13" Azimuth : vertical : 06-02-10 : 28-02-2010 : 100m : Not available : Not available : Recorded after 54m Annexure:1 Detailed Bore hole Logging, Dharna village, Panadarkawada taluka, Yawatmal district, Maharashtra. Sl No. Box/Run Length of Run (m) To From (m) (%) (m) (%) 1. 1/1 0 .5 0.50 - - - - 2 1/2 0.5 1.0 0.50 - - - - 3 1/3 1.0 1.5 0.50 - - - - 4 1/4 1.5 2.0 0.50 - - - - 5 1/5 2.0 2.5 0.50 - - - - 6 1/6 2.5 3.0 0.50 - - - - 7 2/7 3.0 3.2 0.20 - - - - 8 2/8 3.2 3.4 0.20 - - - - 9 2/9 3.4 3.6 0.20 - - - - 10 2/10 3.6 3.7 0.10 - - - - 11 2/11 3.7 4.0 0.30 - - - - 12 2/12 4.0 4.3 0.30 - - - - 13 2/13 4.3 4.5 0.20 - - - - 14 2/14 4.5 4.7 0.20 0.17 85 0.11 55 Date of commencement Date of Completion Total depth of borehole drilled Borehole No. Location Latitude Longitude Core Recovery Drill Core Rock Quality Designate Dark grey, fine grained, Giant Plagioclase Basalts (GPB) with amygdales. Phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 3cm)are recorded. Secondary filling of quartz, zeolites (apophylite, stilbite etc) are recorded. Reddish grey, medium grained basalt. Secondary fracture filling of quartz, fluorite(?)are recorded. Dark grey weathered bed rock (basalt) with clay. Amygdules are recorded. The rock is powdery due to weathering. Dark grey, friable rock ( Giant Plagioclase Basalt) Dark grey, friable rock ( Giant Plagioclase Basalt) Light grey coloured, kankary, calcrete rich loose soil (with clay) developed over basaltic rock. Light grey coloured, kankary, calcrete rich loose soil (with clay) developed over basaltic rock. Grey,clayey to silty weathered bed rock with amygdules and lithic fragments Dark grey less kankary clay rich soil, developed over basaltic rock. Dark grey less kankary clay rich soil,developed over basaltic rock. There is a increase in clay content Dark grey less kankary clay rich soil,developed over basaltic rock. There is a increase in clay content Dark grey less kankary clay rich soil,developed over basaltic rock. There is a increase in clay content Yellowish grey weathered bed rock, amygdales of quartz, calcite, zeolites are recorded Grey,clayey to silty weathered bed rock with amygdules and lithic fragments Depth of Water table Depth of casing and size Water loss Lithology Drill Run (m)
  76. 76. 15 3/15 4.7 5.0 0.30 0.15 50 0.15 50 16 3/16 5.0 5.4 0.40 0.31 77.50 0.15 37.50 17 3/17 5.4 6.45 1.05 0.96 91.43 0.70 66.67 18 3/18 to 4/18 6.45 7.85 1.40 1.40 100 1.12 80 19 4/19 7.85 8.65 1.20 0.80 66.67 0.60 50 20 4/20 8.65 9.25 0.60 0.60 100 0.50 83.33 21 5/21 9.25 12.25 3.00 2.80 93.33 1.85 61.67 22 6/22 12.25 12.45 0.20 0.20 100 0.10 50 23 6/23 12.45 13.70 1.25 1.22 97.60 1.09 87.20 24 6/24 to7/24 13.7 14.4 1.70 0.61 35.88 0.43 25.29 25 7/25 14.4 15.05 0.65 0.63 96.92 0.47 72.31 26 7/26 15.05 16.40 1.35 1.35 100 1.35 100 27 7/26 16.40 17.20 0.80 0.74 92.50 0.54 67.50 28 7/27 to 8/27 17.20 20.10 2.90 2.90 100 2.37 81.72 29 8/28 to 9/28 20.10 23.20 3.10 2.90 93.55 2.75 88.71 30 9/29 to 10/29 23.20 26.20 3.00 3.00 100 2.60 86.67 Dark greenish grey, massive porphyritic basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. large phenocrysts of plagioclase are seen (4.5 cm x .5cm) Dark greenish grey, massive basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. Dark greenish grey, massive basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. Dark greenish grey, massive porphyritic basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. large phenocrysts of plagioclase are seen . Dark greenish grey, massive porphyritic basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. large phenocrysts of plagioclase are seen (4.5 cm x .5cm) Dark grey massive porphyritic basalt. Euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts are recorded. Fracture fillings are mainly chlorophyle and yellowish minerals may be fluorite. Dark grey massive porphyritic basalt. Here plagioclase phenocrysts show alignment (almost horizontal). Dark greenish grey, massive basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. Dark greenish grey, massive basalt with very few amygdules. Amygdules are mainly cryptocrystalline quartz and chlorophyle. Secondary fracture fillings are observed. Dark grey to blackish very hard, massive, fine grained basalt with phenocrysts of plagioclase. Secondary fracture fillings are recorded. Amygdules are less. Dark grey to blackish very hard, massive, fine grained basalt with phenocrysts of plagioclase. Secondary fracture fillings are recorded. Amygdules are less. Dark grey, massive basalt without vesicles.Yellowish to greenish phenocryst of plagioclase are presents.Chloritic materials are seen. Dark grey massive porphyritic basalt. Euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts of about 4.5 cm are recorded. Fracture fillings are mainly chlorophyle and yellowish minerals may be fluorite (?) Dark grey,fine grained, Giant Plagioclase Basalts (GPB) with amygdales. Phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 3cm)are recorded. Secondary filling of quartz, zeolites (apophylite, stilbite etc) are recorded. Dark grey, fine grained, Giant Plagioclase Basalts (GPB) with amygdales. Phenocrysts of plagioclase (upto 3cm)are recorded. Secondary filling of quartz, zeolites (apophylite, stilbite etc) are recorded. Contact between GPB and massive, porphyritc basalt is recorded. Up to 5.7 m the density of amygdules is more. It drastically decreases with depth.

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