2007-2008
Central Ground Water Board
Ministry of Water Resources
Govt. of India
Faridabad
ANNUAL REPORT
2007 - 2008
CONTENTS
Sl. CHAPTERS Page No.
No.
Executive Summary i - vii
1. Introduction 1 - 6
2. Ground Wat...
Sl.
No.
CHAPTERS Page No.
19. Technical Examination of Major/Medium Irrigation Schemes 166
20. Remote Sensing Studies 167
...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Ground water plays a key role in meeting the water needs of various user-sectors in
India. With growing ...
The Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management wing is responsible for the drilling and
construction of Exploratory and o...
Ground Water Exploration
Exploratory drilling is carried out for establishing the sub-surface aquifer geometry,
followed b...
Artificial Recharge Studies
The Board is carrying out demonstrative artificial recharge studies in high water demand
areas...
Dissemination and Sharing of Technical Know-how
Central Ground Water Board, organized / participated in various
Seminars/s...
core hydrological organizations serving all specialized water agencies. The expenditure
incurred on the project till March...
and Union Territory of Diu. So far, 65 Blocks/ Mandals / Talukas in the country have
been notified for registration of gro...
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISTORY OF CGWB
The Central Ground Water Board, as the National apex organization under the Ministry
o...
Central Ground Water Authority has been constituted under Section 3 (3) of the
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regul...
1.2.7 Forecast the manpower, equipment, energy and financial requirements for the
ground water sector, in the context of d...
economic machine utilization, Procurement of drilling equipment, vehicles, instruments
etc. This wing also looks for the n...
1.4 ACTIVITIES OF THE BOARD DURING 2007-2008
The following activities had been undertaken during the period 2007-2008.
1.4...
having artesian flow, bouldary and hard rock formations. Ground Water Exploration in
alluvial areas was done to delineate ...
2. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Ground Water Management Studies are being carried by the Board at district level to
eva...
Sl.
No.
States Districts Target
(Sq. km.)
Achievement
(Sq. km.)
13 West Bengal Barddhaman 3000 3000
Dinajpur & Malda 3000 ...
SALIENT FINDINGS OF GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES
2.1 Jammu & Kashmir
Ground Water Management Studies were carried out i...
to impact of global climatic changes as well as human impact on ground water regime in
a districts.
ter in different geolo...
c
d are the main ground water
structures that provide water for domestic and irrigation in major rural and urban centers.
...
Chemical quality of water from shallow aquifer reveals that by and large, the quality of
ground water is suitable for dome...
level monitoring in the entire area considering the hydrogeological formation of the area.
During the survey, 92 no. of wa...
river basin especially along the river where as it deeper in the north western and western
easonal water level fluctuation...
The drainage network in the study area is constituted mainly by the Banas and its
tributary Sipu. The river Banas has a wi...
92.64%(GEC 2004). Taking into consideration these aspects Deesa taluka was chosen for
detailed study.
The detailed study a...
analysed ground water samples ranged from 7.64 to 8.52 as such they are within
permissible limit. The electrical conductiv...
through bore wells up to 150 m depth. Within the command area, alluvium aquifer is
being developed extensively. In the non...
• It is recommended that suitable developmental strategy may be adopted in less
he area includes parts of Ratnagiri, Chipl...
The quality of the ground water is potable. The electrical conductivity of ground water
varies from 300 to 5400 micromhos/...
2.9.1 Bijnor District :-The Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in
Bijnor district, covering an area of 4561 ...
The shallow phreatic aquifer is unconfined in nature whereas the relatively deeper
aquifers are semiconfined to confined i...
sediments comprising clay, silt, sand occasionally kankar. The major drainage system in
the area through Ganga and Ramgang...
3-2007) in Meerut district. The first aquifer is unconfined to semi-confined in nature while
the second, third and fourth ...
mbgl during post-monsoon period. On the basis of long term post-monsoon trend
analyses (1997-2006), out of 18 GWM wells, 1...
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Annual report 2007 08

  1. 1. 2007-2008 Central Ground Water Board Ministry of Water Resources Govt. of India Faridabad
  2. 2. ANNUAL REPORT 2007 - 2008 CONTENTS Sl. CHAPTERS Page No. No. Executive Summary i - vii 1. Introduction 1 - 6 2. Ground Water Management Studies 7 - 51 3. Ground Water Exploration 52- 88 4. Development and Testing of Exploratory Wells 89 5. Taking Over of Wells by States 90 - 91 6. Water Supply Investigations 92 7. Hydrological and Hydrometereological Studies 93 - 110 8. Ground Water Level Scenario (Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells) 111 - 112 9. Geophysical Studies 113 - 126 10. Hydrochemical Studies 127 - 137 11. High Yielding Wells Drilled 138 - 149 12. Hydrology Project 150 13. Studies on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water 151 - 154 14. Mathematical Modeling Studies 155 15. Central Ground Water Authority 156 - 157 16. Ground Water Studies in Drought Prone Areas 158 - 159 17. Ground Water Studies in Tribal Areas 160 – 161 18. Estimation of Ground Water Resources based on GEC-1997 Methodology 162 - 165
  3. 3. Sl. No. CHAPTERS Page No. 19. Technical Examination of Major/Medium Irrigation Schemes 166 20. Remote Sensing Studies 167 21. Human Resource Development 168 - 170 22. Technical Documentation and Publication 171 - 174 23. Implementation of RTI Act – 2005 (Right to Information) 175 24. Meetings 176 - 193 25. Construction/Acquisition of Office Buildings 194 26. Dissemination and Sharing of technical know-how (Participation in Seminars, Symposia and Workshops) 195 - 206 27. Research and Development Studies/Schemes 207 - 208 28. Publicity and Public Awareness 209 - 211 29. Propagation and Progressive Use of Hindi Language 212 30. Personnel Management 213 31. Vigilance 214 32. Persons with Disabilities 20076-08. 215 33. Budget and Accounting 216 - 217 Annexure – 1 Location and Jurisdiction of Regional and other offices of CGWB
  4. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ground water plays a key role in meeting the water needs of various user-sectors in India. With growing awareness, the dependability on ground water as a sustainable resource in nation building reasserts the need for an organization like Central Ground Water Board which is vested with the responsibilities of assessing and managing the ground water resources of the country through ground water management studies, exploration, evaluation and monitoring of ground water regime. The main activities of the Board include macro level Hydrogeological investigations, deep exploratory drilling coupled with remote sensing studies, geophysical studies and pumping tests to study the subsurface Hydrogeological features and nation-wide monitoring of the behavior of water table and water quality through a network of ground water observation wells. The data generated from these investigations provide the scientific base for preparation of ground water development schemes by the State Governments. Besides advising the States on planning, financing and administration of ground water development schemes, the Board undertakes research & development schemes, water balance studies, conjunctive use studies and artificial recharge studies. The Board also organizes training of personnel of different disciplines of Central and State Government Organisations in ground water related activities. OBJECTIVES Under the mandate given based on principles of economic, ecological efficiency and equity, the major activities of Central Ground Water Board are to : Periodically assess the country's ground water resources. Monitor and guide ground water development to promote its sustainable management. Develop, refine and disseminate basin specific technologies for sustainable ground water development and management. Plan augmentation, conservation and regulation of ground water resources. Establish a National Information System to collect, store, process and disseminate ground water data. Promote the economic and efficient use of manpower, energy and equipment employed in ground water sector. Support and co-ordinate the efforts of State Government for planned development of ground water. Foster International co-operation to promote scientific exchanges, acquisition of useful technology. Promote environmental awareness and water quality consciousness, impart training and promote applied research. ORGANISATIONAL SETUP The Central Ground Water Board is headed by the Chairman and has four main wings namely 1) Exploratory Drilling & Material Management 2) Sustainable Management & Liaison 3) Survey, Assessment & Monitoring and 4) Training and Technology Transfer. Each wing is headed by a Member . The administrative & financial matters of the Board are being dealt with by the Director (Administration) and Finance & Accounts Officer (FAO) respectively.
  5. 5. The Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management wing is responsible for the drilling and construction of Exploratory and other type of boreholes required for ground water exploration including monitoring of stores, consumption and inventory for efficient and economic machine utilization, purchase action in respect of drilling equipment, vehicles, instruments etc. The Sustainable Management and Liaison wing looks after sustainable management of ground water related policies, issues etc., work related to monitoring of ground water regime and development, conjunctive use of surface and ground water, urban ground water management, drought management, data collection, storage and retrieval etc. The Survey, Assessment & Monitoring Wing of Central Ground Water Board is vested with the responsibilities for undertaking Ground Water Management Studies, Aquifer mapping and assessment of aquifer characteristics based on exploration and surveys, Hydro- chemical analyses and studies, pollution studies, short term water supply investigations, special studies, preparation of various Hydrogeological maps, Atlases, Master plans, State reports, District reports, etc. The Training and Technology Transfer Wing is vested with the responsibility of imparting training at different levels to entrepreneurs, professionals and administrators concerned with ground water development and management. The wing is also responsible for formulation of overall training policy, assessment of training needs, conceptualization of the training modules and the programme implementation strategy etc for the organization. For undertaking the activities in field, 18 Regional Offices, each headed by a Regional Director, have been established in the country. 11 State Unit Offices have also been established in those states having large geographical area for better management of field activities. 17 Divisional offices handle the exploratory drilling and related activities, each headed by an Executive Engineer. Both the State Unit offices and Divisional Offices work under the overall administrative control of the respective Regional offices. The details of Regional office wise field formations and their jurisdiction are given in Annexure- 1. The Board has about 500 Scientists, 200 Engineers; and about 3500 technical & administrative/ministerial supporting staff. The Board has a fleet of 87 drilling rigs (33 Direct Rotary, 41 Down the Hole and 13 Percussion Combination types) for taking up drilling operations. ACTIVITIES & ACHIEVEMENTS Ground Water Management Studies Ground Water Management Studies are carried out in different parts of various districts to assess the impact of ground water development within a period of 5 years. The survey has components of key hydrograph monitoring; pumping tests; collection of statistical data pertaining to irrigation structure cropping pattern, Land use and hydrometeorological data. The entire data generated during survey is analyzed & accordingly the future scenario for development of ground water is visualized to further plan ground water development & management in the area. During the year 2007-2008, an area of 1,64,087 Sq.km. have been covered by the Board under Ground Water Management studies (Reappraisal Hydrogeological Surveys) as against target of 1,61,807 Sq km. The Board gave a special emphasis to this study in tribal and drought prone areas and 39402 & 48534 sq km area respectively were covered to assess the status of ground water development in the area.
  6. 6. Ground Water Exploration Exploratory drilling is carried out for establishing the sub-surface aquifer geometry, followed by pumping test to evaluate the aquifer parameters & collection of water samples from different zones. The entire exercise is aimed at quantitative & qualitative evaluation of ground water in aquifers of the area. These studies help in identifying areas worthy of further development and in guiding the States to adopt follow up action with regard to ground water development on a scientific footing. During 2007-08 the Board carried out the ground water exploration work with a fleet of 87rigs (Rotary-33, DTH-41, Percussion-13) and a total of 811 (463 EW, 158 OW, 188 PZ, 1 SH and 1 DW) bore holes were constructed departmentally against the target of 817 (443 Exploratory Wells, 179 Observation Wells, 195 Peizometers) boreholes. It is heartening to report that out of 811 wells, 585 bore holes , 209 bore holes and 17 bore holes were constricted in hard rock, alluvium and bouldary formation respectively. 196 wells and 256 wells were constructed for exploration in tribal and drought prone areas respectively. The Board has so far drilled a total of 27567 bore holes to identify areas worthy ground water development in the country till March, 2008. Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells The Board closely monitors the ground water regime in the Country through ~ 15640 Ground Water Observation Wells. It monitors changes in water level through these stations 4 times a year (Jan/may/Aug/Nov) and collects water samples once a year in May for water quality analysis. During the year the water level data so generated by these network stations were analyzed to ascertain seasonal and long-term water level changes. Depth to water and water level fluctuation maps were prepared to study the ground water regime for the whole country. Geophysical Studies To support and supplement ground water management studies, ground water exploration and water supply investigations, the Board conduct geophysical investigations through its regional offices. Under surface geophysical studies a total of 1793 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were conducted and resistivity profiling of about 39.89 line km was covered. A total of 167 boreholes were logged in various parts of the country while the meterage logged was about 22919 m. The Central Geophysical Cell is located at Headquarter office, Faridabad and is responsible for the planning and programming of geophysical activities of the entire Board. Hydrochemical Analysis Water samples collected during the course of ground water management studies , ground water exploration, monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells, Water supply investigations etc., are analysed at 16 well-equipped chemical laboratories located at its regional directorates. During the year, a total of 17566 samples were analysed for basic, 643 samples for specific analysis, 2341 samples for heavy metal determinations and 104 samples for organic, for evaluating the ground water quality and its suitability for various uses.
  7. 7. Artificial Recharge Studies The Board is carrying out demonstrative artificial recharge studies in high water demand areas with over-exploited / critical stage of ground water development. Artificial Recharge studies have been completed in most of the Regions and impact assessment of ongoing & completed Schemes, monitoring & report submission are in progress. During 2007-08, A demonstrative scheme on “Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to Ground Water” has been taken up in the (1) Lingala, Pulivendula Vemula and Vemalli blocks in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh (2)Gangavalli block in Salem district, Tamil Nadu (3)Mallur block in Kolar district, Karnataka (4)Bel watershed, Amla & Multai blocks in Betul District, Madhya Pradesh.(5) Upper reaches of Choti Kali Sindh river in parts of Sonkatch & Bagli blocks in Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh. 122 artificial recharge structures have been completed during the year. R&D Studies Central Ground Water Board, is assisting Ministry of Water Resources in carrying out R&D studies as a member of a sub-committee of Indian National Committee on Hydrology (INCOH), with a view to accelerate the research & development programme in ground water sector. This Committee examines the project proposals received by INCOH in the field of ground water for their suitability for funding by MOWR and also monitors the research schemes funded by INCOH. During the year, 9 New R&D proposals received are under scrutiny where as, three proposals have been recommended to INCOH Secretariat for further approval . Proposals have also been cleared for funding, which will be monitored for their progress. Reports and Information Booklets Results of investigations carried out by Central Ground Water Board are suitably documented in the form of reports and maps which are categorized under four main heads viz. Ground Water Management study reports, district reports, state reports, basic data reports and maps. 23 Ground Water Year Books, 30 District Ground Water Resources Development & Management Reports, 4 State Reports, 4 Ground Water Exploration Reports have been completed during 2007-2008 . 79 Ground Water information Booklets have been also released during year in the different states. ‘Bhujal News’ is a quarterly journal published by Central Ground Water Board highlighting the latest advances in ground water research. Besides scientific papers, the journal also contains technical notes, news items and regular columns. The journal has more than 1500 readers from all over the country amongst the Central Govt, State Govt., academic institutions and others. During the year 2007-08, the Vol. No 20 (3 & 4), special issue on Rajasthan State and Vol. No. 21 special issue on Uttarakhand state has been printed and issued. Vol. No. 22, 2007 issue is under finalization. Water Supply Investigations The Board carries out short-term water supply investigations for Government Agencies and helps them in augmenting their water supply. Normally minimum financial implications are charged from all other departments except Defence. The Board has carried out a total of 185 investigations during this year .
  8. 8. Dissemination and Sharing of Technical Know-how Central Ground Water Board, organized / participated in various Seminars/symposia/workshop/conference with a view to share its expertise in Ground Water field and also for getting exposure to new ideas / technological developments in Ground Water science with others. The officers of the Board also participated in various meetings /committees etc. to render advice on ground water development in specific area. Re- Assessment of Dynamic Ground Water Resource The Dynamic Ground Water Resource of the country has been jointly estimated by State Ground Water Departments and Central Ground Water Board, based on the methodology recommended by Ground Water Estimation Committee-1997 (GEC-97). The Ground Resource was estimated as on March, 2004. The National level report on “Dynamic Ground Water Resources of India” was finalized and approved by the R&D Advisory Committee in its seventh meeting held at New Delhi on 19th August, 2005. As per the report, the Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resource for the entire country is 433 billion cubic metre (bcm), Net Annual Ground Water Availability is estimated as 399 billion cubic metre where as the Annual ground water draft for irrigation, Domestic & Industrial was 231 billion cubic metre and their Stage of Ground Water Development for the Country as a whole is 58%. Technical Examination of Major/Medium Irrigation Project proposals As per directives of the steering committee on Irrigation projects constituted by Planning Commission, the major and medium irrigation project reports and proposals sent by State Governments through Central Water Commission (CWC)/Command area Development (CAD) Authority were scrutinized and cleared by CGWB from Ground Water Development and impact assessment point of view. Suggestions were made for modification / addition of ground water development in these schemes. During the year 2007-2008, Nineteen major irrigation project proposals of Central Water Commission and 2 R&D proposals were examined and area specific recommendations were made. Human Resources Development It has been the earnest endeavor of the Board to keep its technical personnel abreast with the latest developments in all aspects related to ground water development & management. Trainees from State Departments and candidates from abroad are included in the training programme being organized by the Board. Seventeen training courses including one special training course out of proposed 16 training programmes have been conducted successfully during the year under Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training and Research Institute. Total 290 trainees from various disciplines have been trained in the above training courses conducted at various places. Hydrology Project II The Hydrology Project - Phase –II (HP-II) is a follow up project of HP-I. Its major thrust is to use Hydrological Information System (HIS) data effectively and efficiently for water resources planning and management. A longer-term aim of the project is to assist the Governments at both Central and State levels to address the issues of intra-sectoral demands and overall resource planning and management through the establishment of
  9. 9. core hydrological organizations serving all specialized water agencies. The expenditure incurred on the project till March, 2008 is Rs 114.10 lakhs. Mathematical Modeling Studies The Central Ground Water Board has undertaken two studies in Ranchi and Patna urban area on ground water modeling during the year. Mathematical modeling have been taken up in Madaram watershed for creating the data base for simulation of mathematical model and Kottukal thodu water shed of Neyyar basin for groundwater flow and the impact of various stresses on the flow regime. Concept note has been prepared for comprehensive modeling studies in Yamuna Flood Plain Delhi in progress. Remote Sensing Studies The following studies were initiated during 2007-08 Application of Remote sensing and conventional methods in Impact assessment of existing Artificial Recharge structures in Hosadurga taluk, Chitradurga district, Karnataka; Remote sensing studies in Neyyar basin in Kerala; Feasibility studies for reclamation of Ravines using remote sensing techniques in Sawai Madhopur district, Rajasthan ; Demarcation of younger alluvium (Vulnerable to arsenic contamination) along Ganga River, Bihar in collaboration with BIT Mesra ; Hydrogeomorphological mapping and delineation of ground water potential areas using remote sensing techniques in Ganjam district, Orissa ; Feasibility studies for demarcating Ravines area in part of Sengar river watershed, Kanpur Dehat, Uttar Pradesh; Ground Water Development and Management using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand ; Remote Sensing Studies in Lakhimpur district, Assam ; Remote Sensing Studies in Northern parts of Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh ; Feasibility studies for reclamation of Ravines using remote sensing techniques in Mandsaur and Ujjain districts, Madhya Pradesh . Publicity and Public Awareness With a view to generate awareness among the masses, "Water Resources Day" is celebrated every year since 1986. The Board has played a very active role in organizing Water Resources Day functions jointly with CWC and other State Govt. Organisations. On these occasions, emphasis was laid on educating the rural population on various aspects of water resources in the country. Important technical achievements of the Board were brought to the knowledge of the public through radio talks, television interviews, telecast of a short film on ground water pollution, Newspaper reports, release of district reports and Atlases at various public functions. Central Ground Water Authority Central Ground Water Authority has organized Mass Awareness programmes and Training’s on Rain Water Harvesting including Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting at different locations of the Country, with the aim of educating the common people about judicious and optimum utilization of ground water. 20 Mass awareness programs were organized during the year for ground water conservation, artificial recharge and ground water protection and 22 Ground water management training programs were also organized in different parts of the country for designing rain water harvesting structures for augmenting the water. During 2007-08, CGWA has notified 43 Blocks/ Mandals / Talukas etc. in the country for regulation of groundwater development in the states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, NCT Delhi
  10. 10. and Union Territory of Diu. So far, 65 Blocks/ Mandals / Talukas in the country have been notified for registration of groundwater structures in the states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, NCT Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry. 142 drilling agencies were registered with CGWA including renewal of registration certificates. During the period (April 2007 to March 2008) Forty four (44) industries have been accorded for NOC’s. Budget The Expenditure of 6098.86 lakhs(Gross) & 5120.00 lakhs(Net) and 5951.37 lakhs of rupees were incurred by the Board during the year under various Plan and Non-plan sub- heads respectively to carry out various activities mentioned above.
  11. 11. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORY OF CGWB The Central Ground Water Board, as the National apex organization under the Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India is vested with the responsibilities to carry out ground water management studies, exploration, monitoring of development, management and regulation of country's vast ground water resources. A brief history of the organization follows; An Exploratory Tubewells Organisation (ETO) was created in 1954 as a subordinate office under the then Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Community Development and Cooperation (Department of Agriculture ) to carry out ground water exploration in the alluvial areas of the country to delineate the regional aquifer systems and evaluate their yield potential. On 3rd October 1970 the ETO was renamed as Central Ground Water Board. At that time, it was felt that there was need to have a national unified organization for all works related to ground water surveys, exploration, assessment and management in the country. On the recommendations of the Committee on Science and Technology, the Standing Group of Ministers on Science and Technology chaired by Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi, in its meeting on Sept 9, 1971 approved the merger of Ground Water Wing of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) with the Central Ground Water Board. The merger was effected on August 1, 1972 which gave all the administrative and financial powers and flexibility of operation necessary for CGWB’s effective functioning. With this, Central Ground Water Board was constituted as an apex organization at the national level with a full time Chairman and two full time Members namely the Chief Hydrogeologist and the Chief Engineer. In order to streamline staffing pattern, SIU carried out detailed study (1980) and gave its report on staffing pattern of Headquarters, Regional, Divisional and District Unit Office. A High Level Multi-disciplinary Committee (HLMC) was set up in 1989 to review the role, functions and responsibilities of CGWB in terms of achievements and developments over the past three decades. The HLMC report (1990) highlighted the importance of ground water development and indicated the measures to be taken for achievement of tasks and mandate assigned to CGWB. The Committee reviewed the functions and gave the revised mandate. In order to provide scientific and technical support to the mandate, Central Ground Water Board conduct training programmes for various levels of ground water professionals/ sub-professionals from CGWB, States, Universities and NGOs. The courses include induction level courses for newly recruited scientists, engineers and drilling professionals; refresher courses for scientists on advanced techniques of ground water investigation, development and management; and training of trainers. The Board had established Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training & Research Institute in 1997 at Raipur. Infrastructure facilities were created by redeploying officers and staff from Central Ground Water Board. The building of the Institute has since been taken over by the Chhattisgarh State to house Legislative Assembly in 2000. It is proposed to relaunch the institute at Raipur in the newly allotted land by the Government of Chhattisgarh, SFC Memorandum in this regard is under submission. Presently the training courses are being conducted at Central Headquarters and various Regional Offices of the Board.
  12. 12. Central Ground Water Authority has been constituted under Section 3 (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regulate and control development and management of ground water resources in the country. The Authority has been conferred with the following powers: (i) Exercise of powers under section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for issuing directions and taking such measures in respect of all the matters referred to in sub-section (2) of section 3 of the said Act.(ii) To resort to penal provisions contained in sections 15 to 21 of the said Act.(iii) To regulate and control, management and development of ground water in the country and to issue necessary regulatory directions for the purpose. (iv) Exercise of powers under section 4 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for the appointment of officers. 1.2 MANDATE AND OBJECTIVES The future of our national food security system as well as the quality of life and livelihood of millions of our people will, to a large extent depend on our ability to conserve and utilize ground water resources in an environment friendly, economically efficient and socially equitable manner. On the basis of the principles of ecology, efficiency, economics and equity, mandate of the Board has been postulated below: "Develop and disseminate technologies, monitor and implement national policies for the scientific and sustainable development and management of India's ground water resources including their exploration, assessment, conservation, augmentation, protection from pollution and distribution based on principles of economic and ecological efficiency and equity”. Commensurate with the above mandate, the objectives laid down for the Central Ground Water Board are:- 1.2.1 Periodically assess the country's ground water resources and publish, once in 3 years, a report on the status of India's ground water resources. 1.2.2 Formulate perspective plans, basin or sub-basin wise, for harnessing ground water resources in a phased or need based manner and resolve regional imbalances. 1.2.3 Monitor ground water development in the country and promote its sustainable management on principles of ecology, economics, efficiency and equity. 1.2.4 Develop, refine and disseminate, on its own as well as in coordination with other agencies, basin-specific technologies for sustainable ground water development and management involving priority areas such as major command areas for conjunctive use of ground water and surface water, monitoring, prevention and remedy of pollution and saline ingress and the location, design, operation and maintenance devices, recycling and reuse of waste water, and solutions to other problems of urban areas. 1.2.5 Plan augmentation, conservation, protection and regulation of ground water resources keeping in view the existing and future ground water demand scenario. 1.2.6 Establish a National Information System in collaboration with State Governments and other agencies to collect, store, process and disseminate ground water data as part of an overall water resources data bank.
  13. 13. 1.2.7 Forecast the manpower, equipment, energy and financial requirements for the ground water sector, in the context of demand projections. 1.2.8 Promote the economic and efficient use of manpower, energy and equipment employed in the ground water sector through various measures including setting up performance appraisal and management information systems, training, development of technical and managerial skills, and personal development. 1.2.9 Support and coordinate the efforts of State Ground Water Organizations for the planned development of their ground water resources on the above lines, specially where inter-state issues arise. 1.2.10Foster international cooperation to promote scientific exchanges, acquisition of useful technologies including the use of renewable sources of energy for pumping ground water and assistance in other developing countries. 1.2.11Establish benchmarks and methodologies for ground water studies in coordination with the State Governments. 1.2.12 Promote environmental awareness and water quality consciousness. 1.2.13Establish a National Institute for Ground Water Research, Training & Management and organize All India Coordinated Research Projects involving appropriate institutions and universities, in order to foster the growth of a national grid of R&D institutions, covering different aspects of ground water conservation and utilization. 1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL SET UP The Central Ground Water Board is headed by the Chairman and has four full time Members namely, Member (Exploratory Drilling & Material Management), Member (Sustainable Management & Liaison), Member (Survey Assessment & Monitoring) and Member (Training & Technology Transfer). The other Members of the Board are all ex- officio being the nominees of institutions in related fields of expertise. The ex-officio members are: 1. The Joint Secretary (A), Ministry of Water Resources. 2. The Joint Secretary & Financial Adviser, Ministry of Water Resources 3. The Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, New Delhi. 4. The Chief Engineer, IMO (WP & P), CWC, Sewa Bhawan, New Delhi. 5. The General Manager, ONGC, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Dehradun. Central Ground Water Board has four main wings. Each wing is headed by a member post. The Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management Wing broadly looks after the drilling and construction of Exploratory Tubewells and other types of bore holes required for assessment of aquifer parameters during ground water exploration. Other activities of this wing include monitoring of Stores, consumption and inventory for efficient and
  14. 14. economic machine utilization, Procurement of drilling equipment, vehicles, instruments etc. This wing also looks for the need of improvement in drilling technology, design of abstraction structures, improvement of efficiency of pumps and other water lifting devices, maintenance and up keeping of drilling machinery and related equipment in the Board. The Sustainable Management and Liaison Wing looks after sustainable management of ground water related policies & issues, works related to monitoring of ground water regime and development and conjunctive use of surface and ground water for the entire country. It also undertakes studies related to recycling and reuse of ground water, urban ground water management, Drought management, Regulation of ground water development and model legislation, National Information System for ground water data collection, storage and retrieval, Planning and Programme formulation for ground water development including techno-economic studies, analysis and associated aspects of ground water development and technical examination of major, medium and minor Irrigation Projects. The Survey, Assessment & Monitoring Wing has the responsibility of monitoring the works being done in ground water management studies, aquifer mapping and assessment of aquifer characteristics based on exploration and surveys, hydrochemical analysis and studies, pollution studies, short term water supply investigations, special ground water studies, preparation of hydrogeological maps, Atlases, Master plans, State reports, District reports, etc. The other activities of this wing include ground water balance studies, periodic assessment of ground water resources and potential, augmentation of ground water resources including artificial recharge and monitoring of artificial recharge studies, ground water zoning for guiding economic activity areas, rationalization of water rates, forecasting manpower, energy and financial requirements for ground water sector, site selection for Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, dissemination of data & information to various user agencies and publication of quarterly magazine "Bhujal News" by the Board. The Training and Technology Transfer Wing of the Board is vested with the responsibility for laying the overall training policy, assessment of training needs, conceptualization of the training modules and the programme implementation strategy, identification of thrust area needing technology import from advanced sources, maintenance of effective liaison and interaction with voluntary agencies and Non Governmental Organisations and the other renowned national and international bodies for training and research purposes. The Member heading this wing also functions as the Principal of Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training and Research Institute of the Board. The administrative & financial matters of the Board are being dealt with by the Director (Administration) and Finance & Accounts Officer (FAO) respectively. In order to achieve better results in the Water Resources Sector and have better coordination with the State Government departments, Central Ground Water Board had undertaken various studies in the above mentioned fields being monitored by four wings of the Board through 18 Regional Directorates, supported by 17 engineering divisions, 11 State Unit Offices for carrying out different investigations. The Board had a fleet of 85 rigs for taking up drilling operations during 2007-2008.
  15. 15. 1.4 ACTIVITIES OF THE BOARD DURING 2007-2008 The following activities had been undertaken during the period 2007-2008. 1.4.1 Ground Water Management Studies 1.4.2 Ground Water Exploration aided by Drilling. 1.4.3 Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells. 1.4.4 Short Term Water Supply Investigations. 1.4.5 Periodic Assessment of Ground Water Resources. 1.4.6 Technical Documentation and Publication of Maps & Reports. 1.4.7 Publication of Quarterly Journal "Bhujal-News". 1.4.8 Taking over of Wells by State Govt. 1.4.9 Organizing Exhibitions, Seminars, Workshops etc. 1.4.10 Hydrochemical Analysis. 1.4.11 Geophysical Studies. 1.4.12 Hydrological and Hydro meteorological Studies. 1.4.13 Mathematical Modeling Studies. 1.4.14 Artificial Recharge studies. 1.4.15 Organizing training of Central and State Government personnel. 1.4.16 R & D Studies. 1.4.17 Basic Research in Hydrogeology/ Special studies 1.5 ANNUAL ACTION PLAN 2007-2008 The activities of the Board are being pursued on a continuing basis as per National Water Policy (2002) and in accordance with the overall development strategy for the XI Plan. Ground Water Management studies were carried in more utility oriented way and in areas facing ground water problems like decline in water levels, water logging, salinity ingress and quality deterioration, and other problems were accorded priority. In ground water exploration, emphasis was given to carry ground water exploration activities on long-term planning and schemes were prepared for different geologic formations and areas. As far as possible, contiguous and composite areas hitherto unexplored, were selected keeping in view scientific requirements and priorities of State Governments were also taken into consideration. Thrust was given to explore areas
  16. 16. having artesian flow, bouldary and hard rock formations. Ground Water Exploration in alluvial areas was done to delineate geometry of aquifer systems by constructing slim holes. During the year, special emphasis was given on tribal, drought and desert areas in exploratory program of the Board. Special studies for computation of specific yield of phreatic aquifers in different parts of the country was also the part of exploratory program. The Central Ground Water Board is implementing the Central Sector Scheme "Studies on Recharge of Ground Water". Under the scheme, recharge structures are constructed by State Government departments, local NGOs, VOs or other beneficiaries under the technical guidance of the Board. Under the scheme, funds were provided by the Board for pilot recharge projects and the implementing agencies were encouraged to replicate similar types of structures in other areas with their own funds. Conjunctive use studies were taken up with the objectives to ascertain the Hydrogeological conditions in command areas, to identify areas affected by water logging and salinity, to assess the availability of ground water. The studies provided insight of the problem and helped to formulate action plan for coordinated use of surface and ground water to ensure development on optimal level. Water logging is a common phenomenon in canal command areas, which causes serious social and economic problems. Micro level mapping of a few water logged areas were taken up to understand and mitigate the problem. Feasibility studies were also carried out to suggest anti water logging measures for reclaiming the affected areas. Remote sensing and application of GIS as supplementary tool has been considerably utilized to map geomorphological feature, change in land use, fracture zones, vulnerable areas of pollution etc which helped in locating promising areas for ground water exploration and development. These studies provided additional update scientific information in synoptic manner about land use pattern and its temporal changes to ground water exploratory programme, reappraisal surveys, ground water pollution studies, water logging condition, erosion problem and artificial recharge studies taken by the Board during the year.
  17. 17. 2. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES Ground Water Management Studies are being carried by the Board at district level to evaluate the changes in quantity & quality in the ground water regime owing to development and also to identify related issues for future management strategies. A major part of replenishment of ground water is through infiltration from rainfall. Return flow from irrigation and seepage from surface channels and reservoirs also contribute substantially to the ground water recharge. The effect of ground water withdrawals and out-flows are directly measurable through water table. Since all these inputs and outputs frequently change with time, the ground water situation is being periodically reappraised. As the development of resource leads to changes in its regime and water quality therefore planning for further development of the resource is to be done on the basis of findings of the studies, which provide valuable information for reorienting ground water development programme keeping in view the emerging scenarios. During the year 2007-2008, an area of 1,64,087 Sq.km. have been covered by the Board under Ground Water Management studies as against target of 1,61,807 Sq km. State/District wise target vis-a-vis achievements during the year 2007-2008 is shown in Table 2.1 and fig. 2.1. Table : 2.1 TARGET AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES DURING 2007-08 Sl. No. States Districts Target (Sq. km.) Achievement (Sq. km.) 1 Jammu & Kashmir Doda 3000 3000 Baramulla & Kupwara 500 500 2 Himachal Pradesh Solan 1936 1936 3 Punjab Jalandhar 2662 2662 4 Rajasthan Alwar 8720 8720 Barmer 6616 6616 5 Gujarat Banaskantha 3000 3100 6 Madhya Pradesh Satna 7502 7502 Chhattarpur 3423 3423 7 Chhattisgarh Dhamtari 3000 3000 Kanker 3000 3000 8 Maharashtra Parbhani 6000 6173 Ratnagiri 3000 3050 Ahmadnagar 3000 3103 9 Uttar Pradesh Bijnor(N) 4561 4561 Lucknow(N) 2528 2528 Meerut 2590 2590 Hamirpur(D) 2010 2010 Badaun 2584 2584 10 Uttarakhand Dehradun 3088 3088 Hardwar 2360 2360 Champawat 1781 1781 Pithoragarh 4100 4100 11 Bihar Samastipur 3000 3000 Vaishali 2016 2016 Madhubani 2501 2501 12 Jharkhand Kodarma 1770 1770
  18. 18. Sl. No. States Districts Target (Sq. km.) Achievement (Sq. km.) 13 West Bengal Barddhaman 3000 3000 Dinajpur & Malda 3000 3000 W. Bankura 3000 3000 Kochbehar & Jalpaiguri 3000 3000 14 Assam Lakhimpur & Dhemaji 3000 3000 Karimganj & Hailakandi 3000 3136 Morigaon, Western Nagaon & Kamrup 3000 3000 Nagaon 3000 3973 15 Meghalaya Jaintia Hills 3000 3000 16 Arunachal Pradesh West Kameng 3000 3000 17 Orissa Mayurbhanj 9000 10706 Sundargarh 3000 2272 18 Andhra Pradesh Prakasam 2800 2800 Anantpur 2000 2000 Nizamabad 2500 2500 Vizianagaram 3000 3000 19 Karnataka Hassan 3020 3020 Belgaum 6006 6006 20 Tamil Nadu Theni 2500 2500 Cuddalore & Villupuram 3000 3000 21 Kerala Kasargod 2000 2000 Kollam 2500 2500
  19. 19. SALIENT FINDINGS OF GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES 2.1 Jammu & Kashmir Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in two areas namely in Doda district and Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara districts. A total area of 3500 sq.km (Doda-3000 & lineation’s of aquifers for further development area. e area will get further r problems: Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara -500 sqkm) was covered during the survey 2.1.1 Doda District: - The survey was aimed at understanding the hydro-geological set up of the area, mode of occurrence of groundwater, recharge and discharge characteristics and chemical quality and de for domestic and irrigation purposes. Besides this, relevant data viz., agriculture, climate & rainfall, land utilization, discharge of river/nallas & cropping pattern etc was collected and analysed. During the course of investigation, apart from the hydro-geological traverses 10 springs and 48 hand pumps were inventoried and 73 water samples were collected to ascertain the quality of groundwater. 15 samples were analysis of iron in the groundwater. Groundwater occurrence mainly in the form of spring is observed in the Groundwater recharge in the area mainly takes place from rainfall and snow fall in the higher reaches. In the unconsolidated formation groundwater also occurs under water table conditions in the valleys. Fracture porosity rather than grain porosity is found to be an effective factor from point of view of occurrence of groundwater in the area. The occurrence and movement of groundwater in different aquifer is controlled by the structural features in addition to topography. Groundwater occurs in cracks, crevices and joints of these rocks. On the consideration of the facts mentioned earlier, it is felt that Kishtwar plateau area has groundwater potentialities. It is probable that the high level springs are not tapping the entire flow in the vicinity. It appears some water is passing away as subsurface flow along the spring line Gurdesh Nag which is a substantial source of water supply in the Kishtwar area needs further development. This particular source of water is not tapped to its full capacity, if it properly developed to the full extent. Hence this source alone is ample for water supply in the Kishtwar area. In Bhaderwah area the source of water supply is from khuls and canals. Surface flow in the area is perennial. In Doda area the source of water supply is from khuls. Ganapat spring is the only potential water supply in the Doda area. This source should be tapped for the Doda water supply and if this source is exploited to its full capacity the existing water supply of this drought pron augmented. In Ramban area the source of water supply is mainly from Sarudah Nallah. Metra spring is the potential source of water supply in Ramban area. The quality of groundwater in the area of investigation is good for domestic and irrigation purposes. It is fresh and potable. Groundwate The main source of water supply in the area is from nallahs and springs. Generally these sources are free from pollution because of hilly terrain. But the groundwater in some areas is being affected by Fluoride and iron. In Ghat area, the fluoride content is observed above permissible limits as per the standards set up by BIS. In Bhaderwah area the groundwater contains more iron than permissible limits. In these areas it requires detail sampling in future. 2.1.2: Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara Districts: The present study has been carried out with a view to ascertain the changes in ground water regime with reference
  20. 20. to impact of global climatic changes as well as human impact on ground water regime in a districts. ter in different geological and geomorphological units. The surface hydrological ns Lolab, Kahmil, Pohru and Ningal basins have separate entities of their own. High these inventoried wells, data generated from the exploratory drilling is utilized for s than the 1 m below ground level all around the Wular lake. During the present study, 34 wells were inventoried and monitored. The NHNS located in the study area are and 4 % of wells are in the range of 6 to 8 m bgl. It is observed that the water levels are shallow during May-June and steadily declining up to dwater y area is generally fresh with EC ranging from 97 to 1835 µS/cm at 25° C. Ground ains iron parts of Baramulla and Kupwar The study area is divided into different hydro-geological units based on the availability of ground wa basi Karewa Plateaus have their own hydrological entity. Ground water occurs under unconfined to semi-confined conditions in fine to coarse grained sand, gravel and boulders occurring at few places in alluvial formation and silty sand to fine sand mixed with clays and at places coarse sand and gravel occurring in Karewa formations. Most of the wells inventoried are mainly dug wells and few hand pumps. Apart from preparation of ground water potential maps for deeper aquifers. Dug wells located in upper Karewas generally tap sand and silty layers and water level is generally 2 to 4 m bgl. Depth to water level becomes deeper towards higher reaches of the area falling in the depth range of 4 to 6 m bgl. Depth to water levels in alluvial areas is very shallow i.e. les also monitored after a gap of about 20 years and water levels are compared with that of earlier ones. Statistical analysis of the data shows that depth to water level (DTW) in 32% of wells fall within the range of 0 to 2.00 m bgl, maximum of them are less than 1.00 m bgl. 42% of wells fall within the range of 2 to 4 m bgl, 18% of wells fall with in the depth range of 4 to 6 m bgl November- December. It is observed that there is minor variations in depth to water levels in the area with compared to depth to water levels of 1980. Water table contours generally follow the topographic contours and they are closely spaced representing the fine grained nature of the aquifer system and low permeability. Yield characters of deep tubewells present in the area have been analyzed. Groun in stud water from deeper aquifer is generally associated with marshy gasses and cont which is basically geo-genic in nature. The ground water is fresh and potable and is fit for all purposes Ground Water Problems: Present ground water development in study area is low and only few tube wells are present in the study area. However, most of the tube wells in the n all the ground Pradesh T P 2 u a study area are artesian, auto-flowing in nature. The main problems being encountered i the development of ground water resources are- high artesian pressure, presence of marshy gasses and high iron content in deeper aquifers. The areas with water problems are demarcated and remedial measures are being recommended. Water logging is another problem which is also causing problems to the people living in the study area. 2.2 Himachal he Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Solan district of Himachal radesh. .2.1 :Solan district :- Hydrogeologically, the area is divided into two units namely nconsolidated valley fills / alluvium occurring in the valley areas and forms potential quifers in the district & the semi-consolidated formations belonging to Tertiary and older
  21. 21. c d are the main ground water structures that provide water for domestic and irrigation in major rural and urban centers. n the entire study area and in detailed study area. onsolidated hard rocks which forms the poor aquifer and occupies the hilly areas of the istrict. Springs, dug wells, hand pumps and tubewells During pre-monsoon period inventoried 49 dugwells, 81 springs and 22 hand pumps. Depth to water level was ranging from 0.56 mbgl to 49 mbgl and discharge of springs ranging from seepage to 15.36 lps. During the post monsoon period remonitoring of key wells and key springs were carried out i Annual water level fluctuation has been worked out by comparing depth to water level recorded during May 2006 & May 2007. Average fall & rise is 0.33 & 0.74 m respectively. The depth to water is deep in the vicinity of the hills and is shallower in the low lying areas mainly along or near the stream/river channels. Ground water follows the general topography of the area. Ground Water Problems: Most of the ground water issues and problems in the district are localized and need to be treated independently. Presently large development of ground water is observed in industrial belts of Nalagarh valley wherein fall of water level down to six meters have been observed in some parts. Thus, ground water level epletion and also vulnerability to ground water pollution is major issues in this industriald belt. The quality of ground water in this area is observed to be good and potable. Recommendations: The following recommendation emerged during the study In alluvial areas of Nalagarh valley, though there is scope for ground water development as stage of ground water development is only 27.6 %, however, there is need to adopt cautious and phased manner ground water development approach in view of depleting water levels in some parts. This industrial area is highly prone and vulnerable to surface & ground water pollution thus water quality monitoring at close network is essential. . The climate of the district can be classified as tropical and dry sub-humid. The drinking water supply schemes in the district are based on ground water sources through 67 tubewells (Rural Water Supply) were monitored for pre and post-monsoon period. The depth to water in varies from 6.95 m bgl at Alawalpur (block- Adampur) to 30.50 bgl at Kotla Gazar (block- Shahkot). Larger part of the district is covered under water level in the depth range of 15 to 20 m. Proper waste/effluent disposal measures are required to be adopted by industrial units. There is need to protect traditional water harvesting structures like ponds, tanks, talavs to utilize these for rain water harvesting and recharging shallow aquifers. Roof top rainwater harvesting practices can be adopted in hilly areas and urban areas, since the district receives fair amount of rainfall. Traditional water storage systems need to be revived. 2.3 Punjab During 2007-2008, the target for Ground Water Management Studies was 2662 Sq.Km covering Jalandhar district of Punjab State. 2.3.1 Jalandhar district:- The area forms a part of Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain. The district is drained by river Satluj, along with its tributaries. A network of canals traverses the area deep tubewells ranging in depth from 100 m 150 m. In all, 19 no. of observation wells (Dug well), 13 piezeometers and level the district area m
  22. 22. Chemical quality of water from shallow aquifer reveals that by and large, the quality of ground water is suitable for domestic/drinking/irrigation purposes as all the chemical parameters are within the permissible limits set by BIS except fluoride concentrations hich has been found at three places and nitrate at six places to be higher than the some extent by Manganese. Iron concentration varies from 0.12 to 5.29 mg/l and even higher upto 13.97 mg/l and found in about 75 % of the nducted to establish unit well draft. The shallow tubewells in the district range from 20 to 130m. Tubewells ere are number of industries which discharge their effluent either in the open drain or in white Bein. The types of industries located in the nd 12 no. normal) of tubewells along the drains, white Bein, black Bein and Satluj were collected. Total of 6 treated and normal Ground Water Problems w permissible limits. The water is overall in alkaline nature. An overall review of trace element analysis indicates that the ground water is polluted/ contaminated by heavy metals like Iron and Lead and to water samples more than the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l. The Lead concentration varies from 0.03 to 0.32 mg/l. In 70 % of water samples, it is more than the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l. Ground water draft sample survey was carried out in the district. The major withdrawal of ground water in the district is by irrigation sector. In order to calculate the actual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation, field studies were co tapping the aquifer from 22m to 130 m yields 524 to 1188 lpm. Most of the shallow tube wells are run by electric motors. As on February 2007 there were 66149 electric motors & 3135 diesel motors working in the district. Ground water draft samples are taken from a total of 35 locations in the district. The unit well draft calculated for the monsoon period is 3.8 ham and for the non monsoon period is 0.73ham. The annual unit draft of the district is around 2.16 ham. During investigation it was observed that th city are Textile, Paint, Sports goods, Engineering goods and Leather. The tanneries have their own effluent treatment plant to remove toxic elements from waste water. The sewage water and industrial effluent are being discharged into Garha drain and Kalasingha drain. Garha drain meets the white Bein whereas Kalasingha drain meet black Bein. To know the extent of pollution cause by these drains to ground water, treated (12 no.) and normal (12 no.) water samples of drains , white Bein , black Bein ,river Satluj and ground water samples (12 no. treated a samples were also collected from Leather complex from the tubewells and treatment plant. : The main issues of concerns are over exploitation of ground d for detail hydrogeological studies. Out of this, 110 no. of new key wells were established for water water through out the district and concentration of heavy metal ions especially in Nakodar block of the district for which samples have been analysed. 2.4 Rajasthan Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Alwar district and Sheo block of Barmer district of Rajasthan during the Annual Action Plan 2007-08 covering a total of 15336 sq. km area. 2.4.1 Part of Alwar District: Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in (Thanagazi, Rajgarh, Ramgarh,Reni, Laxmangarh and Kathumar blocks of Alwar district, covering an area of 4297 sq.km. During the pre and post monsoon studies, the target area has been covered and 185 nos. of wells including dugwell, DCB and tubewell etc. were inventorie
  23. 23. level monitoring in the entire area considering the hydrogeological formation of the area. During the survey, 92 no. of water samples were collected for chemical analysis to understand the hydrochemistry of the area. One block i.e. Laxmangarh has been selected for ground water resource estimation as per GEC methodology. The climate of the study area is semi-arid type. The mean annual rainfall in the area ranges between 541.8mm (Laxmangarh) and 726.4mm (Thanagazi). Geomorphologically, the Southwest and central part is covered by continuous high ridges o artzites, phyllites with intermountain valleys, while on the eastern and south- n the alluvial formation and under water table condition in hard rocks. The major water bearing he chemical quality of ground water occurring in hard rock areas in the south and .4.2 Part of Alwar District:Area under survey covers 4423 sq.km. of Neemrana, so occurs under water table condition in weathered and actured portion of the hard rocks. In most of the area, dug cum borewells in alluvium allow in the south western, eastern parts and in Sahibi f qu eastern part , there is more or less sandy plain with isolated small hills. The area is drained by ephemeral Ruparel river and its tributaries. Agriculture activity is by and large confined to traditional Kharif cultivation depending upon monsoon rainfall. The main crops are Bajra, Gram and Mustard. Ground water occurs mainly under phreatic and confined condition i formation in the area is alluvium comprising of sand, silt, clay, kankar and gravel.The hard rock aquifer exists in the south western part of the area which is made up of quartzite, phyllite, schist and slate etc.In the hard rock, occurrence and movement of ground water is controlled by fractures and joist whereas in the alluvium it occurs in the interstices of unconsolidated sand. Depth to water level varies from 6 to 42 mbgl in the alluvial formation while in the hard rock, it ranges form 1.5 mgl to 40mbgl in the study area. The yield of wells ranges from 70 to 125 m3 /day in alluvium and 25 to 90 m3 /day in the hard rock area. T southwest parts it is generally fresh and potable. In the case of alluvium formation, it is fresh and potable except in few small localized patches which exists in the eastern part of Kathumar amd Laxmangarth block. High salinity of water is reported in and around the Khudiyana, Titpuri, Piplikhera etc. in Kathumar block where EC ranges from 5000 to 16500 ms/cm at 250 C. The fluoride content overall in the area is within the permissible limit. The maximum content of fluoride 2.4 mg/l is reported in the Hingota village of Laxmangarh block. 2 Behror, Mandawar, Bansur, Kotkasim, Tijara, Kishangarh blocks of Alwar district . The climate of the area is semi-arid type. Geomorphologically, south west and few central parts of the region are covered by Delhi Super Group of rocks with intermountain valleys. The drainage of the area is controlled by the major rivers Sahibi and its tributaries (all are ephemeral in nature) and flows from south west to north east or north. Ground water occurs under unconfined condition in the phreatic aquifer and under semi- confined condition in deeper zones in Quaternary sediment forming principal aquifer. Apart from this, ground water al fr which are very common yield 300 m3 /day to 600 m3 /day for a drawdown of a few metres. Dug wells have dried up and converted into DCB owing to incessant declining of water level attributed by over ground water for irrigation. The tube wells discharge ranges from 200 lpm to 1000 lpm. The depth to water level varies widely from 5.47 (Nimli) to 66.67 mbgl (Kankardeepa). Water level is comparatively sh
  24. 24. river basin especially along the river where as it deeper in the north western and western easonal water level fluctuation (2007) data indicated that 37% ( vel. t 250 C in major part of the area. The fluoride concentration varies from .22mg/l to 4.29mg/l however, it lies within 1.5 mg/l in major part of the area. . The area falls in the arid zone of Western ajasthan which is characterized by scanty and erratic rainfall and extreme temperature 20% ccupied by Malani granites and these form poor aquifer. Depth to water level varies 2.5 Gujarat bout 1460 q.km. parts of the area. S 23no.)of wells show rise, 61% (38 no.)fall and 2% (1no.) wells no change in water le The amplitude of declining water level ranges from (-)0.08m to (-)4.20m. The study reveals that in general water is suitable for domestic, irrigational and industrial use. However, salinity has been noticed at few localities in northern part of the study area. The EC ranges from 495 to 9000 ms/cm at 250 C whereas rests within 3000 ms/cm a 0 All the blocks viz. Behror, Mandawar, Bansur, Kotkasim, Tijara, Kishangarh have more than 100% stage of ground water development ranging from 125.44% in Behror to a maximum of 220.65% in Bansur block. All blocks have been categorized under over- exploited category. 2.4.3 Sheo Block, Barmer district :Sheo block falls in drought prone zone and forms part of Great Indian Thar Desert which over the years suffering from scarcity of water. An area of 6616 sq.km. is covered under the studies. The region is covered by wind blown sand. Sand dunes form a prominent feature of topography. The drainage of the area is under developed and internal R variation. The average annual rainfall is 220 mm and repeated drought is a common phenomenon. The district is poor in forest and has sandy soil in the study area. In the study area, three aquifers have been demarcated which are Upper Tertiary sandstone, Lathi sandstone and Malani Granites. Tertiary Sandstone and Lathi Sandstone are main water bearing formation covering 80% of the area while rest of area i.e. o from 5 to 115mbgl. Ground water occurs in all the formations but the most productive are the Tertiary sandstone and Lathi sandstone. In semi-consolidated Tertiary and Lathi formations, the ground water occurs under unconfined to confined conditions and Malani granites under phreatic condition. The ground water quality in the area varies widely from potable to saline. Tertiary formation consists of alternate layers of clay and shale which are unproductive aquifers but Tertiary sandstone of this formation is productive aquifer. The Lathi formation consists of semi-consolidated, medium to coarse grained sandstone with subordinate amount of gravel is a comparatively high yielding aquifer. Malani granites are practically impervious sparingly jointed and weathered in to a impervious residium lessening the water bearing capacity of this formation, the water yielding capacity of the rock units decrease with depth. Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Parts of Banaskantha district, covering an area of about 3100 Sq. Km. 2.5.1 Banaskantha District: Ground Water Management studies were taken up in parts of Banaskantha district covering an area of about 3100 Sq. Km. Detailed hydrogeological study was carried out exclusively in Deesa taluka comprising a s
  25. 25. The drainage network in the study area is constituted mainly by the Banas and its tributary Sipu. The river Banas has a wide channel and exhibits braided nature. Minor streams/rivers, viz. Rel and Ravi originate from hills of Rajsthan and flow in south esterly and westerly directions in Dhanera taluka and disappears in the sandy tracts total of 149 key wells were established and 84 water samples were collected for lls varies from 80 mbgl to 300 mbgl and the water level aries between 45 mbgl to 100 mbgl. Deeper water level is noticed particularly in the hanera taluka ground water occurs within the weathered and fractured zones under ound water potential is primarily governed by the thickness nd the extent of weathered zone. ater is potable in most part of the study area with EC varying etween 500 and 1200 µs/cm. Inferior quality of Ground water with EC greater than n and around Sihori taluka.Fluoride concentration greater than .5 mg/l has been observed in Khaprol, Kuvarla, Lelava,Thervada, Vasan villages of witnessed in the wells near to the conservation structures. w west of Dhanera town. The study area experiences an average annual rainfall of 480mm. Alluvial plain is the single most prominent geomorphic unit and covers a major part of the study area. Sand and silt covering palaeotopography and older formations are of aeolian deposits. It is a vast sandy tract characterised by gently sloping, slightly rolling to undulatory topography owing to the presence of sand dunes. The dunal landscape is more pronounced in parts of Dhanera and Deesa taluka. River alluvium is observed mainly along the river Banas and Sipu. A complete chemical analysis including fluoride. In addition to this 13 no. of ground water samples were collected for trace element analysis. Three pumping test were conducted in large diameter wells. Six number of infiltration test was conducted in the study area to ascertain the basic infiltration rate. Detailed Well inventory was carried out to assess the impact of water conservation structures (Check dams) spread over the study area. Ground water is extensively developed by dug-cum-bore wells and tube wells in alluvial area. The depth of dug-cum-bore wells in the alluvial formation varies between 60 mbgl to 180 mbgl and the depth to water level ranges between 30 mbgl to 100 mbgl. Towards the eastern part of Dhanera and Deesa taluka where the hard rock formation is encountered at a depth of 45 to 100 mbgl the depth of Dug Cum Borewells (DCB) are restricted to a depth of about 70 mbgl and the depth to water level varies between 20 to 40 mbgl. The depth of tube we v western and the south western part of Sihori taluka. The yield of the wells in general is high and ranges from 400 lpm to 900 lpm. At places where granite occur at shallow depth (Sodapur, Meda villages of Deesa taluka and Panswal (Rampura) village of D water table conditions. The gr a The quality of ground w b 2000µs/cm is observed i 1 Dhanera taluka and Mangalpura, Kasalpura, amarnesda, Kasra villages of Sihori taluka. High nitrate concentration (> 45mg/l) is noticed in Dhanera and deesa taluka. The ground water elevation gradually reduces from recharge area in NE towards discharge area in west and south and ground water level follows the general topographic slope. Since last two years owing to good rainfall and the recharge from conservation structures constructed in the study area rise of about 3 to 6 m in water level has been Detailed Study:- Deesa taluka was selected for detailed study with aerial extent of 1460 sq.km approximately. The taluka has witnessed rapid growth in population since last two decades which has led to great demand on freshwater which in-turn has added more stress on the fresh water resources and thus resulting in fast depletion in the ground ater level consistently over a period of time, compounded with intensive irrigation using heavy capacity submersible electric motor. The stage of ground water development is w
  26. 26. 92.64%(GEC 2004). Taking into consideration these aspects Deesa taluka was chosen for detailed study. The detailed study area comprises of alluvium constituting sand, silt and gravel beds ew meters to hundreds of meters underlain by granite. The thickness of wal from the tube wells as irrigation water demand is met rough canals. The ground water quality in general is potable, with the EC varying stainable development. gl . The Pre- and post monsoon epth to water level range from– 4.31 to 21.23 mbgl & 1.54 to 17.34 mbgl respectively. was observed that 40% of open wells were dry during pre-monsoon period. solidated piles of ediments as alluvium restricted along the river banks in the area. Lateritic capping also rea is underlain by Vindhyan formation comprising of andstone, shale and limestone. Depth to water level ranges from 4.80 mbgl to 21.35 ranging from f alluvium is more in west and the central part where as towards the eastern part the thickness of alluvium ranges between 60 to 115 mbgl. Ground water development is mainly through tube wells. Most of the dug wells with depth range of 30-40 mbgl have gone dry since last few years. Generally the depth of tube wells range from 80 to 300 mbgl and the depth to water level ranges from between 45 to 100m bgl. Towards the southern part of the taluka namely around the villages Juna deesa, Goliya, Dhuva, Khardosan, Sodarpur, Jhabadia, Chatrala, Samdhi etc. there is a substantial rise in water level noticed in the last two to three years. This rise is attributed to the good rainfall facilitated by less withdra th between 800 and 1500µs/cm. There is a need for cautious approach for further groundwater development seeing the fast declining condition in the water level. Artificial recharge and optimized irrigated agriculture in areas of intensive irrigation is required for su 2.6 Madhya Pradesh Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Satna and Chhatarpur district covering 10925 Sqkm. 2.6.1 Satna District:- 2.6.1.1 Majhgawan, Nagod & Rampur Baghelan blocks: - An area of 3439 sq km. 110 key wells were inventoried during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period. Water levels were measured and 50 water samples were collected from representative wells for ground water quality analysis as sulphate problem has been reported from the study area, particularly in three blocks namely Nagod, Majghawan and Rampur Baghelan. The Total depth of open well ranges – 6.20 to 23.60 mb d It Geologically, the area is covered by Vindhyan Super Group consisting of Sirbu shales, Bhander limestones, Ganurgarh shale and Rewa sandstones and uncon s observed at places. The yield of the wells ranging 1 to 3 lps & 3 to 15 lps. Special study of Rampur Baghelan Block (814 sq km) has been carried out and special recommendations on the sulphate contamination in the area have been given. Study and measurement of discharge of natural springs in karsitic terrain and sandstone area has been carried out. Six artificial recharge sites have bee selected. 2.6.1.2 Sohawal, Amarpatan, Ramnagar and Maihar blocks: The study was done in an area of 4063 sq km. The a s mbgl in dug wells. Most of the dug wells and tube wells are dry due to low rainfall in the area during the last two years. During pre-monsoon, 32 numbers of ground water samples were collected from different rock formations in the area. The pH values of the
  27. 27. analysed ground water samples ranged from 7.64 to 8.52 as such they are within permissible limit. The electrical conductivity of collected water samples ranges from 202 to 3024 micro mhos/cm . 2.6.2: Chhatarpur District:- Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Ken-Betwa basin of Chhatarpur, Nowgaon & Bijawar blocks in Chhatarpur district overing an area of 3423 sq km. The area is part of the Yamuna sub-basin of Ganga amtari district ,covers an area of about 3000 sq. km. he entire district falls under Mahanadi basin. The average annual rainfall in the district is edominantly occupied by hard rock form ext m nal c he c basin. Physiographically, the area under investigation can be divided into two physical units: The southern hill ranges and the northern plains. In the course of study, 70 key observation wells were selected and inventoried for pre- monsoon and post monsoon water levels. 45 water samples were collected from representative wells The Depth to water level Pre & Post monsoon range from 3.95 mbgl to 14.70 mbgl & 1.60 mbgl to 14.40 mbgl respectively. The general geological succession in the area is granites (basement), which in turn is overlain by Bijawars, Vindhyans and alluvium. The Bijawars and Vindhyans are confined to the southern part of Bijawar block and the alluvium is confined to river chanels. The granitic terrain is traversed by NE-SW trending quartz ridges. The aquifer occurring in the study area are not highly potential. The alluvium is of limited thickness and supports tubewells having discharge of 7 –8 lps. The weathered and fractured portion of the granite sustain tubewells of upto 5 lps discharge. The solution opening in the Bijawar limestone are promising for ground water development. 2.7 Chhattisgarh During AAP 2007-08, Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Dhamtari and Kanker districts of Chhattisgarh State covering an area of 6000 Sqkm. 2.7.1 Dhamtari district: The Dh T 1273.45 mm with 45 to50 rainy days. The district is pr where fracture and solution action dominate over primary porosity. The basement crystalline rocks occupies the southern part, where weathered and shallow fracture zone s phreatic aquifer. The sedimentary rocks constitute aquifer in large part of the district. The fractured and cavernous zone of these stratified limestones formed phreatic to semi-confined aquifers. Northern part of the district is occupied by shales and it is behaving as aquitard. The alluvium along the course of Mahanadi and between Mahanadi and Kharun River along Amdinala possess primary porosity and forms unconfined aquifer of limited areal end. The ground water level in the limestone aquifer in pre-monsoon period ranges fro 6 to 38 m bgl and during post monsoon varies from 3 to 6 mbgl. The seaso lu tuation in the bore wells varies between 6 and 30 m. The specific yield values of tf sandstone and limestone aquifers were estimated as 0.0014 and 0.021 respectively. The transmissivity values of granites remains below 100 m2 /day, whereas that of sandstone ranges from 10-56 m2 /day and remains between 4 and 450 m2 /day for imestone.l The management strategies for groundwater is suggested as follows; The low ground water development in command area needs to be enhanced conjunctively with surface water resources. The area with karstic limestone aquifer can be targeted for this purpose within particularly in command area. This area is suitable for ground water development
  28. 28. through bore wells up to 150 m depth. Within the command area, alluvium aquifer is being developed extensively. In the non-command area the scope of ground water development is limited, and the aquifer here are not much productive Numbers of shallow filter point wells are being constructed for irrigation purpose along the a like of than 30m . mainly perforated pipes with thin gravel packing as a result presence of silt in the pumped water is noti design The all ea, which is a buried palaeochannel, has been identifi as potential zone for artificial recharge. An effective stop dam is already dinala at Palari village. Many more check dams and stop dams re required in this area. For effective artificial recharge to the alluvium aquifer ground area. antification of alluvium aquifer. ario the ground water draft is mainly through the hand pump and bore wells. During eloped through M hanadi and Amdinala. Though construction of this type of well is economical, the such wells are hardly 4-6 years. The maximum thickness of alluvium is more The water well construction for domestic purpose within the Dhamtari township is through rotary core type “calyx drilling” where the alluvium is taped through ced very often. For the community water supply in Dhamtari town properly ed gravel pack rotary drilling is recommended to get rid of silt problem. uvium aquifer along the Amdinala ar ed constructed across the Am a water shaft of 15 to 20m depth followed by gravity head recharge well of 50 m depth can be a useful structure in the The following recommendations are suggested: ♦ For the proper development of the available ground water resources there is a need for the regular monitoring of the resource, enhancement of permanent observation wells and qu ♦ Odex drilling rig is suitable for the construction of production wells in the area covered by cavernous limestone. ♦ Gravel packed well with suitable well assembly is the best abstraction structure for the water supply is in the Dhamtari town. ♦ Conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources may be adopted in areas with shallow water level. Artificial recharge measures may be taken to recharge the de- saturated alluvium aquifer. ♦ Roof top rainwater harvesting should be made compulsory for Dhamtari township. 2.7.2: Kanker district:- The study area is about 3000 sq km, comprise of four blocks of Kanker district, namely Bhanupratappur, Charama, Kanker and Narharpur. All the four blocks are tribal blocks. The area is mainly covered with granite and gneiss in eastern and western part respectively and are intruded by basic to ultrabasic dykes at few places. In the present cens Pre-monsoon period, water level of 122 key wells were measured which varies from 1.15 m to 19.9 mbgl. In most of the wells, water level remain between 5 and 10 mbgl. In the post monsoon period, the depth to water level varies from 0.87 to 15.75 mbgl. The Seasonal water level fluctuation ranges between 0.07 m to 14.99 m. The main observations and recommendations are as follows:- • River in the area structurally controlled. The wells constructed adjacent to river course are yielded more water as compare to wells constructed away from it. • Area in which the thickness of the weathered mantle is more than 25 meters are of good potential and in these areas ground water can be dev gravel packed well.
  29. 29. • It is recommended that suitable developmental strategy may be adopted in less he area includes parts of Ratnagiri, Chiplun, Khed, Lanja and Sangameshwar talukas of ter regime. The ground water monitoring and sample collection was carried out dug wells, bore well and hand pumps. 32 shallow aquifer and 6 deeper aquifer water . infall uring the monsoon season. There is a great deviation (dispersion) in the daily rainfall in developed Charama block and suitable artificial recharge structure may be constructed using latest scientific techniques in sufficient number to improve ground water scenario in the area. 2.8 Maharashtra An area of 12326 sqkm has been covered in Ratnagiri, Parbhani and Ahmednagar districts in Maharasthra . 2.8.1 Ratnagiri District :- Ground Water Management Studies over an area of 3050.39 sq. km. were carried out in parts of Ratnagiri district falling under the Coastal basin. The theme behind RHS was ground water management studies in the hilly areas of coastal basin. T Ratnagiri district. The study was carried out based on watershed as a unit hydrological feature and seven watersheds were covered. The climate of the area is very humid. The average annual rainfall in the district is 3787 mm. Nearly 91 percent of rainfall is received in June to September. Therefore, cropping is done mainly during kharif season and there is very little cropping in rabi or hot weather season. In Study area, 57 key wells were established covering all the hydrogeological units. The depth of dug wells varies from 1.60 to 19.60 m bgl. The pre-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 0.90 to 15.12 m bgl . The EC of the ground water during pre-monsoon ranges from less than 10 to 370 micromhos/cm. The post-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 0.35 to 13.37 m bgl . The seasonal fluctuation ranged from 0.09 m to 5.13 .m The detailed hydrogeological survey was carried in watershed WF-68 covering an area of 570.96 sq. km. In this watershed, the depth of dug wells varies from 2.65 m to 19.60 m. The pre-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 1.55 to 15.12 m bgl while the post-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 1.25 to 13.37 m bgl. The seasonal fluctuation varies from 0.09 m at Nanij to 3.55 m at Kochari. Urban Hydrogeological study in Chiplun town was carried out to study the impact of urbanization over the ground wa in samples are collected in addition to 38 samples from Chiplun township. 2.8.2 Parbhani District :- An area of about 6124 sq km was covered in Parbhani district in the two parts 2.8.2.1 Purna Sub-basin part (3051Sq.Km.): The pre-monsoon DTW ranges from 1.40 m.bgl to 17.20 m.bgl, while the post-monsoon water level varies from 1.05 m.bgl to 18.80 m.bgl. The seasonal fluctuation ranged from 2.15m to – 0.30 m (Negative fluctuation) and from 0 to 9.00 m on top of dissected plateau. The cause of negative fluctuation is due to the onset of pre-monsoon rainfall in the area before the commencement of premonsoon water level measurement and less and erratic ra d the area causing lesser recharge.
  30. 30. The quality of the ground water is potable. The electrical conductivity of ground water varies from 300 to 5400 micromhos/cm during the premonsoon and from 390 and 8800 micromhos/cm during post-monsoon season. During the study it was observed that the part of the area lack ground water potential such areas lack of suitable physiography opography) supporting surface water bodies. .8.2.2 Godavari basin part(3073Sq.Km.) : The area includes parts of Parbhani general, the area is undulating with isolated hills especially south of Gangakhed. Both to 13.10 m.bgl and 0.78 m.bgl to 11.65 m.bgl respectively. vely. The fluctuation of the water levels ranges between 0.5 to y area on irrigation in these areas is mainly through and borewells) and rain water abstraction structures Alluvium areas between 100 to 300 cubic meter/day where the pumping hours are in the range of 8 to 16 hours/day. A total of 90 water samples were 2.9 Uttar Pradesh (t 2 Gangakhed, Palam, Pathri and Purna talukas and 13 watersheds. In depositional and erosional features like alluvial patches, meander scars are present along the Godavari river courses and along its main tributaries. Alluvial deposits are found along the banks of Godavari river and Deccan Traps in the rest of the area. The depth of wells ranges from 2.25 to 16.30 m.bgl. The pre & Post monsoon depth to water level ranges from 0.48 The seasonal fluctuation varies from 0.27 m to 11.80 m. For assessing the ground water quality, 75 water samples from dug wells and 30 samples from bore wells have been collected for chemical analysis. The electrical conductivity in these samples ranged from 100 to 2800 micromhos /cm at 25o C. 2.8.4 Ahmednagar District :- An area of about 3103 sq. Km. was covered under Ground Water Management Studies in parts of Ahmednagar District and encompasses Akole, Sangmner, Parner, and Rahuri talukas. During Pre-monsoon 115 key wells were established. During post monsoon 300 ground water structures were examined for the detailed study of the area. The depth range of the dug wells varies from 4.0 to 30.0 m bgl. The DTW during pre-monsoon & post-monsoon range from 3.2 to 26.0 m bgl and 0.5 to 21.0 m bgl respecti 16.5 m. The area is drained by Godavari river and their tributaries namely Pravara and Mula. The handardara and Mula dam are the Major irrigation projects lying in the studB the western side and central part and these projects irrigates one third of the area under study through canals. Major part of the area is rain fed and the ground water structures (dugwells (percolation tanks, nala bunds, KT weir etc). The area is underlain by Deccan traps and Alluvium of Recent age along the river course and valley portions. At places the thickness of the alluvium cover ranges from 10.0 to 24.0 m. The alluvium and weathered, vesicular, fractured and jointed basalts forms an aquifer zones in the covered area. The yield of the dug wells in Deccan traps formations ranges between 5 to 100 cubic meter/day where the pumping hours are in the range of 2 to 8 hours/day. While the yield of dug wells in collected for the study of chemical quality of the ground water. In general the quality of water is good to brackish. Ground Water Management Studies were undertaken in an area of 14273 sqkm in Bijnor, Lucknow, Meerut, Hamirpur and Badaun districts of Uttar Pradesh.
  31. 31. 2.9.1 Bijnor District :-The Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Bijnor district, covering an area of 4561 Sq Km.The district falling in part of Ganga plain hich is underlain by thick pile of alluvial sediments consisting of sand of various grades The results of ten (10) exploratory boreholes drilled down to maximum 450.49 mbgl in be wells tapping II & III aquifers yielded between 700 and 3239 lpm at a drawdown ranging from 5.86 m to 22.70 m . ater is suitable for domestic/irrigation purposes. Ground water contributes 94% irrigatio this block. e cleaned and desilting should be done & may be used as recharge structure. llow and moderately deep tubewells. The present stage of ground water development is 80.36% (as on 31.03.04); Jalilpur block falls under w clay & kankar. In the North narrow Bhabhar belt runs all alongwith hills from West to East which is followed by Tarai belt. The average annual rainfall is 1122 mm in the district. The depth to water level varies from 3 to 19 mbgl during pre-monsoon and 1.30 to 17.50 mbgl during post-monsoon period and water level fluctuation ranges between 0.25 to 6.95 m. However, on the basis of post-monsoon trend analyses (1997-2006), out of 9 GWM wells, 6 shows declinng trend 20 to >40 cm/year. the area reveal that three tier aquifer system exists in the area and their the depth ranges are G.L. to 150 mbgl (I Aquifer), 170 to 260 mbgl (II Aquifer) and 285 to 396 mbgl (III Aquifer). Ground Water in shallow aquifer down to depth of 50 mbgl occurs under unconfined stage while in deeper aquifer reaches in semi-confined to confined stage of disposition. The exploratory tube well constructed by CGWB tapping second aquifer yielded 3266 lpm at 15.63 m drawdown. The exploratory tu 49 water samples have been collected from entire area from different depth zones. The quality of ground is good and suitable for drinking/irrigation purposes. Detailed hydrogeolgical study:- For detailed hydrogeolgical study, Kirathpur (247 Sq.km) & Jalilpur blocks (401.5 Sq.km) have been selected in Kirathpur block elevation varies between 240 to 242 m above m.s.l. the drainage of the block is controlled by Malin & Choyyia nadi. Depth to water level in the pre-monsoon between 4.67 & 18.70 mbgl and in the post-monsoon 2.70 to 17.50 mbgl. The fluctuation ranges between 0.75 and 1.91 m. The quality of ground w n in Persistent decline of water level suggest needs of Artificial Recharge measures and existing abodoned dug wells may b In Jalilpur block, depth to water level ranges from 9.31 to 21.40 mbgl while in dugwells, it is 8.69 mbgl. The ground water development for irrigation and domestic purposes takes place in the district through sha ‘Over-exploited’ category showing intensive ground water development. 2.9.2 Lucknow District :- The Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Lucknow district, covering an area of 2528 Sq Km.The district occupies central alluvial plain and lies between major rivers Ghaghra in the North and Ganga in the South, underlying a vast sequence of Quaternary alluvial sediments consisting of mainly clay, kankar, silt and sand of various grades. Based on their topographic positions and geo- morphological characteristics, sediments are grouped in to newer and older alluvium. The general slope of the area is towards south and south east. Annual Rainfall in the district is 963 mm.
  32. 32. The shallow phreatic aquifer is unconfined in nature whereas the relatively deeper aquifers are semiconfined to confined in nature. The depth to water level in phreatic aquifer ranges from 1.75 to 32.95 mbgl during pre-monsoon period whereas it ranges from 1.35 to 31.98 mbgl during post-monsoon period. Seasonal water level fluctuation ranges from (-) 0.05 to 4.20 m. Post monsoon depletion of depth to water level recorded in large areas mainly in rural areas and at few places in Urban areas as well. However, n the basis of long term post monsoon trend analysis (1997-2006), out of 16 GWM bgl. The first aquifer group exist at the depth range 00-150 mbgl with the discharge ge 260-370 mbgl with the discharge ranging from 200 to 1470 lpm nd naximum drawdown created is 32.57 m. The fourth aquifer group exist at the depth domestic purposes take places in the istrict through shallow and moderately deep tubewells. The present stage of ground elopment. area is 983 mm. The depth to water level during pre-monsoon reanges from 6.20-14.77 mbgl whereas during 0 lpm with the draw down ranging from 6.4 to 8.38 m. The Ground ater in the first aquifer group occurs under semi-confined to confined condition and s due to Ground Water exploration through closely spaced shallow private bewells and number of State Govt. tubewells. The further development of Ground District :- The Ground Water Management studies were carried out in covering an area of 2584 Sq.Km in the Central Ganga plain. The entire plain of the district is covered by alluvial soil. The area is underlain by Quaternary o wells, 12 wells were showing decling trend. The exploratory drilling carried out by CGWB in parts of Lucknow district revels that three tier aquifer system exist down to depth of 731 mbgl in the area, whereas five aquifer group exist in city areas on the basis of 29 exploratory drilling downto depth of 750 m ranging from 1130 to 1700 lpm and maximum drawdown created is 8.70 m. The second aquifer group exist at the depth range160-240 mbgl with the discharge ranging from 330 to 575 lpm and naximum drawdown created is 30.70 m. The third aquifer group exist at the depth ran a range 380-480 mbgl with the discharge ranging from 1420 to 1520 lpm and maximum drawdown created is 32.68 m. The fifth aquifer group exist at the depth range 483-680 mbgl . 37 water samples were colleted from entire area from different depth zones. Chemical analysis reveals that the quality of ground water in the district is good and suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes. The ground water development for irrigation and d water development is 81.21%. Mal block falls under ‘Over Exploited’ category showing intensive ground water dev Mal block (Area of 252 Sq.Km.) has been selected for detailed studies keeping in view the main objective to asses continuous declining trend of ground water. The major drainage is the river Gomati. The average annual rainfall in the post-monsoon it varies from 5.90-13.97 mbgl.The long term water level trend in l5 years (2003-07) showing decline i.e. from 0.07 to 0.48 cm/year. The yield of tubewell varies from 2043 to 345 w confinement are provided by the impermeable formation i.e. clay on top of the aquifer. The quality of ground water in deeper aquifer is better than the phreatic aquifer. The stage of ground water development is 102% in the block and it falls under over exploited category. At present the shallow aquifer in the block down to 40 m is much under stres tu water is to be strictly restricted and the scope of further developments through deep tubewells may be done. 2.9.3 Badaun Badaun district
  33. 33. sediments comprising clay, silt, sand occasionally kankar. The major drainage system in the area through Ganga and Ramganga rivers. The average annual rainfall is 860 mm. The ground water in the area generally occurs under unconfined conditions to confined condition. Depth to water levels during pre & Post monsoon varies from 3.65 to 12.98 bgl and 2.85 mbgl to 12.98 mbgl respectively. The water level fluctuation ranges from eho aquifer group yields 2000-2250 lpm with drawdown f 5 m. Tubewells tapping deeper aquifer below 400 m yields 2000 lpm at a higher in good and suitable for drinking/irrigation purposes. than 11.50 m and most of the dug wells have gone dry. rea falls under over exploited category. Seasonal fluctuation is around 0.27 m in the he Meerut district is underlain by unconsolidated sediments, comprising of sands of wells between 147.50 (Quazipur) and 364.0 mbgl (Ganga nagar) depth range (as on 31- m 0.02 m to 1.20 m. The thickness of alluvium is yet to be established within the area. Maximum thickness of Alluvium in ONGC & CGWB bor le was found to be 750 m. Exploratory drilling carried out by CGWB in the district reveals the presence of granular horizon down to depth of 750 m. The deepest borehole was drilled down to a depth of 751.5 mbgl at Samrer and zones were tapped at 440-452 mbgl & 468-480 mbgl. The well proved to be an Artesian well with a head of 0.6 m above ground level. Shallow aquifer exists down to a depth of 180m. Tubewell constructed in this o drawdown. This aquifer ranges from 480-590 m. On the basis of long term post-monsoon trend analyses (1977-2006), out of 12 wells, 10 shows declining trend. For the assessement of quality of ground water 67 nos. of water samples were collected from the area.The overall quality of ground water in dug well zone, shallow as well as deep aquifer is In the study area Ambikapur, Jagat & Binaivar blocks falls under Over exploited whereas Miaon block falls under critical category, Dataganj and Usman blocks falls under semi critical category. Ambikapur block with an area of 292 Sq.Km was selected for detailed study. The depth to water level in the area is more A block. Detailed surveys including establishing additional keywells and collection of water samples were carried out in order to know actual problems and for suggesting remedial measures. 2.9.4 Meerut District :- The entire district forming a part Ganga-Yamuna doab consists of rich fertile soil supporting large scale development of agriculture and falls into central depression. The depression area commences from south of Sardhana and extends upto Hapur. The older alluvium generally occupies land higher than the younger alluvium. The later is confined to the river channels or in the vicinity of low land areas. Younger alluvium is generally affected by flood during the monsoon period. Fluvial landforms, like paleo channels meander scars, back swamps etc. are observed in the block. Ganga and Hindon are effluent in nature. T various grades, silt and clays of Quaternary age. The occurrence of kankar at different depths is not uncommon. The sandy horizons at different depths form the main repository of ground water in the block. CGWB has carried out ground water exploration down to 742.0 m.bgl (Ganga Nagar) and constructed 9- exploratory tube
  34. 34. 3-2007) in Meerut district. The first aquifer is unconfined to semi-confined in nature while the second, third and fourth aquifers are confined. Bedrock has not been encountered in none of the exploratory boreholes. groups. The Pre & Post monsoon water level varies from 2.65 - 16.8 mbgl and 2.90– 17.15 mbgl respectively. ies from 2.90 - 17.15 mbgl. The over exploitation of ground water due to ever increasing ezometers (2003 –2007) that have been constructed in blocks previously evoid of monitoring stations in the last, say, 5- years, has indicated further declining (Jani Khurd) to - 0.87 (Meerut block) m/year (premonsoon) and 0.22 to – 1.08 m/year (postmonsoon) in Daurala, Hastinapur, Kharkhoda, Jani Khurd, he water samples collected from key wells analysed for their quality. All the major n rivers that flows through the district are the amuna, Betwa and Ken. The average annual rainfall is 863 mm in the area. The first aquifer (~Up to 100 m) is medium grained brownish sand with clay lenses admixed with kankar. Second aquifer (~ 150-250 m) is fine grained, grayish sand mixed with silt. Third aquifer (~ 300-450 m) is finer in comparison to the second and fourth (~ below 450 m) is also fine sand with occasionally medium sand. Almost all State tube wells tap first aquifer group whereas most of exploratory tube wells of C.G.W.B have been constructed tapping either I & II or II & III aquifer An area of approximately 300 Km2 was covered in and around Meerut city for detailed study of hydrogeological regimen in the area. The Pre - monsoon water level in and around city varies from 3.45 - 16.8 mbgl and Post monsoon depth to water var population and urbanization in and around Meerut city has led to formation of a ground water trough in north –eastern part of the Meerut block which attracts ground water from all directions to flow towards it. The long term ground water level trend (1998 –2007) is predominantly declining for both pre- and post-monsoon periods. It ranges from - 0.28 to - 0.50 m/year (pre-monsoon) and - 0.18 to - 0.65 m/year (post-monsoon) respectively. Analyses of water level trend data of new pi d trend ranging from 0.11 - Rohta, Sarurpur, Macchra, Mawana and Meerut blocks. T inorganic determinants are well within permissible limits as per drinking water norms. The Electrical conductivity on an average is good. The quality of ground water in deeper aquifer is also potable by and large. Overall the ground water quality in Meerut district is suitable for drinking as well as irrigation water needs. The stage of ground water development in Meerut block is 64.93 % and it falls under safe category. 2.9.5 Hamirpur District :- The Hamirpur district is located in southern part of the state and is a part of Bundelkhand Region and falls under water scarcity area. It is underlain by Granite. The Quaternary alluvial material overlies the Granite. The thickness of alluvium varies from ground level to 150 mbgl in the area. Topographically, the district is made up of flat plain land. The mai Y Ground Water development takes place through open wells, dug cum borewells and shallow tube wells constructed at favorable sites. The yield of dugwells/hand pumps drilled down to the depth between 10-20 m varies from 50 to 60 lpm. Borewells drilled down to the depth between 30-100 m with the yield ranges between 60 and 500 lpm. In the alluvium 1st aquifer exist at 30 to 70 m and yield varies from 150 lpm to 1908 lpm with drawdown ranges from 4.04 m to depth ranges from 90-120 m and yield ranges from 2800 to 2994 lpm with drawdown of 0.76 m to 2.5 m. In total, 29 key wells were established to monitor depth to water levels. The depth to water level varies from 6.55 to 23.90 mbgl during pre-monsoon and from 6.85 to 23.50
  35. 35. mbgl during post-monsoon period. On the basis of long term post-monsoon trend analyses (1997-2006), out of 18 GWM wells, 16 are showing declining trends. Physiographically, district lies in the Extra eninsular Region of the Himalayan Mountain Belt. Topographically, the district presents onfined aquifer. The piezometric head of tube 23 springs and 4 exploratory wells were the first time in Doon Valley. The discharge of the from 1.10 to 122 lpm. The post-monsoon whereas the inimum rise of 0.01 m was observed in Vikas Nagar. The minimum decline has been 30 water samples were collected from the entire area from different depth zones. The quality of ground water in the study area is suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose. The stage of ground water development is 57.33% (as on 31.3.2004). Block Maudaha (945 sq.km) was selected for detailed study purposes. 9 key wells were established for monitoring purposes and water samples were also collected. During studies emphasis was given for selecting Artificial recharge sites at Kapra in the block. 2.10 Uttarakhand Ground Water Management Studies were carried by covering 11329 sqkm of Dehradun, Hardwar, Champawat & Pithoragarh Districts of Uttarakhand State. 2.10.1 Dehradun District:- Groundwater Management Studies were carried out in Dehradun district covering 3088 sq. km. P two distinct units namely, the Intermontane Doon valley and the Shiwalik Hill Ranges comprising the Sub-Himalaya or the Outer Himalaya and the Lesser Himalaya. Dehradun district is divided into three hydrogeological units viz. Himalayan Mountain Belt, Shiwalik Zone and Doon alluvial fill (Dun Gravels). Ground water occurs in two types of aquifers in the area, the shallow perched aquifer, where ground water occurs under perched conditions and the main unc wells varies from 20 m to 125 m bgl. total of 149 hand pumps, 9 dug wells,A established as “Key Observation Wells” tapping different aquifers. For the first time, discharge of springs to the north of the Main Boundary Thrust (Chakrata and Kalsi blocks) were measured. Hand pumps tapping different aquifer zones (both in Shiwaliks and Dun Gravels) were established for prings during pre-monsoon period varieds discharge varied from 1.50 to 88 lpm. The water level in the tube wells and hand pumps during pre-monsoon period varied from 2.29 to more than 100 m bgl in Doon Valley whereas during post-monsoon, the water level varied from 2.52 to more than 100 m bgl. Two areas of artesian conditions, one in and around Kaluwala (Doiwala) and the other at Lakwar (Kalsi) were demarcated for future ground water exploration. Areas in and around Nalapani, Manaksidh and Kaplani represent sub artesian conditions. The analysis of water level data of 135 key observation wells for the periods of May 2007 versus November 2007 revealed a rise in water level from 48 hand pumps. There has been a rise in water level of more than 4 m in 48 wells . The decline in water level was between 0 and 2 m in 20 hand pumps, 2 and 4 m in 5 hand pumps and more than 4 m in 19 stations . The maximum rise of 22.2 m was recorded in Gujrada m observed at Punjabiwala (0.23m) whereas the maximum decline of 27.40 m was observed at Kedarwala. The maximum decline in water level in respect of the number of observation wells in Doon Valley was observed along Jaitonwala – Guniyal Gaon section. The area falls in the Nun River Command.

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