Central Ground Water Board
Ministry of Water Resources
Govt. of India
2007 - 2008
Sl. CHAPTERS Page No.
Executive Summary i - vii
1. Introduction 1 - 6
2. Ground Water Management Studies 7 - 51
3. Ground Water Exploration 52- 88
4. Development and Testing of Exploratory Wells 89
5. Taking Over of Wells by States 90 - 91
6. Water Supply Investigations 92
7. Hydrological and Hydrometereological Studies 93 - 110
8. Ground Water Level Scenario
(Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells)
111 - 112
9. Geophysical Studies 113 - 126
10. Hydrochemical Studies 127 - 137
11. High Yielding Wells Drilled 138 - 149
12. Hydrology Project 150
13. Studies on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water 151 - 154
14. Mathematical Modeling Studies 155
15. Central Ground Water Authority 156 - 157
16. Ground Water Studies in Drought Prone Areas 158 - 159
17. Ground Water Studies in Tribal Areas 160 – 161
18. Estimation of Ground Water Resources
based on GEC-1997 Methodology
162 - 165
CHAPTERS Page No.
19. Technical Examination of Major/Medium Irrigation Schemes 166
20. Remote Sensing Studies 167
21. Human Resource Development 168 - 170
22. Technical Documentation and Publication 171 - 174
23. Implementation of RTI Act – 2005
(Right to Information)
24. Meetings 176 - 193
25. Construction/Acquisition of Office Buildings 194
26. Dissemination and Sharing of technical know-how
(Participation in Seminars, Symposia and Workshops)
195 - 206
27. Research and Development Studies/Schemes 207 - 208
28. Publicity and Public Awareness 209 - 211
29. Propagation and Progressive Use of Hindi Language 212
30. Personnel Management 213
31. Vigilance 214
32. Persons with Disabilities 20076-08. 215
33. Budget and Accounting 216 - 217
Annexure – 1 Location and Jurisdiction of Regional and other offices of CGWB
Ground water plays a key role in meeting the water needs of various user-sectors in
India. With growing awareness, the dependability on ground water as a sustainable
resource in nation building reasserts the need for an organization like Central Ground
Water Board which is vested with the responsibilities of assessing and managing the
ground water resources of the country through ground water management studies,
exploration, evaluation and monitoring of ground water regime.
The main activities of the Board include macro level Hydrogeological investigations, deep
exploratory drilling coupled with remote sensing studies, geophysical studies and pumping
tests to study the subsurface Hydrogeological features and nation-wide monitoring of the
behavior of water table and water quality through a network of ground water observation
wells. The data generated from these investigations provide the scientific base for
preparation of ground water development schemes by the State Governments. Besides
advising the States on planning, financing and administration of ground water
development schemes, the Board undertakes research & development schemes, water
balance studies, conjunctive use studies and artificial recharge studies. The Board also
organizes training of personnel of different disciplines of Central and State Government
Organisations in ground water related activities.
Under the mandate given based on principles of economic, ecological efficiency and equity,
the major activities of Central Ground Water Board are to :
Periodically assess the country's ground water resources.
Monitor and guide ground water development to promote its sustainable management.
Develop, refine and disseminate basin specific technologies for sustainable ground
water development and management.
Plan augmentation, conservation and regulation of ground water resources.
Establish a National Information System to collect, store, process and disseminate
ground water data.
Promote the economic and efficient use of manpower, energy and equipment employed
in ground water sector.
Support and co-ordinate the efforts of State Government for planned development of
Foster International co-operation to promote scientific exchanges, acquisition of useful
Promote environmental awareness and water quality consciousness, impart training
and promote applied research.
The Central Ground Water Board is headed by the Chairman and has four main wings
namely 1) Exploratory Drilling & Material Management 2) Sustainable Management &
Liaison 3) Survey, Assessment & Monitoring and 4) Training and Technology Transfer.
Each wing is headed by a Member . The administrative & financial matters of the Board
are being dealt with by the Director (Administration) and Finance & Accounts Officer
The Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management wing is responsible for the drilling and
construction of Exploratory and other type of boreholes required for ground water
exploration including monitoring of stores, consumption and inventory for efficient and
economic machine utilization, purchase action in respect of drilling equipment, vehicles,
The Sustainable Management and Liaison wing looks after sustainable management of
ground water related policies, issues etc., work related to monitoring of ground water
regime and development, conjunctive use of surface and ground water, urban ground
water management, drought management, data collection, storage and retrieval etc.
The Survey, Assessment & Monitoring Wing of Central Ground Water Board is vested with
the responsibilities for undertaking Ground Water Management Studies, Aquifer mapping
and assessment of aquifer characteristics based on exploration and surveys, Hydro-
chemical analyses and studies, pollution studies, short term water supply investigations,
special studies, preparation of various Hydrogeological maps, Atlases, Master plans, State
reports, District reports, etc.
The Training and Technology Transfer Wing is vested with the responsibility of imparting
training at different levels to entrepreneurs, professionals and administrators concerned
with ground water development and management. The wing is also responsible for
formulation of overall training policy, assessment of training needs, conceptualization of
the training modules and the programme implementation strategy etc for the organization.
For undertaking the activities in field, 18 Regional Offices, each headed by a Regional
Director, have been established in the country. 11 State Unit Offices have also been
established in those states having large geographical area for better management of field
activities. 17 Divisional offices handle the exploratory drilling and related activities, each
headed by an Executive Engineer. Both the State Unit offices and Divisional Offices work
under the overall administrative control of the respective Regional offices. The details of
Regional office wise field formations and their jurisdiction are given in Annexure- 1. The
Board has about 500 Scientists, 200 Engineers; and about 3500 technical &
administrative/ministerial supporting staff. The Board has a fleet of 87 drilling rigs (33
Direct Rotary, 41 Down the Hole and 13 Percussion Combination types) for taking up
ACTIVITIES & ACHIEVEMENTS
Ground Water Management Studies
Ground Water Management Studies are carried out in different parts of various districts
to assess the impact of ground water development within a period of 5 years. The survey
has components of key hydrograph monitoring; pumping tests; collection of statistical data
pertaining to irrigation structure cropping pattern, Land use and hydrometeorological data.
The entire data generated during survey is analyzed & accordingly the future scenario for
development of ground water is visualized to further plan ground water development &
management in the area. During the year 2007-2008, an area of 1,64,087 Sq.km.
have been covered by the Board under Ground Water Management studies (Reappraisal
Hydrogeological Surveys) as against target of 1,61,807 Sq km. The Board gave a special
emphasis to this study in tribal and drought prone areas and 39402 & 48534 sq km area
respectively were covered to assess the status of ground water development in the area.
Ground Water Exploration
Exploratory drilling is carried out for establishing the sub-surface aquifer geometry,
followed by pumping test to evaluate the aquifer parameters & collection of water samples
from different zones. The entire exercise is aimed at quantitative & qualitative evaluation
of ground water in aquifers of the area. These studies help in identifying areas worthy of
further development and in guiding the States to adopt follow up action with regard to
ground water development on a scientific footing.
During 2007-08 the Board carried out the ground water exploration work with a fleet of
87rigs (Rotary-33, DTH-41, Percussion-13) and a total of 811 (463 EW, 158 OW, 188 PZ,
1 SH and 1 DW) bore holes were constructed departmentally against the target of 817
(443 Exploratory Wells, 179 Observation Wells, 195 Peizometers) boreholes. It is
heartening to report that out of 811 wells, 585 bore holes , 209 bore holes and 17 bore
holes were constricted in hard rock, alluvium and bouldary formation respectively. 196
wells and 256 wells were constructed for exploration in tribal and drought prone areas
respectively. The Board has so far drilled a total of 27567 bore holes to identify areas
worthy ground water development in the country till March, 2008.
Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells
The Board closely monitors the ground water regime in the Country through ~ 15640
Ground Water Observation Wells. It monitors changes in water level through these
stations 4 times a year (Jan/may/Aug/Nov) and collects water samples once a year in May
for water quality analysis. During the year the water level data so generated by these
network stations were analyzed to ascertain seasonal and long-term water level changes.
Depth to water and water level fluctuation maps were prepared to study the ground water
regime for the whole country.
To support and supplement ground water management studies, ground water exploration
and water supply investigations, the Board conduct geophysical investigations through its
regional offices. Under surface geophysical studies a total of 1793 Vertical Electrical
Sounding (VES) were conducted and resistivity profiling of about 39.89 line km was
covered. A total of 167 boreholes were logged in various parts of the country while the
meterage logged was about 22919 m. The Central Geophysical Cell is located at
Headquarter office, Faridabad and is responsible for the planning and programming of
geophysical activities of the entire Board.
Water samples collected during the course of ground water management studies , ground
water exploration, monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells, Water supply
investigations etc., are analysed at 16 well-equipped chemical laboratories located at its
regional directorates. During the year, a total of 17566 samples were analysed for basic,
643 samples for specific analysis, 2341 samples for heavy metal determinations and 104
samples for organic, for evaluating the ground water quality and its suitability for various
Artificial Recharge Studies
The Board is carrying out demonstrative artificial recharge studies in high water demand
areas with over-exploited / critical stage of ground water development. Artificial
Recharge studies have been completed in most of the Regions and impact assessment of
ongoing & completed Schemes, monitoring & report submission are in progress. During
2007-08, A demonstrative scheme on “Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to
Ground Water” has been taken up in the (1) Lingala, Pulivendula Vemula and Vemalli
blocks in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh (2)Gangavalli block in Salem district, Tamil Nadu
(3)Mallur block in Kolar district, Karnataka (4)Bel watershed, Amla & Multai blocks in Betul
District, Madhya Pradesh.(5) Upper reaches of Choti Kali Sindh river in parts of Sonkatch &
Bagli blocks in Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh. 122 artificial recharge structures have
been completed during the year.
Central Ground Water Board, is assisting Ministry of Water Resources in carrying out R&D
studies as a member of a sub-committee of Indian National Committee on Hydrology
(INCOH), with a view to accelerate the research & development programme in ground
water sector. This Committee examines the project proposals received by INCOH in the
field of ground water for their suitability for funding by MOWR and also monitors the
research schemes funded by INCOH. During the year, 9 New R&D proposals received are
under scrutiny where as, three proposals have been recommended to INCOH Secretariat
for further approval . Proposals have also been cleared for funding, which will be
monitored for their progress.
Reports and Information Booklets
Results of investigations carried out by Central Ground Water Board are suitably
documented in the form of reports and maps which are categorized under four main
heads viz. Ground Water Management study reports, district reports, state reports, basic
data reports and maps. 23 Ground Water Year Books, 30 District Ground Water
Resources Development & Management Reports, 4 State Reports, 4 Ground Water
Exploration Reports have been completed during 2007-2008 . 79 Ground Water
information Booklets have been also released during year in the different states.
‘Bhujal News’ is a quarterly journal published by Central Ground Water Board highlighting
the latest advances in ground water research. Besides scientific papers, the journal also
contains technical notes, news items and regular columns. The journal has more than
1500 readers from all over the country amongst the Central Govt, State Govt., academic
institutions and others. During the year 2007-08, the Vol. No 20 (3 & 4), special
issue on Rajasthan State and Vol. No. 21 special issue on Uttarakhand state has been
printed and issued. Vol. No. 22, 2007 issue is under finalization.
Water Supply Investigations
The Board carries out short-term water supply investigations for Government Agencies
and helps them in augmenting their water supply. Normally minimum financial
implications are charged from all other departments except Defence. The Board has
carried out a total of 185 investigations during this year .
Dissemination and Sharing of Technical Know-how
Central Ground Water Board, organized / participated in various
Seminars/symposia/workshop/conference with a view to share its expertise in Ground
Water field and also for getting exposure to new ideas / technological developments in
Ground Water science with others. The officers of the Board also participated in various
meetings /committees etc. to render advice on ground water development in specific area.
Re- Assessment of Dynamic Ground Water Resource
The Dynamic Ground Water Resource of the country has been jointly estimated by State
Ground Water Departments and Central Ground Water Board, based on the methodology
recommended by Ground Water Estimation Committee-1997 (GEC-97). The Ground
Resource was estimated as on March, 2004. The National level report on “Dynamic Ground
Water Resources of India” was finalized and approved by the R&D Advisory Committee in
its seventh meeting held at New Delhi on 19th
August, 2005. As per the report, the
Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resource for the entire country is 433 billion cubic
metre (bcm), Net Annual Ground Water Availability is estimated as 399 billion cubic
metre where as the Annual ground water draft for irrigation, Domestic & Industrial was
231 billion cubic metre and their Stage of Ground Water Development for the Country as a
whole is 58%.
Technical Examination of Major/Medium Irrigation Project proposals
As per directives of the steering committee on Irrigation projects constituted by Planning
Commission, the major and medium irrigation project reports and proposals sent by State
Governments through Central Water Commission (CWC)/Command area Development
(CAD) Authority were scrutinized and cleared by CGWB from Ground Water Development
and impact assessment point of view. Suggestions were made for modification / addition
of ground water development in these schemes. During the year 2007-2008, Nineteen
major irrigation project proposals of Central Water Commission and 2 R&D proposals
were examined and area specific recommendations were made.
Human Resources Development
It has been the earnest endeavor of the Board to keep its technical personnel abreast with
the latest developments in all aspects related to ground water development &
management. Trainees from State Departments and candidates from abroad are included
in the training programme being organized by the Board.
Seventeen training courses including one special training course out of proposed 16
training programmes have been conducted successfully during the year under Rajiv
Gandhi National Ground Water Training and Research Institute. Total 290 trainees from
various disciplines have been trained in the above training courses conducted at
Hydrology Project II
The Hydrology Project - Phase –II (HP-II) is a follow up project of HP-I. Its major thrust
is to use Hydrological Information System (HIS) data effectively and efficiently for water
resources planning and management. A longer-term aim of the project is to assist the
Governments at both Central and State levels to address the issues of intra-sectoral
demands and overall resource planning and management through the establishment of
core hydrological organizations serving all specialized water agencies. The expenditure
incurred on the project till March, 2008 is Rs 114.10 lakhs.
Mathematical Modeling Studies
The Central Ground Water Board has undertaken two studies in Ranchi and Patna urban
area on ground water modeling during the year. Mathematical modeling have been taken
up in Madaram watershed for creating the data base for simulation of mathematical model
and Kottukal thodu water shed of Neyyar basin for groundwater flow and the impact of
various stresses on the flow regime. Concept note has been prepared for comprehensive
modeling studies in Yamuna Flood Plain Delhi in progress.
Remote Sensing Studies
The following studies were initiated during 2007-08
Application of Remote sensing and conventional methods in Impact assessment of
existing Artificial Recharge structures in Hosadurga taluk, Chitradurga district, Karnataka;
Remote sensing studies in Neyyar basin in Kerala; Feasibility studies for reclamation of
Ravines using remote sensing techniques in Sawai Madhopur district, Rajasthan ;
Demarcation of younger alluvium (Vulnerable to arsenic contamination) along Ganga
River, Bihar in collaboration with BIT Mesra ; Hydrogeomorphological mapping and
delineation of ground water potential areas using remote sensing techniques in Ganjam
district, Orissa ; Feasibility studies for demarcating Ravines area in part of Sengar river
watershed, Kanpur Dehat, Uttar Pradesh; Ground Water Development and Management
using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand ; Remote
Sensing Studies in Lakhimpur district, Assam ; Remote Sensing Studies in Northern parts
of Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh ; Feasibility studies for reclamation of Ravines
using remote sensing techniques in Mandsaur and Ujjain districts, Madhya Pradesh .
Publicity and Public Awareness
With a view to generate awareness among the masses, "Water Resources Day" is
celebrated every year since 1986. The Board has played a very active role in organizing
Water Resources Day functions jointly with CWC and other State Govt. Organisations. On
these occasions, emphasis was laid on educating the rural population on various aspects
of water resources in the country. Important technical achievements of the Board were
brought to the knowledge of the public through radio talks, television interviews, telecast
of a short film on ground water pollution, Newspaper reports, release of district reports
and Atlases at various public functions.
Central Ground Water Authority
Central Ground Water Authority has organized Mass Awareness programmes and
Training’s on Rain Water Harvesting including Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting at
different locations of the Country, with the aim of educating the common people about
judicious and optimum utilization of ground water. 20 Mass awareness programs were
organized during the year for ground water conservation, artificial recharge and ground
water protection and 22 Ground water management training programs were also
organized in different parts of the country for designing rain water harvesting structures
for augmenting the water.
During 2007-08, CGWA has notified 43 Blocks/ Mandals / Talukas etc. in the country
for regulation of groundwater development in the states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar
Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, NCT Delhi
and Union Territory of Diu. So far, 65 Blocks/ Mandals / Talukas in the country have
been notified for registration of groundwater structures in the states of Haryana,
Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, NCT Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry. 142 drilling
agencies were registered with CGWA including renewal of registration certificates. During
the period (April 2007 to March 2008) Forty four (44) industries have been accorded for
The Expenditure of 6098.86 lakhs(Gross) & 5120.00 lakhs(Net) and 5951.37 lakhs of
rupees were incurred by the Board during the year under various Plan and Non-plan sub-
heads respectively to carry out various activities mentioned above.
1.1 HISTORY OF CGWB
The Central Ground Water Board, as the National apex organization under the Ministry
of Water Resources, Govt. of India is vested with the responsibilities to carry out ground
water management studies, exploration, monitoring of development, management and
regulation of country's vast ground water resources. A brief history of the organization
An Exploratory Tubewells Organisation (ETO) was created in 1954 as a subordinate office
under the then Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Community Development and Cooperation
(Department of Agriculture ) to carry out ground water exploration in the alluvial areas of
the country to delineate the regional aquifer systems and evaluate their yield potential.
October 1970 the ETO was renamed as Central Ground Water Board. At that
time, it was felt that there was need to have a national unified organization for all works
related to ground water surveys, exploration, assessment and management in the
country. On the recommendations of the Committee on Science and Technology, the
Standing Group of Ministers on Science and Technology chaired by Prime Minister Smt.
Indira Gandhi, in its meeting on Sept 9, 1971 approved the merger of Ground Water
Wing of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) with the Central Ground Water Board. The
merger was effected on August 1, 1972 which gave all the administrative and financial
powers and flexibility of operation necessary for CGWB’s effective functioning. With
this, Central Ground Water Board was constituted as an apex organization at the national
level with a full time Chairman and two full time Members namely the Chief
Hydrogeologist and the Chief Engineer.
In order to streamline staffing pattern, SIU carried out detailed study (1980) and gave
its report on staffing pattern of Headquarters, Regional, Divisional and District Unit
A High Level Multi-disciplinary Committee (HLMC) was set up in 1989 to review the role,
functions and responsibilities of CGWB in terms of achievements and developments over
the past three decades. The HLMC report (1990) highlighted the importance of ground
water development and indicated the measures to be taken for achievement of tasks and
mandate assigned to CGWB. The Committee reviewed the functions and gave the
In order to provide scientific and technical support to the mandate, Central Ground Water
Board conduct training programmes for various levels of ground water professionals/
sub-professionals from CGWB, States, Universities and NGOs. The courses include
induction level courses for newly recruited scientists, engineers and drilling professionals;
refresher courses for scientists on advanced techniques of ground water investigation,
development and management; and training of trainers. The Board had established Rajiv
Gandhi National Ground Water Training & Research Institute in 1997 at Raipur.
Infrastructure facilities were created by redeploying officers and staff from Central
Ground Water Board. The building of the Institute has since been taken over by the
Chhattisgarh State to house Legislative Assembly in 2000. It is proposed to relaunch the
institute at Raipur in the newly allotted land by the Government of Chhattisgarh, SFC
Memorandum in this regard is under submission. Presently the training courses are being
conducted at Central Headquarters and various Regional Offices of the Board.
Central Ground Water Authority has been constituted under Section 3 (3) of the
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regulate and control development and
management of ground water resources in the country.
The Authority has been conferred with the following powers: (i) Exercise of powers
under section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for issuing directions and
taking such measures in respect of all the matters referred to in sub-section (2) of
section 3 of the said Act.(ii) To resort to penal provisions contained in sections 15 to
21 of the said Act.(iii) To regulate and control, management and development of
ground water in the country and to issue necessary regulatory directions for the
purpose. (iv) Exercise of powers under section 4 of the Environment (Protection) Act,
1986 for the appointment of officers.
1.2 MANDATE AND OBJECTIVES
The future of our national food security system as well as the quality of life and livelihood
of millions of our people will, to a large extent depend on our ability to conserve and
utilize ground water resources in an environment friendly, economically efficient and
socially equitable manner. On the basis of the principles of ecology, efficiency,
economics and equity, mandate of the Board has been postulated below:
"Develop and disseminate technologies, monitor and implement national
policies for the scientific and sustainable development and management of
India's ground water resources including their exploration, assessment,
conservation, augmentation, protection from pollution and distribution based on
principles of economic and ecological efficiency and equity”.
Commensurate with the above mandate, the objectives laid down for the Central Ground
Water Board are:-
1.2.1 Periodically assess the country's ground water resources and publish, once in 3
years, a report on the status of India's ground water resources.
1.2.2 Formulate perspective plans, basin or sub-basin wise, for harnessing ground water
resources in a phased or need based manner and resolve regional imbalances.
1.2.3 Monitor ground water development in the country and promote its sustainable
management on principles of ecology, economics, efficiency and equity.
1.2.4 Develop, refine and disseminate, on its own as well as in coordination with other
agencies, basin-specific technologies for sustainable ground water development and
management involving priority areas such as major command areas for conjunctive
use of ground water and surface water, monitoring, prevention and remedy of
pollution and saline ingress and the location, design, operation and maintenance
devices, recycling and reuse of waste water, and solutions to other problems of
1.2.5 Plan augmentation, conservation, protection and regulation of ground water
resources keeping in view the existing and future ground water demand scenario.
1.2.6 Establish a National Information System in collaboration with State Governments
and other agencies to collect, store, process and disseminate ground water data as
part of an overall water resources data bank.
1.2.7 Forecast the manpower, equipment, energy and financial requirements for the
ground water sector, in the context of demand projections.
1.2.8 Promote the economic and efficient use of manpower, energy and equipment
employed in the ground water sector through various measures including setting
up performance appraisal and management information systems, training,
development of technical and managerial skills, and personal development.
1.2.9 Support and coordinate the efforts of State Ground Water Organizations for the
planned development of their ground water resources on the above lines, specially
where inter-state issues arise.
1.2.10Foster international cooperation to promote scientific exchanges, acquisition of
useful technologies including the use of renewable sources of energy for pumping
ground water and assistance in other developing countries.
1.2.11Establish benchmarks and methodologies for ground water studies in coordination
with the State Governments.
1.2.12 Promote environmental awareness and water quality consciousness.
1.2.13Establish a National Institute for Ground Water Research, Training & Management
and organize All India Coordinated Research Projects involving appropriate
institutions and universities, in order to foster the growth of a national grid of R&D
institutions, covering different aspects of ground water conservation and
1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL SET UP
The Central Ground Water Board is headed by the Chairman and has four full time
Members namely, Member (Exploratory Drilling & Material Management), Member
(Sustainable Management & Liaison), Member (Survey Assessment & Monitoring) and
Member (Training & Technology Transfer). The other Members of the Board are all ex-
officio being the nominees of institutions in related fields of expertise. The ex-officio
1. The Joint Secretary (A), Ministry of Water Resources.
2. The Joint Secretary & Financial Adviser, Ministry of Water Resources
3. The Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, New
4. The Chief Engineer, IMO (WP & P), CWC, Sewa Bhawan, New Delhi.
5. The General Manager, ONGC, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Dehradun.
Central Ground Water Board has four main wings. Each wing is headed by a member
The Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management Wing broadly looks after the drilling and
construction of Exploratory Tubewells and other types of bore holes required for
assessment of aquifer parameters during ground water exploration. Other activities of
this wing include monitoring of Stores, consumption and inventory for efficient and
economic machine utilization, Procurement of drilling equipment, vehicles, instruments
etc. This wing also looks for the need of improvement in drilling technology, design of
abstraction structures, improvement of efficiency of pumps and other water lifting
devices, maintenance and up keeping of drilling machinery and related equipment in the
The Sustainable Management and Liaison Wing looks after sustainable management of
ground water related policies & issues, works related to monitoring of ground water
regime and development and conjunctive use of surface and ground water for the entire
country. It also undertakes studies related to recycling and reuse of ground water, urban
ground water management, Drought management, Regulation of ground water
development and model legislation, National Information System for ground water data
collection, storage and retrieval, Planning and Programme formulation for ground water
development including techno-economic studies, analysis and associated aspects of
ground water development and technical examination of major, medium and minor
The Survey, Assessment & Monitoring Wing has the responsibility of monitoring the
works being done in ground water management studies, aquifer mapping and
assessment of aquifer characteristics based on exploration and surveys, hydrochemical
analysis and studies, pollution studies, short term water supply investigations, special
ground water studies, preparation of hydrogeological maps, Atlases, Master plans, State
reports, District reports, etc. The other activities of this wing include ground water
balance studies, periodic assessment of ground water resources and potential,
augmentation of ground water resources including artificial recharge and monitoring of
artificial recharge studies, ground water zoning for guiding economic activity areas,
rationalization of water rates, forecasting manpower, energy and financial requirements
for ground water sector, site selection for Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission,
dissemination of data & information to various user agencies and publication of quarterly
magazine "Bhujal News" by the Board.
The Training and Technology Transfer Wing of the Board is vested with the responsibility
for laying the overall training policy, assessment of training needs, conceptualization of
the training modules and the programme implementation strategy, identification of thrust
area needing technology import from advanced sources, maintenance of effective liaison
and interaction with voluntary agencies and Non Governmental Organisations and the
other renowned national and international bodies for training and research purposes. The
Member heading this wing also functions as the Principal of Rajiv Gandhi National Ground
Water Training and Research Institute of the Board.
The administrative & financial matters of the Board are being dealt with by the Director
(Administration) and Finance & Accounts Officer (FAO) respectively.
In order to achieve better results in the Water Resources Sector and have better
coordination with the State Government departments, Central Ground Water Board had
undertaken various studies in the above mentioned fields being monitored by four wings
of the Board through 18 Regional Directorates, supported by 17 engineering divisions, 11
State Unit Offices for carrying out different investigations. The Board had a fleet of 85
rigs for taking up drilling operations during 2007-2008.
1.4 ACTIVITIES OF THE BOARD DURING 2007-2008
The following activities had been undertaken during the period 2007-2008.
1.4.1 Ground Water Management Studies
1.4.2 Ground Water Exploration aided by Drilling.
1.4.3 Monitoring of Ground Water Observation Wells.
1.4.4 Short Term Water Supply Investigations.
1.4.5 Periodic Assessment of Ground Water Resources.
1.4.6 Technical Documentation and Publication of Maps & Reports.
1.4.7 Publication of Quarterly Journal "Bhujal-News".
1.4.8 Taking over of Wells by State Govt.
1.4.9 Organizing Exhibitions, Seminars, Workshops etc.
1.4.10 Hydrochemical Analysis.
1.4.11 Geophysical Studies.
1.4.12 Hydrological and Hydro meteorological Studies.
1.4.13 Mathematical Modeling Studies.
1.4.14 Artificial Recharge studies.
1.4.15 Organizing training of Central and State Government personnel.
1.4.16 R & D Studies.
1.4.17 Basic Research in Hydrogeology/ Special studies
1.5 ANNUAL ACTION PLAN 2007-2008
The activities of the Board are being pursued on a continuing basis as per National
Water Policy (2002) and in accordance with the overall development strategy for the XI
Ground Water Management studies were carried in more utility oriented way and in
areas facing ground water problems like decline in water levels, water logging, salinity
ingress and quality deterioration, and other problems were accorded priority.
In ground water exploration, emphasis was given to carry ground water exploration
activities on long-term planning and schemes were prepared for different geologic
formations and areas. As far as possible, contiguous and composite areas hitherto
unexplored, were selected keeping in view scientific requirements and priorities of State
Governments were also taken into consideration. Thrust was given to explore areas
having artesian flow, bouldary and hard rock formations. Ground Water Exploration in
alluvial areas was done to delineate geometry of aquifer systems by constructing slim
holes. During the year, special emphasis was given on tribal, drought and desert areas in
exploratory program of the Board. Special studies for computation of specific yield of
phreatic aquifers in different parts of the country was also the part of exploratory
The Central Ground Water Board is implementing the Central Sector Scheme "Studies on
Recharge of Ground Water". Under the scheme, recharge structures are constructed by
State Government departments, local NGOs, VOs or other beneficiaries under the
technical guidance of the Board. Under the scheme, funds were provided by the Board
for pilot recharge projects and the implementing agencies were encouraged to replicate
similar types of structures in other areas with their own funds.
Conjunctive use studies were taken up with the objectives to ascertain the
Hydrogeological conditions in command areas, to identify areas affected by water logging
and salinity, to assess the availability of ground water. The studies provided insight of
the problem and helped to formulate action plan for coordinated use of surface and
ground water to ensure development on optimal level.
Water logging is a common phenomenon in canal command areas, which causes serious
social and economic problems. Micro level mapping of a few water logged areas were
taken up to understand and mitigate the problem. Feasibility studies were also carried
out to suggest anti water logging measures for reclaiming the affected areas.
Remote sensing and application of GIS as supplementary tool has been considerably
utilized to map geomorphological feature, change in land use, fracture zones, vulnerable
areas of pollution etc which helped in locating promising areas for ground water
exploration and development. These studies provided additional update scientific
information in synoptic manner about land use pattern and its temporal changes to
ground water exploratory programme, reappraisal surveys, ground water pollution
studies, water logging condition, erosion problem and artificial recharge studies taken by
the Board during the year.
2. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Ground Water Management Studies are being carried by the Board at district level to
evaluate the changes in quantity & quality in the ground water regime owing to
development and also to identify related issues for future management strategies. A
major part of replenishment of ground water is through infiltration from rainfall. Return
flow from irrigation and seepage from surface channels and reservoirs also contribute
substantially to the ground water recharge. The effect of ground water withdrawals and
out-flows are directly measurable through water table. Since all these inputs and
outputs frequently change with time, the ground water situation is being periodically
reappraised. As the development of resource leads to changes in its regime and water
quality therefore planning for further development of the resource is to be done on the
basis of findings of the studies, which provide valuable information for reorienting ground
water development programme keeping in view the emerging scenarios. During the year
2007-2008, an area of 1,64,087 Sq.km. have been covered by the Board under Ground
Water Management studies as against target of 1,61,807 Sq km. State/District wise
target vis-a-vis achievements during the year 2007-2008 is shown in Table 2.1 and fig.
Table : 2.1 TARGET AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF
GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES DURING 2007-08
States Districts Target
1 Jammu & Kashmir Doda 3000 3000
Baramulla & Kupwara 500 500
2 Himachal Pradesh Solan 1936 1936
3 Punjab Jalandhar 2662 2662
4 Rajasthan Alwar 8720 8720
Barmer 6616 6616
5 Gujarat Banaskantha 3000 3100
6 Madhya Pradesh Satna 7502 7502
Chhattarpur 3423 3423
7 Chhattisgarh Dhamtari 3000 3000
Kanker 3000 3000
8 Maharashtra Parbhani 6000 6173
Ratnagiri 3000 3050
Ahmadnagar 3000 3103
9 Uttar Pradesh Bijnor(N) 4561 4561
Lucknow(N) 2528 2528
Meerut 2590 2590
Hamirpur(D) 2010 2010
Badaun 2584 2584
10 Uttarakhand Dehradun 3088 3088
Hardwar 2360 2360
Champawat 1781 1781
Pithoragarh 4100 4100
11 Bihar Samastipur 3000 3000
Vaishali 2016 2016
Madhubani 2501 2501
12 Jharkhand Kodarma 1770 1770
SALIENT FINDINGS OF GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STUDIES
2.1 Jammu & Kashmir
Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in two areas namely in Doda district
and Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara districts. A total area of 3500 sq.km (Doda-3000 &
lineation’s of aquifers for further development
e area will get further
Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara -500 sqkm) was covered during the survey
2.1.1 Doda District: - The survey was aimed at understanding the hydro-geological
set up of the area, mode of occurrence of groundwater, recharge and discharge
characteristics and chemical quality and de
for domestic and irrigation purposes. Besides this, relevant data viz., agriculture, climate
& rainfall, land utilization, discharge of river/nallas & cropping pattern etc was collected
and analysed. During the course of investigation, apart from the hydro-geological
traverses 10 springs and 48 hand pumps were inventoried and 73 water samples were
collected to ascertain the quality of groundwater. 15 samples were analysis of iron in
Groundwater occurrence mainly in the form of spring is observed in the
Groundwater recharge in the area mainly takes place from rainfall and snow fall in the
higher reaches. In the unconsolidated formation groundwater also occurs under water
table conditions in the valleys. Fracture porosity rather than grain porosity is found to
be an effective factor from point of view of occurrence of groundwater in the area. The
occurrence and movement of groundwater in different aquifer is controlled by the
structural features in addition to topography. Groundwater occurs in cracks, crevices and
joints of these rocks. On the consideration of the facts mentioned earlier, it is felt that
Kishtwar plateau area has groundwater potentialities.
It is probable that the high level springs are not tapping the entire flow in the vicinity. It
appears some water is passing away as subsurface flow along the spring line Gurdesh
Nag which is a substantial source of water supply in the Kishtwar area needs further
development. This particular source of water is not tapped to its full capacity, if it
properly developed to the full extent. Hence this source alone is ample for water supply
in the Kishtwar area. In Bhaderwah area the source of water supply is from khuls and
canals. Surface flow in the area is perennial. In Doda area the source of water supply is
from khuls. Ganapat spring is the only potential water supply in the Doda area. This
source should be tapped for the Doda water supply and if this source is exploited to its
full capacity the existing water supply of this drought pron
augmented. In Ramban area the source of water supply is mainly from Sarudah Nallah.
Metra spring is the potential source of water supply in Ramban area. The quality of
groundwater in the area of investigation is good for domestic and irrigation purposes.
It is fresh and potable.
Groundwate The main source of water supply in the area is from nallahs
and springs. Generally these sources are free from pollution because of hilly terrain.
But the groundwater in some areas is being affected by Fluoride and iron. In Ghat
area, the fluoride content is observed above permissible limits as per the standards set
up by BIS. In Bhaderwah area the groundwater contains more iron than permissible
limits. In these areas it requires detail sampling in future.
2.1.2: Parts of Baramulla and Kupwara Districts: The present study has been
carried out with a view to ascertain the changes in ground water regime with reference
to impact of global climatic changes as well as human impact on ground water regime in
ter in different geological and geomorphological units. The surface hydrological
ns Lolab, Kahmil, Pohru and Ningal basins have separate entities of their own. High
these inventoried wells, data generated from the exploratory drilling is utilized for
s than the 1 m below ground level all around the Wular lake. During the present
study, 34 wells were inventoried and monitored. The NHNS located in the study area are
and 4 % of wells are in the range of 6 to 8 m bgl. It is
observed that the water levels are shallow during May-June and steadily declining up to
y area is generally fresh with EC ranging from 97 to 1835 µS/cm at 25°
parts of Baramulla and Kupwar
The study area is divided into different hydro-geological units based on the availability of
Karewa Plateaus have their own hydrological entity. Ground water occurs under
unconfined to semi-confined conditions in fine to coarse grained sand, gravel and
boulders occurring at few places in alluvial formation and silty sand to fine sand mixed
with clays and at places coarse sand and gravel occurring in Karewa formations.
Most of the wells inventoried are mainly dug wells and few hand pumps. Apart from
preparation of ground water potential maps for deeper aquifers. Dug wells located in
upper Karewas generally tap sand and silty layers and water level is generally 2 to 4 m
bgl. Depth to water level becomes deeper towards higher reaches of the area falling in
the depth range of 4 to 6 m bgl. Depth to water levels in alluvial areas is very shallow
also monitored after a gap of about 20 years and water levels are compared with that of
earlier ones. Statistical analysis of the data shows that depth to water level (DTW) in
32% of wells fall within the range of 0 to 2.00 m bgl, maximum of them are less than
1.00 m bgl. 42% of wells fall within the range of 2 to 4 m bgl, 18% of wells fall with in
the depth range of 4 to 6 m bgl
November- December. It is observed that there is minor variations in depth to water
levels in the area with compared to depth to water levels of 1980. Water table contours
generally follow the topographic contours and they are closely spaced representing the
fine grained nature of the aquifer system and low permeability.
Yield characters of deep tubewells present in the area have been analyzed. Groun
water from deeper aquifer is generally associated with marshy gasses and cont
which is basically geo-genic in nature. The ground water is fresh and potable and is fit for
Ground Water Problems: Present ground water development in study area is low and
only few tube wells are present in the study area. However, most of the tube wells in the
all the ground
study area are artesian, auto-flowing in nature. The main problems being encountered i
the development of ground water resources are- high artesian pressure, presence of
marshy gasses and high iron content in deeper aquifers. The areas with
water problems are demarcated and remedial measures are being recommended.
Water logging is another problem which is also causing problems to the people living in
the study area.
he Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Solan district of Himachal
.2.1 :Solan district :- Hydrogeologically, the area is divided into two units namely
nconsolidated valley fills / alluvium occurring in the valley areas and forms potential
quifers in the district & the semi-consolidated formations belonging to Tertiary and older
d are the main ground water
structures that provide water for domestic and irrigation in major rural and urban centers.
n the entire study area and in detailed study
onsolidated hard rocks which forms the poor aquifer and occupies the hilly areas of the
istrict. Springs, dug wells, hand pumps and tubewells
During pre-monsoon period inventoried 49 dugwells, 81 springs and 22 hand pumps.
Depth to water level was ranging from 0.56 mbgl to 49 mbgl and discharge of springs
ranging from seepage to 15.36 lps. During the post monsoon period remonitoring of key
wells and key springs were carried out i
Annual water level fluctuation has been worked out by comparing depth to water level
recorded during May 2006 & May 2007. Average fall & rise is 0.33 & 0.74 m
respectively. The depth to water is deep in the vicinity of the hills and is shallower in the
low lying areas mainly along or near the stream/river channels. Ground water follows the
general topography of the area.
Ground Water Problems: Most of the ground water issues and problems in the district
are localized and need to be treated independently. Presently large development of
ground water is observed in industrial belts of Nalagarh valley wherein fall of water level
down to six meters have been observed in some parts. Thus, ground water level
epletion and also vulnerability to ground water pollution is major issues in this industriald
belt. The quality of ground water in this area is observed to be good and potable.
Recommendations: The following recommendation emerged during the study
In alluvial areas of Nalagarh valley, though there is scope for ground water development
as stage of ground water development is only 27.6 %, however, there is need to adopt
cautious and phased manner ground water development approach in view of depleting
water levels in some parts. This industrial area is highly prone and vulnerable to surface
& ground water pollution thus water quality monitoring at close network is essential.
. The climate of the district can be classified as tropical and dry sub-humid. The
drinking water supply schemes in the district are based on ground water sources through
67 tubewells (Rural
Water Supply) were monitored for pre and post-monsoon period. The depth to water
in varies from 6.95 m bgl at Alawalpur (block- Adampur) to 30.50
bgl at Kotla Gazar (block- Shahkot). Larger part of the district is covered under water
level in the depth range of 15 to 20 m.
Proper waste/effluent disposal measures are required to be adopted by industrial units.
There is need to protect traditional water harvesting structures like ponds, tanks, talavs
to utilize these for rain water harvesting and recharging shallow aquifers.
Roof top rainwater harvesting practices can be adopted in hilly areas and urban areas,
since the district receives fair amount of rainfall. Traditional water storage systems need
to be revived.
During 2007-2008, the target for Ground Water Management Studies was 2662 Sq.Km
covering Jalandhar district of Punjab State.
2.3.1 Jalandhar district:- The area forms a part of Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain. The
district is drained by river Satluj, along with its tributaries. A network of canals traverses
deep tubewells ranging in depth from 100 m 150 m.
In all, 19 no. of observation wells (Dug well), 13 piezeometers and
level the district area
Chemical quality of water from shallow aquifer reveals that by and large, the quality of
ground water is suitable for domestic/drinking/irrigation purposes as all the chemical
parameters are within the permissible limits set by BIS except fluoride concentrations
hich has been found at three places and nitrate at six places to be higher than the
some extent by Manganese. Iron concentration varies
from 0.12 to 5.29 mg/l and even higher upto 13.97 mg/l and found in about 75 % of the
nducted to establish unit
well draft. The shallow tubewells in the district range from 20 to 130m. Tubewells
ere are number of industries which discharge their
effluent either in the open drain or in white Bein. The types of industries located in the
nd 12 no. normal) of tubewells along the
drains, white Bein, black Bein and Satluj were collected. Total of 6 treated and normal
Ground Water Problems
permissible limits. The water is overall in alkaline nature. An overall review of trace
element analysis indicates that the ground water is polluted/ contaminated by heavy
metals like Iron and Lead and to
water samples more than the permissible limit of 1.00 mg/l. The Lead concentration
varies from 0.03 to 0.32 mg/l. In 70 % of water samples, it is more than the permissible
limit of 0.05 mg/l.
Ground water draft sample survey was carried out in the district. The major withdrawal
of ground water in the district is by irrigation sector. In order to calculate the actual
withdrawal of ground water for irrigation, field studies were co
tapping the aquifer from 22m to 130 m yields 524 to 1188 lpm. Most of the shallow tube
wells are run by electric motors. As on February 2007 there were 66149 electric motors
& 3135 diesel motors working in the district.
Ground water draft samples are taken from a total of 35 locations in the district. The
unit well draft calculated for the monsoon period is 3.8 ham and for the non monsoon
period is 0.73ham. The annual unit draft of the district is around 2.16 ham. During
investigation it was observed that th
city are Textile, Paint, Sports goods, Engineering goods and Leather. The tanneries have
their own effluent treatment plant to remove toxic elements from waste water. The
sewage water and industrial effluent are being discharged into Garha drain and
Kalasingha drain. Garha drain meets the white Bein whereas Kalasingha drain meet black
Bein. To know the extent of pollution cause by these drains to ground water, treated (12
no.) and normal (12 no.) water samples of drains , white Bein , black Bein ,river Satluj
and ground water samples (12 no. treated a
samples were also collected from Leather complex from the tubewells and treatment
: The main issues of concerns are over exploitation of ground
d for detail
hydrogeological studies. Out of this, 110 no. of new key wells were established for water
water through out the district and concentration of heavy metal ions especially in
Nakodar block of the district for which samples have been analysed.
Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in Alwar district and Sheo block of
Barmer district of Rajasthan during the Annual Action Plan 2007-08 covering a total of
15336 sq. km area.
2.4.1 Part of Alwar District: Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in
(Thanagazi, Rajgarh, Ramgarh,Reni, Laxmangarh and Kathumar blocks of Alwar district,
covering an area of 4297 sq.km.
During the pre and post monsoon studies, the target area has been covered and 185
nos. of wells including dugwell, DCB and tubewell etc. were inventorie
level monitoring in the entire area considering the hydrogeological formation of the area.
During the survey, 92 no. of water samples were collected for chemical analysis to
understand the hydrochemistry of the area. One block i.e. Laxmangarh has been selected
for ground water resource estimation as per GEC methodology.
The climate of the study area is semi-arid type. The mean annual rainfall in the area
ranges between 541.8mm (Laxmangarh) and 726.4mm (Thanagazi).
Geomorphologically, the Southwest and central part is covered by continuous high ridges
o artzites, phyllites with intermountain valleys, while on the eastern and south-
n the alluvial
formation and under water table condition in hard rocks. The major water bearing
he chemical quality of ground water occurring in hard rock areas in the south and
.4.2 Part of Alwar District:Area under survey covers 4423 sq.km. of Neemrana,
so occurs under water table condition in weathered and
actured portion of the hard rocks. In most of the area, dug cum borewells in alluvium
allow in the south western, eastern parts and in Sahibi
eastern part , there is more or less sandy plain with isolated small hills. The area is
drained by ephemeral Ruparel river and its tributaries. Agriculture activity is by and large
confined to traditional Kharif cultivation depending upon monsoon rainfall. The main
crops are Bajra, Gram and Mustard.
Ground water occurs mainly under phreatic and confined condition i
formation in the area is alluvium comprising of sand, silt, clay, kankar and gravel.The
hard rock aquifer exists in the south western part of the area which is made up of
quartzite, phyllite, schist and slate etc.In the hard rock, occurrence and movement of
ground water is controlled by fractures and joist whereas in the alluvium it occurs in the
interstices of unconsolidated sand.
Depth to water level varies from 6 to 42 mbgl in the alluvial formation while in the hard
rock, it ranges form 1.5 mgl to 40mbgl in the study area. The yield of wells ranges from
70 to 125 m3
/day in alluvium and 25 to 90 m3
/day in the hard rock area.
southwest parts it is generally fresh and potable. In the case of alluvium formation, it is
fresh and potable except in few small localized patches which exists in the eastern part of
Kathumar amd Laxmangarth block. High salinity of water is reported in and around the
Khudiyana, Titpuri, Piplikhera etc. in Kathumar block where EC ranges from 5000 to
16500 ms/cm at 250
C. The fluoride content overall in the area is within the permissible
limit. The maximum content of fluoride 2.4 mg/l is reported in the Hingota village of
Behror, Mandawar, Bansur, Kotkasim, Tijara, Kishangarh blocks of Alwar district . The
climate of the area is semi-arid type. Geomorphologically, south west and few central
parts of the region are covered by Delhi Super Group of rocks with intermountain valleys.
The drainage of the area is controlled by the major rivers Sahibi and its tributaries (all
are ephemeral in nature) and flows from south west to north east or north.
Ground water occurs under unconfined condition in the phreatic aquifer and under semi-
confined condition in deeper zones in Quaternary sediment forming principal aquifer.
Apart from this, ground water al
which are very common yield 300 m3
/day to 600 m3
/day for a drawdown of a few
metres. Dug wells have dried up and converted into DCB owing to incessant declining of
water level attributed by over ground water for irrigation. The tube wells discharge
ranges from 200 lpm to 1000 lpm.
The depth to water level varies widely from 5.47 (Nimli) to 66.67 mbgl (Kankardeepa).
Water level is comparatively sh
river basin especially along the river where as it deeper in the north western and western
easonal water level fluctuation (2007) data indicated that 37% (
C in major part of the area. The fluoride concentration varies from
.22mg/l to 4.29mg/l however, it lies within 1.5 mg/l in major part of the area.
. The area falls in the arid zone of Western
ajasthan which is characterized by scanty and erratic rainfall and extreme temperature
ccupied by Malani granites and these form poor aquifer. Depth to water level varies
parts of the area. S
23no.)of wells show rise, 61% (38 no.)fall and 2% (1no.) wells no change in water le
The amplitude of declining water level ranges from (-)0.08m to (-)4.20m.
The study reveals that in general water is suitable for domestic, irrigational and
industrial use. However, salinity has been noticed at few localities in northern part of the
study area. The EC ranges from 495 to 9000 ms/cm at 250
C whereas rests within 3000
All the blocks viz. Behror, Mandawar, Bansur, Kotkasim, Tijara, Kishangarh have more
than 100% stage of ground water development ranging from 125.44% in Behror to a
maximum of 220.65% in Bansur block. All blocks have been categorized under over-
2.4.3 Sheo Block, Barmer district :Sheo block falls in drought prone zone and forms
part of Great Indian Thar Desert which over the years suffering from scarcity of water.
An area of 6616 sq.km. is covered under the studies. The region is covered by wind
blown sand. Sand dunes form a prominent feature of topography. The drainage of the
area is under developed and internal
variation. The average annual rainfall is 220 mm and repeated drought is a common
phenomenon. The district is poor in forest and has sandy soil in the study area.
In the study area, three aquifers have been demarcated which are Upper Tertiary
sandstone, Lathi sandstone and Malani Granites. Tertiary Sandstone and Lathi Sandstone
are main water bearing formation covering 80% of the area while rest of area i.e.
from 5 to 115mbgl. Ground water occurs in all the formations but the most productive
are the Tertiary sandstone and Lathi sandstone. In semi-consolidated Tertiary and Lathi
formations, the ground water occurs under unconfined to confined conditions and Malani
granites under phreatic condition. The ground water quality in the area varies widely
from potable to saline.
Tertiary formation consists of alternate layers of clay and shale which are unproductive
aquifers but Tertiary sandstone of this formation is productive aquifer. The Lathi
formation consists of semi-consolidated, medium to coarse grained sandstone with
subordinate amount of gravel is a comparatively high yielding aquifer. Malani granites
are practically impervious sparingly jointed and weathered in to a impervious residium
lessening the water bearing capacity of this formation, the water yielding capacity of the
rock units decrease with depth.
Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Parts of Banaskantha
district, covering an area of about 3100 Sq. Km.
2.5.1 Banaskantha District: Ground Water Management studies were taken up in
parts of Banaskantha district covering an area of about 3100 Sq. Km. Detailed
hydrogeological study was carried out exclusively in Deesa taluka comprising a
The drainage network in the study area is constituted mainly by the Banas and its
tributary Sipu. The river Banas has a wide channel and exhibits braided nature. Minor
streams/rivers, viz. Rel and Ravi originate from hills of Rajsthan and flow in south
esterly and westerly directions in Dhanera taluka and disappears in the sandy tracts
total of 149 key wells were established and 84 water samples were collected for
lls varies from 80 mbgl to 300 mbgl and the water level
aries between 45 mbgl to 100 mbgl. Deeper water level is noticed particularly in the
hanera taluka ground water occurs within the weathered and fractured zones under
ound water potential is primarily governed by the thickness
nd the extent of weathered zone.
ater is potable in most part of the study area with EC varying
etween 500 and 1200 µs/cm. Inferior quality of Ground water with EC greater than
n and around Sihori taluka.Fluoride concentration greater than
.5 mg/l has been observed in Khaprol, Kuvarla, Lelava,Thervada, Vasan villages of
witnessed in the wells near to the conservation structures.
west of Dhanera town. The study area experiences an average annual rainfall of
480mm. Alluvial plain is the single most prominent geomorphic unit and covers a major
part of the study area. Sand and silt covering palaeotopography and older formations are
of aeolian deposits. It is a vast sandy tract characterised by gently sloping, slightly rolling
to undulatory topography owing to the presence of sand dunes. The dunal landscape is
more pronounced in parts of Dhanera and Deesa taluka. River alluvium is observed
mainly along the river Banas and Sipu.
complete chemical analysis including fluoride. In addition to this 13 no. of ground water
samples were collected for trace element analysis. Three pumping test were conducted in
large diameter wells. Six number of infiltration test was conducted in the study area to
ascertain the basic infiltration rate. Detailed Well inventory was carried out to assess the
impact of water conservation structures (Check dams) spread over the study area.
Ground water is extensively developed by dug-cum-bore wells and tube wells in alluvial
area. The depth of dug-cum-bore wells in the alluvial formation varies between 60 mbgl
to 180 mbgl and the depth to water level ranges between 30 mbgl to 100 mbgl. Towards
the eastern part of Dhanera and Deesa taluka where the hard rock formation is
encountered at a depth of 45 to 100 mbgl the depth of Dug Cum Borewells (DCB) are
restricted to a depth of about 70 mbgl and the depth to water level varies between 20 to
40 mbgl. The depth of tube we
western and the south western part of Sihori taluka. The yield of the wells in general is
high and ranges from 400 lpm to 900 lpm. At places where granite occur at shallow
depth (Sodapur, Meda villages of Deesa taluka and Panswal (Rampura) village of
water table conditions. The gr
The quality of ground w
2000µs/cm is observed i
Dhanera taluka and Mangalpura, Kasalpura, amarnesda, Kasra villages of Sihori taluka.
High nitrate concentration (> 45mg/l) is noticed in Dhanera and deesa taluka.
The ground water elevation gradually reduces from recharge area in NE towards
discharge area in west and south and ground water level follows the general topographic
slope. Since last two years owing to good rainfall and the recharge from conservation
structures constructed in the study area rise of about 3 to 6 m in water level has been
Detailed Study:- Deesa taluka was selected for detailed study with aerial extent of 1460
sq.km approximately. The taluka has witnessed rapid growth in population since last two
decades which has led to great demand on freshwater which in-turn has added more
stress on the fresh water resources and thus resulting in fast depletion in the ground
ater level consistently over a period of time, compounded with intensive irrigation using
heavy capacity submersible electric motor. The stage of ground water development is
92.64%(GEC 2004). Taking into consideration these aspects Deesa taluka was chosen for
The detailed study area comprises of alluvium constituting sand, silt and gravel beds
ew meters to hundreds of meters underlain by granite. The thickness of
wal from the tube wells as irrigation water demand is met
rough canals. The ground water quality in general is potable, with the EC varying
gl . The Pre- and post monsoon
epth to water level range from– 4.31 to 21.23 mbgl & 1.54 to 17.34 mbgl respectively.
was observed that 40% of open wells were dry during pre-monsoon period.
solidated piles of
ediments as alluvium restricted along the river banks in the area. Lateritic capping also
rea is underlain by Vindhyan formation comprising of
andstone, shale and limestone. Depth to water level ranges from 4.80 mbgl to 21.35
ranging from f
alluvium is more in west and the central part where as towards the eastern part the
thickness of alluvium ranges between 60 to 115 mbgl. Ground water development is
mainly through tube wells. Most of the dug wells with depth range of 30-40 mbgl have
gone dry since last few years. Generally the depth of tube wells range from 80 to 300
mbgl and the depth to water level ranges from between 45 to 100m bgl. Towards the
southern part of the taluka namely around the villages Juna deesa, Goliya, Dhuva,
Khardosan, Sodarpur, Jhabadia, Chatrala, Samdhi etc. there is a substantial rise in water
level noticed in the last two to three years. This rise is attributed to the good rainfall
facilitated by less withdra
between 800 and 1500µs/cm.
There is a need for cautious approach for further groundwater development seeing the
fast declining condition in the water level. Artificial recharge and optimized irrigated
agriculture in areas of intensive irrigation is required for su
2.6 Madhya Pradesh
Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Satna and Chhatarpur district
covering 10925 Sqkm.
2.6.1 Satna District:-
126.96.36.199 Majhgawan, Nagod & Rampur Baghelan blocks: - An area of 3439 sq
km. 110 key wells were inventoried during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period.
Water levels were measured and 50 water samples were collected from representative
wells for ground water quality analysis as sulphate problem has been reported from the
study area, particularly in three blocks namely Nagod, Majghawan and Rampur Baghelan.
The Total depth of open well ranges – 6.20 to 23.60 mb
Geologically, the area is covered by Vindhyan Super Group consisting of Sirbu shales,
Bhander limestones, Ganurgarh shale and Rewa sandstones and uncon
observed at places. The yield of the wells ranging 1 to 3 lps & 3 to 15 lps.
Special study of Rampur Baghelan Block (814 sq km) has been carried out and special
recommendations on the sulphate contamination in the area have been given. Study and
measurement of discharge of natural springs in karsitic terrain and sandstone area has
been carried out. Six artificial recharge sites have bee selected.
188.8.131.52 Sohawal, Amarpatan, Ramnagar and Maihar blocks: The study was done
in an area of 4063 sq km. The a
mbgl in dug wells. Most of the dug wells and tube wells are dry due to low rainfall in the
area during the last two years. During pre-monsoon, 32 numbers of ground water
samples were collected from different rock formations in the area. The pH values of the
analysed ground water samples ranged from 7.64 to 8.52 as such they are within
permissible limit. The electrical conductivity of collected water samples ranges from 202
to 3024 micro mhos/cm .
2.6.2: Chhatarpur District:- Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in
Ken-Betwa basin of Chhatarpur, Nowgaon & Bijawar blocks in Chhatarpur district
overing an area of 3423 sq km. The area is part of the Yamuna sub-basin of Ganga
amtari district ,covers an area of about 3000 sq. km.
he entire district falls under Mahanadi basin. The average annual rainfall in the district is
edominantly occupied by hard rock
basin. Physiographically, the area under investigation can be divided into two physical
units: The southern hill ranges and the northern plains.
In the course of study, 70 key observation wells were selected and inventoried for pre-
monsoon and post monsoon water levels. 45 water samples were collected from
representative wells The Depth to water level Pre & Post monsoon range from 3.95 mbgl
to 14.70 mbgl & 1.60 mbgl to 14.40 mbgl respectively.
The general geological succession in the area is granites (basement), which in turn is
overlain by Bijawars, Vindhyans and alluvium. The Bijawars and Vindhyans are confined
to the southern part of Bijawar block and the alluvium is confined to river chanels. The
granitic terrain is traversed by NE-SW trending quartz ridges. The aquifer occurring in
the study area are not highly potential. The alluvium is of limited thickness and supports
tubewells having discharge of 7 –8 lps. The weathered and fractured portion of the
granite sustain tubewells of upto 5 lps discharge. The solution opening in the Bijawar
limestone are promising for ground water development.
During AAP 2007-08, Ground Water Management studies were taken up in Dhamtari and
Kanker districts of Chhattisgarh State covering an area of 6000 Sqkm.
2.7.1 Dhamtari district: The Dh
1273.45 mm with 45 to50 rainy days. The district is pr
where fracture and solution action dominate over primary porosity. The basement
crystalline rocks occupies the southern part, where weathered and shallow fracture zone
s phreatic aquifer. The sedimentary rocks constitute aquifer in large part of the
district. The fractured and cavernous zone of these stratified limestones formed phreatic
to semi-confined aquifers. Northern part of the district is occupied by shales and it is
behaving as aquitard.
The alluvium along the course of Mahanadi and between Mahanadi and Kharun River
along Amdinala possess primary porosity and forms unconfined aquifer of limited areal
end. The ground water level in the limestone aquifer in pre-monsoon period ranges
fro 6 to 38 m bgl and during post monsoon varies from 3 to 6 mbgl. The seaso
lu tuation in the bore wells varies between 6 and 30 m. The specific yield values of tf
sandstone and limestone aquifers were estimated as 0.0014 and 0.021 respectively.
The transmissivity values of granites remains below 100 m2
/day, whereas that of
sandstone ranges from 10-56 m2
/day and remains between 4 and 450 m2
The management strategies for groundwater is suggested as follows; The low ground
water development in command area needs to be enhanced conjunctively with surface
water resources. The area with karstic limestone aquifer can be targeted for this purpose
within particularly in command area. This area is suitable for ground water development
through bore wells up to 150 m depth. Within the command area, alluvium aquifer is
being developed extensively. In the non-command area the scope of ground water
development is limited, and the aquifer here are not much productive
Numbers of shallow filter point wells are being constructed for irrigation purpose along
like of than
perforated pipes with thin gravel packing as a result presence of silt in the pumped water
The all ea, which is a buried palaeochannel, has been
identifi as potential zone for artificial recharge. An effective stop dam is already
dinala at Palari village. Many more check dams and stop dams
re required in this area. For effective artificial recharge to the alluvium aquifer ground
antification of alluvium aquifer.
ario the ground water draft is mainly through the hand pump and bore wells. During
M hanadi and Amdinala. Though construction of this type of well is economical, the
such wells are hardly 4-6 years. The maximum thickness of alluvium is more
The water well construction for domestic purpose within the Dhamtari township is
through rotary core type “calyx drilling” where the alluvium is taped through
ced very often. For the community water supply in Dhamtari town properly
ed gravel pack rotary drilling is recommended to get rid of silt problem.
uvium aquifer along the Amdinala ar
constructed across the Am
water shaft of 15 to 20m depth followed by gravity head recharge well of 50 m depth can
be a useful structure in the
The following recommendations are suggested:
♦ For the proper development of the available ground water resources there is a need
for the regular monitoring of the resource, enhancement of permanent observation
wells and qu
♦ Odex drilling rig is suitable for the construction of production wells in the area
covered by cavernous limestone.
♦ Gravel packed well with suitable well assembly is the best abstraction structure for
the water supply is in the Dhamtari town.
♦ Conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources may be adopted in areas with
shallow water level. Artificial recharge measures may be taken to recharge the de-
saturated alluvium aquifer.
♦ Roof top rainwater harvesting should be made compulsory for Dhamtari township.
2.7.2: Kanker district:- The study area is about 3000 sq km, comprise of four blocks
of Kanker district, namely Bhanupratappur, Charama, Kanker and Narharpur. All the four
blocks are tribal blocks.
The area is mainly covered with granite and gneiss in eastern and western part
respectively and are intruded by basic to ultrabasic dykes at few places. In the present
Pre-monsoon period, water level of 122 key wells were measured which varies from 1.15
m to 19.9 mbgl. In most of the wells, water level remain between 5 and 10 mbgl. In the
post monsoon period, the depth to water level varies from 0.87 to 15.75 mbgl. The
Seasonal water level fluctuation ranges between 0.07 m to 14.99 m.
The main observations and recommendations are as follows:-
• River in the area structurally controlled. The wells constructed adjacent to river
course are yielded more water as compare to wells constructed away from it.
• Area in which the thickness of the weathered mantle is more than 25 meters are
of good potential and in these areas ground water can be dev
gravel packed well.
• It is recommended that suitable developmental strategy may be adopted in less
he area includes parts of Ratnagiri, Chiplun, Khed, Lanja and Sangameshwar talukas of
ter regime. The ground water monitoring and sample collection was carried out
dug wells, bore well and hand pumps. 32 shallow aquifer and 6 deeper aquifer water
uring the monsoon season. There is a great deviation (dispersion) in the daily rainfall in
developed Charama block and suitable artificial recharge structure may be
constructed using latest scientific techniques in sufficient number to improve
ground water scenario in the area.
An area of 12326 sqkm has been covered in Ratnagiri, Parbhani and Ahmednagar
districts in Maharasthra .
2.8.1 Ratnagiri District :- Ground Water Management Studies over an area of
3050.39 sq. km. were carried out in parts of Ratnagiri district falling under the Coastal
basin. The theme behind RHS was ground water management studies in the hilly areas of
Ratnagiri district. The study was carried out based on watershed as a unit hydrological
feature and seven watersheds were covered.
The climate of the area is very humid. The average annual rainfall in the district is 3787
mm. Nearly 91 percent of rainfall is received in June to September. Therefore, cropping
is done mainly during kharif season and there is very little cropping in rabi or hot
In Study area, 57 key wells were established covering all the hydrogeological units. The
depth of dug wells varies from 1.60 to 19.60 m bgl. The pre-monsoon depth to water
level ranges from 0.90 to 15.12 m bgl . The EC of the ground water during pre-monsoon
ranges from less than 10 to 370 micromhos/cm. The post-monsoon depth to water level
ranges from 0.35 to 13.37 m bgl . The seasonal fluctuation ranged from 0.09 m to 5.13
The detailed hydrogeological survey was carried in watershed WF-68 covering an area of
570.96 sq. km. In this watershed, the depth of dug wells varies from 2.65 m to 19.60
m. The pre-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 1.55 to 15.12 m bgl while the
post-monsoon depth to water level ranges from 1.25 to 13.37 m bgl. The seasonal
fluctuation varies from 0.09 m at Nanij to 3.55 m at Kochari. Urban Hydrogeological
study in Chiplun town was carried out to study the impact of urbanization over the
samples are collected in addition to 38 samples from Chiplun township.
2.8.2 Parbhani District :- An area of about 6124 sq km was covered in Parbhani
district in the two parts
184.108.40.206 Purna Sub-basin part (3051Sq.Km.): The pre-monsoon DTW ranges from
1.40 m.bgl to 17.20 m.bgl, while the post-monsoon water level varies from 1.05 m.bgl to
18.80 m.bgl. The seasonal fluctuation ranged from 2.15m to – 0.30 m (Negative
fluctuation) and from 0 to 9.00 m on top of dissected plateau. The cause of negative
fluctuation is due to the onset of pre-monsoon rainfall in the area before the
commencement of premonsoon water level measurement and less and erratic ra
the area causing lesser recharge.
The quality of the ground water is potable. The electrical conductivity of ground water
varies from 300 to 5400 micromhos/cm during the premonsoon and from 390 and 8800
micromhos/cm during post-monsoon season. During the study it was observed that the
part of the area lack ground water potential such areas lack of suitable physiography
opography) supporting surface water bodies.
.8.2.2 Godavari basin part(3073Sq.Km.) : The area includes parts of Parbhani
general, the area is undulating with isolated hills especially south of Gangakhed. Both
to 13.10 m.bgl and 0.78 m.bgl to 11.65 m.bgl respectively.
vely. The fluctuation of the water levels ranges between 0.5 to
y area on
irrigation in these areas is mainly through
and borewells) and rain water abstraction structures
Alluvium areas between 100 to 300 cubic meter/day where the
pumping hours are in the range of 8 to 16 hours/day. A total of 90 water samples were
2.9 Uttar Pradesh
Gangakhed, Palam, Pathri and Purna talukas and 13 watersheds.
depositional and erosional features like alluvial patches, meander scars are present along
the Godavari river courses and along its main tributaries. Alluvial deposits are found
along the banks of Godavari river and Deccan Traps in the rest of the area.
The depth of wells ranges from 2.25 to 16.30 m.bgl. The pre & Post monsoon depth to
water level ranges from 0.48
The seasonal fluctuation varies from 0.27 m to 11.80 m. For assessing the ground water
quality, 75 water samples from dug wells and 30 samples from bore wells have been
collected for chemical analysis. The electrical conductivity in these samples ranged from
100 to 2800 micromhos /cm at 25o
2.8.4 Ahmednagar District :- An area of about 3103 sq. Km. was covered under
Ground Water Management Studies in parts of Ahmednagar District and encompasses
Akole, Sangmner, Parner, and Rahuri talukas. During Pre-monsoon 115 key wells were
established. During post monsoon 300 ground water structures were examined for the
detailed study of the area. The depth range of the dug wells varies from 4.0 to 30.0 m
bgl. The DTW during pre-monsoon & post-monsoon range from 3.2 to 26.0 m bgl and
0.5 to 21.0 m bgl respecti
The area is drained by Godavari river and their tributaries namely Pravara and Mula. The
handardara and Mula dam are the Major irrigation projects lying in the studB
the western side and central part and these projects irrigates one third of the area under
study through canals.
Major part of the area is rain fed and the
ground water structures (dugwells
(percolation tanks, nala bunds, KT weir etc). The area is underlain by Deccan traps and
Alluvium of Recent age along the river course and valley portions. At places the thickness
of the alluvium cover ranges from 10.0 to 24.0 m. The alluvium and weathered,
vesicular, fractured and jointed basalts forms an aquifer zones in the covered area.
The yield of the dug wells in Deccan traps formations ranges between 5 to 100 cubic
meter/day where the pumping hours are in the range of 2 to 8 hours/day. While the
yield of dug wells in
collected for the study of chemical quality of the ground water. In general the quality of
water is good to brackish.
Ground Water Management Studies were undertaken in an area of 14273 sqkm in
Bijnor, Lucknow, Meerut, Hamirpur and Badaun districts of Uttar Pradesh.
2.9.1 Bijnor District :-The Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in
Bijnor district, covering an area of 4561 Sq Km.The district falling in part of Ganga plain
hich is underlain by thick pile of alluvial sediments consisting of sand of various grades
The results of ten (10) exploratory boreholes drilled down to maximum 450.49 mbgl in
be wells tapping II & III aquifers yielded
between 700 and 3239 lpm at a drawdown ranging from 5.86 m to 22.70 m .
ater is suitable for domestic/irrigation purposes. Ground water contributes 94%
irrigatio this block.
e cleaned and desilting should be done & may be used
as recharge structure.
llow and moderately deep tubewells. The present
stage of ground water development is 80.36% (as on 31.03.04); Jalilpur block falls under
clay & kankar. In the North narrow Bhabhar belt runs all alongwith hills from West to
East which is followed by Tarai belt. The average annual rainfall is 1122 mm in the
The depth to water level varies from 3 to 19 mbgl during pre-monsoon and 1.30 to
17.50 mbgl during post-monsoon period and water level fluctuation ranges between 0.25
to 6.95 m. However, on the basis of post-monsoon trend analyses (1997-2006), out of 9
GWM wells, 6 shows declinng trend 20 to >40 cm/year.
the area reveal that three tier aquifer system exists in the area and their the depth
ranges are G.L. to 150 mbgl (I Aquifer), 170 to 260 mbgl (II Aquifer) and 285 to 396
mbgl (III Aquifer). Ground Water in shallow aquifer down to depth of 50 mbgl occurs
under unconfined stage while in deeper aquifer reaches in semi-confined to confined
stage of disposition.
The exploratory tube well constructed by CGWB tapping second aquifer yielded 3266 lpm
at 15.63 m drawdown. The exploratory tu
49 water samples have been collected from entire area from different depth zones. The
quality of ground is good and suitable for drinking/irrigation purposes.
Detailed hydrogeolgical study:-
For detailed hydrogeolgical study, Kirathpur (247 Sq.km) & Jalilpur blocks (401.5
Sq.km) have been selected in Kirathpur block elevation varies between 240 to 242 m
above m.s.l. the drainage of the block is controlled by Malin & Choyyia nadi. Depth to
water level in the pre-monsoon between 4.67 & 18.70 mbgl and in the post-monsoon
2.70 to 17.50 mbgl. The fluctuation ranges between 0.75 and 1.91 m. The quality of
Persistent decline of water level suggest needs of Artificial Recharge measures and
existing abodoned dug wells may b
In Jalilpur block, depth to water level ranges from 9.31 to 21.40 mbgl while in dugwells,
it is 8.69 mbgl. The ground water development for irrigation and domestic purposes
takes place in the district through sha
‘Over-exploited’ category showing intensive ground water development.
2.9.2 Lucknow District :- The Ground Water Management Studies were carried out in
Lucknow district, covering an area of 2528 Sq Km.The district occupies central alluvial
plain and lies between major rivers Ghaghra in the North and Ganga in the South,
underlying a vast sequence of Quaternary alluvial sediments consisting of mainly clay,
kankar, silt and sand of various grades. Based on their topographic positions and geo-
morphological characteristics, sediments are grouped in to newer and older alluvium. The
general slope of the area is towards south and south east. Annual Rainfall in the district
is 963 mm.
The shallow phreatic aquifer is unconfined in nature whereas the relatively deeper
aquifers are semiconfined to confined in nature. The depth to water level in phreatic
aquifer ranges from 1.75 to 32.95 mbgl during pre-monsoon period whereas it ranges
from 1.35 to 31.98 mbgl during post-monsoon period. Seasonal water level fluctuation
ranges from (-) 0.05 to 4.20 m. Post monsoon depletion of depth to water level recorded
in large areas mainly in rural areas and at few places in Urban areas as well. However,
n the basis of long term post monsoon trend analysis (1997-2006), out of 16 GWM
bgl. The first aquifer group exist at the depth range 00-150 mbgl with the discharge
ge 260-370 mbgl with the discharge ranging from 200 to 1470 lpm
nd naximum drawdown created is 32.57 m. The fourth aquifer group exist at the depth
domestic purposes take places in the
istrict through shallow and moderately deep tubewells. The present stage of ground
area is 983 mm. The
depth to water level during pre-monsoon reanges from 6.20-14.77 mbgl whereas during
0 lpm with the draw down ranging from 6.4 to 8.38 m. The Ground
ater in the first aquifer group occurs under semi-confined to confined condition and
s due to Ground Water exploration through closely spaced shallow private
bewells and number of State Govt. tubewells. The further development of Ground
District :- The Ground Water Management studies were carried out in
covering an area of 2584 Sq.Km in the Central Ganga plain. The entire
plain of the district is covered by alluvial soil. The area is underlain by Quaternary
wells, 12 wells were showing decling trend.
The exploratory drilling carried out by CGWB in parts of Lucknow district revels that three
tier aquifer system exist down to depth of 731 mbgl in the area, whereas five aquifer
group exist in city areas on the basis of 29 exploratory drilling downto depth of 750
ranging from 1130 to 1700 lpm and maximum drawdown created is 8.70 m. The second
aquifer group exist at the depth range160-240 mbgl with the discharge ranging from
330 to 575 lpm and naximum drawdown created is 30.70 m. The third aquifer group
exist at the depth ran
range 380-480 mbgl with the discharge ranging from 1420 to 1520 lpm and maximum
drawdown created is 32.68 m. The fifth aquifer group exist at the depth range 483-680
37 water samples were colleted from entire area from different depth zones. Chemical
analysis reveals that the quality of ground water in the district is good and suitable for
domestic and irrigation purposes.
The ground water development for irrigation and
water development is 81.21%. Mal block falls under ‘Over Exploited’ category showing
intensive ground water dev
Mal block (Area of 252 Sq.Km.) has been selected for detailed studies keeping in view
the main objective to asses continuous declining trend of ground water. The major
drainage is the river Gomati. The average annual rainfall in the
post-monsoon it varies from 5.90-13.97 mbgl.The long term water level trend in l5 years
(2003-07) showing decline i.e. from 0.07 to 0.48 cm/year. The yield of tubewell varies
from 2043 to 345
confinement are provided by the impermeable formation i.e. clay on top of the aquifer.
The quality of ground water in deeper aquifer is better than the phreatic aquifer.
The stage of ground water development is 102% in the block and it falls under over
exploited category. At present the shallow aquifer in the block down to 40 m is much
water is to be strictly restricted and the scope of further developments through deep
tubewells may be done.
sediments comprising clay, silt, sand occasionally kankar. The major drainage system in
the area through Ganga and Ramganga rivers. The average annual rainfall is 860 mm.
The ground water in the area generally occurs under unconfined conditions to confined
condition. Depth to water levels during pre & Post monsoon varies from 3.65 to 12.98
bgl and 2.85 mbgl to 12.98 mbgl respectively. The water level fluctuation ranges from
aquifer group yields 2000-2250 lpm with drawdown
f 5 m. Tubewells tapping deeper aquifer below 400 m yields 2000 lpm at a higher
good and suitable for drinking/irrigation purposes.
than 11.50 m and most of the dug wells have gone dry.
rea falls under over exploited category. Seasonal fluctuation is around 0.27 m in the
he Meerut district is underlain by unconsolidated sediments, comprising of sands of
wells between 147.50 (Quazipur) and 364.0 mbgl (Ganga nagar) depth range (as on 31-
0.02 m to 1.20 m.
The thickness of alluvium is yet to be established within the area. Maximum thickness of
Alluvium in ONGC & CGWB bor le was found to be 750 m. Exploratory drilling carried
out by CGWB in the district reveals the presence of granular horizon down to depth of
750 m. The deepest borehole was drilled down to a depth of 751.5 mbgl at Samrer and
zones were tapped at 440-452 mbgl & 468-480 mbgl. The well proved to be an Artesian
well with a head of 0.6 m above ground level. Shallow aquifer exists down to a depth of
180m. Tubewell constructed in this
drawdown. This aquifer ranges from 480-590 m.
On the basis of long term post-monsoon trend analyses (1977-2006), out of 12 wells,
10 shows declining trend.
For the assessement of quality of ground water 67 nos. of water samples were collected
from the area.The overall quality of ground water in dug well zone, shallow as well as
deep aquifer is
In the study area Ambikapur, Jagat & Binaivar blocks falls under Over exploited whereas
Miaon block falls under critical category, Dataganj and Usman blocks falls under semi
Ambikapur block with an area of 292 Sq.Km was selected for detailed study. The depth
to water level in the area is more
block. Detailed surveys including establishing additional keywells and collection of water
samples were carried out in order to know actual problems and for suggesting remedial
2.9.4 Meerut District :- The entire district forming a part Ganga-Yamuna doab consists
of rich fertile soil supporting large scale development of agriculture and falls into
central depression. The depression area commences from south of Sardhana and extends
The older alluvium generally occupies land higher than the younger alluvium. The later is
confined to the river channels or in the vicinity of low land areas. Younger alluvium is
generally affected by flood during the monsoon period. Fluvial landforms, like paleo
channels meander scars, back swamps etc. are observed in the block. Ganga and Hindon
are effluent in nature.
various grades, silt and clays of Quaternary age. The occurrence of kankar at different
depths is not uncommon. The sandy horizons at different depths form the main
repository of ground water in the block. CGWB has carried out ground water
exploration down to 742.0 m.bgl (Ganga Nagar) and constructed 9- exploratory tube
3-2007) in Meerut district. The first aquifer is unconfined to semi-confined in nature while
the second, third and fourth aquifers are confined. Bedrock has not been encountered in
none of the exploratory boreholes.
groups. The Pre & Post
monsoon water level varies from 2.65 - 16.8 mbgl and 2.90– 17.15 mbgl respectively.
2.90 - 17.15 mbgl. The over exploitation of ground water due to ever increasing
ezometers (2003 –2007) that have been constructed in blocks previously
evoid of monitoring stations in the last, say, 5- years, has indicated further declining
(Jani Khurd) to - 0.87 (Meerut block) m/year (premonsoon) and
0.22 to – 1.08 m/year (postmonsoon) in Daurala, Hastinapur, Kharkhoda, Jani Khurd,
he water samples collected from key wells analysed for their quality. All the major
n rivers that flows through the district are the
amuna, Betwa and Ken. The average annual rainfall is 863 mm in the area.
The first aquifer (~Up to 100 m) is medium grained brownish sand with clay lenses
admixed with kankar. Second aquifer (~ 150-250 m) is fine grained, grayish sand mixed
with silt. Third aquifer (~ 300-450 m) is finer in comparison to the second and fourth (~
below 450 m) is also fine sand with occasionally medium sand. Almost all State tube
wells tap first aquifer group whereas most of exploratory tube wells of C.G.W.B have
been constructed tapping either I & II or II & III aquifer
An area of approximately 300 Km2 was covered in and around Meerut city for detailed
study of hydrogeological regimen in the area. The Pre - monsoon water level in and
around city varies from 3.45 - 16.8 mbgl and Post monsoon depth to water var
population and urbanization in and around Meerut city has led to formation of a ground
water trough in north –eastern part of the Meerut block which attracts ground water from
all directions to flow towards it.
The long term ground water level trend (1998 –2007) is predominantly declining for both
pre- and post-monsoon periods. It ranges from - 0.28 to - 0.50 m/year (pre-monsoon)
and - 0.18 to - 0.65 m/year (post-monsoon) respectively. Analyses of water level trend
data of new pi
trend ranging from 0.11
Rohta, Sarurpur, Macchra, Mawana and Meerut blocks.
inorganic determinants are well within permissible limits as per drinking water norms.
The Electrical conductivity on an average is good. The quality of ground water in deeper
aquifer is also potable by and large. Overall the ground water quality in Meerut district is
suitable for drinking as well as irrigation water needs. The stage of ground water
development in Meerut block is 64.93 % and it falls under safe category.
2.9.5 Hamirpur District :- The Hamirpur district is located in southern part of the
state and is a part of Bundelkhand Region and falls under water scarcity area. It is
underlain by Granite. The Quaternary alluvial material overlies the Granite. The thickness
of alluvium varies from ground level to 150 mbgl in the area. Topographically, the district
is made up of flat plain land. The mai
Ground Water development takes place through open wells, dug cum borewells and
shallow tube wells constructed at favorable sites. The yield of dugwells/hand pumps
drilled down to the depth between 10-20 m varies from 50 to 60 lpm. Borewells drilled
down to the depth between 30-100 m with the yield ranges between 60 and 500 lpm. In
the alluvium 1st
aquifer exist at 30 to 70 m and yield varies from 150 lpm to 1908 lpm
with drawdown ranges from 4.04 m to depth ranges from 90-120 m and yield ranges
from 2800 to 2994 lpm with drawdown of 0.76 m to 2.5 m.
In total, 29 key wells were established to monitor depth to water levels. The depth to
water level varies from 6.55 to 23.90 mbgl during pre-monsoon and from 6.85 to 23.50
mbgl during post-monsoon period. On the basis of long term post-monsoon trend
analyses (1997-2006), out of 18 GWM wells, 16 are showing declining trends.
Physiographically, district lies in the Extra
eninsular Region of the Himalayan Mountain Belt. Topographically, the district presents
onfined aquifer. The piezometric head of tube
23 springs and 4 exploratory wells were
the first time in Doon Valley. The discharge of the
from 1.10 to 122 lpm. The post-monsoon
inimum rise of 0.01 m was observed in Vikas Nagar. The minimum decline has been
30 water samples were collected from the entire area from different depth zones. The
quality of ground water in the study area is suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.
The stage of ground water development is 57.33% (as on 31.3.2004).
Block Maudaha (945 sq.km) was selected for detailed study purposes. 9 key wells were
established for monitoring purposes and water samples were also collected. During
studies emphasis was given for selecting Artificial recharge sites at Kapra in the block.
Ground Water Management Studies were carried by covering 11329 sqkm of Dehradun,
Hardwar, Champawat & Pithoragarh Districts of Uttarakhand State.
2.10.1 Dehradun District:- Groundwater Management Studies were carried out in
Dehradun district covering 3088 sq. km.
two distinct units namely, the Intermontane Doon valley and the Shiwalik Hill Ranges
comprising the Sub-Himalaya or the Outer Himalaya and the Lesser Himalaya.
Dehradun district is divided into three hydrogeological units viz. Himalayan Mountain
Belt, Shiwalik Zone and Doon alluvial fill (Dun Gravels). Ground water occurs in two
types of aquifers in the area, the shallow perched aquifer, where ground water occurs
under perched conditions and the main unc
wells varies from 20 m to 125 m bgl.
total of 149 hand pumps, 9 dug wells,A
established as “Key Observation Wells” tapping different aquifers. For the first time,
discharge of springs to the north of the Main Boundary Thrust (Chakrata and Kalsi
blocks) were measured. Hand pumps tapping different aquifer zones (both in Shiwaliks
and Dun Gravels) were established for
prings during pre-monsoon period varieds
discharge varied from 1.50 to 88 lpm. The water level in the tube wells and hand pumps
during pre-monsoon period varied from 2.29 to more than 100 m bgl in Doon Valley
whereas during post-monsoon, the water level varied from 2.52 to more than 100 m bgl.
Two areas of artesian conditions, one in and around Kaluwala (Doiwala) and the other at
Lakwar (Kalsi) were demarcated for future ground water exploration. Areas in and
around Nalapani, Manaksidh and Kaplani represent sub artesian conditions.
The analysis of water level data of 135 key observation wells for the periods of May 2007
versus November 2007 revealed a rise in water level from 48 hand pumps. There has
been a rise in water level of more than 4 m in 48 wells . The decline in water level was
between 0 and 2 m in 20 hand pumps, 2 and 4 m in 5 hand pumps and more than 4 m in
19 stations . The maximum rise of 22.2 m was recorded in Gujrada
observed at Punjabiwala (0.23m) whereas the maximum decline of 27.40 m was
observed at Kedarwala. The maximum decline in water level in respect of the number of
observation wells in Doon Valley was observed along Jaitonwala – Guniyal Gaon section.
The area falls in the Nun River Command.