Simon Barchard, RESON


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Multi-beam Echo-sounders (MBES) not only for bathymetry

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Simon Barchard, RESON

  1. 1. Multi-beam Echo-sounders (MBES) not only for bathymetry The use of MBES for bottom classification, leak detection, harbor protection and more. by Simon M. Barchard RESONSECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  2. 2. Agenda ● Introduction ● MBES in survey configuration (bottom looking) Bottom Classification Sunken Heavy Oil Detection ● Forward looking MBES Water side security (harbor protection) Leakage Detection ● Q&ASECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  3. 3. Introduction● Advanced uses of MBES data require processing and integration with motion and other sensors● PDS2000 is the backbone of RESON’s advanced processing solutions● Some facts about PDS2000: PDS2000 Multibeam is a Hydrographic Survey software suite Versions for Multibeam, Singlebeam and Dredging Integrated multibeam data acquisition, navigation and guidance. Handles SeaBat 7k bathymetry, snippets and sidescan. Interfaces to all commonly used navigation sensors Scalable to installations with multiple sensors 3D Multibeam Data Editor with integrated CUBE processing Data modeling & Volume computations Data export to a variety of formats● The SeaBat 7k platform is used for advanced applications● Capabilities include: Bathymetry Backscatter (sidescan and/or snippets) Forward looking sonar imagery Watercolumn mapping SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  4. 4. Introduction continued… PDS2000 also allows for interactive data processing of data with snippets and CUBE Snippet data CUBE ModelAn explanation of snippets will follow later in the presentation Document path
  5. 5. Bottom Classification Backscatter corrections GeoCoder is the tool used by PDS2000 to perform bottom classification, licensed from UNH, developed by Luciano Fonseca) ● GeoCoder is a software application and include algorithms and interface for visualization and analysis ● Bottom classification through the application of AVO (Amplitude versus Offset) - Variation of acoustic backscatter with the angle of incidence is a an intrinsic property of the seafloor.● Backscatter is corrected for radiometric and geometric distortions Acoustic model Gain, power, pulse width, Beam pattern etc… Interface backscatter Volume backscatter● Objective is to determine parameters for the backscatter inversion model SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  6. 6. Bottom Classification GeoCoder examples● Integrated approach ● Loading of backscatter, navigation and bathymetry data in GeoCoder directly from PDS2000 Log files ● PDS2000 executes the steps normally performed by GeoCoder user interface ● Write data to a PDS2000 Grid model ● Backscatter mosaic ● AVO parameters ● Seafloor properties ● Bottom types Document path
  7. 7. Detection of Sunken Heavy OilSECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  8. 8. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil Oil Spill Statistics & reason for USCG Study● Analysts for the Oil Spill Intelligence Report, reported that spills greater than 10,000 gallons (34 tons) have occurred in the waters of 112 nations since 1960. But they also reported (Etkin 1997) that oil spills happen more frequently in certain parts of the world.● No efficient solutions for detection of heavy fuel oil on seabed exists● Sunken Oil is a source of pollution that is of significant detriment to the environment● US Coast Guard’s Research and Development Center (USCG RDC) identified remote detection and monitoring of sunken oil as one of the key targets for further government funded research Requirements: Wide area surveillance & identification Localized positive identification of oil● The USCG RDC awarded RESON, Inc. a contract to supply a Proof of Concept to detect heavy oil on the sea floor along with partners: Flemming Hvidbak of FlemmingCo environmental and oil spill professional with 24 years of experience within the oil spill industry University of New Hampshire: Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping Joint Hydrographic Center (UNH:CCOM JHC), Project scientist: Dr. Luciano Fonseca Document path
  9. 9. Detection of Sunken Heavy OilSidescan & Snippets Imagery Outputs ● Sidescan and Snippets (aka seafloor backscatter) both provide imagery of the seafloor however, due to the fact that Snippets provides backscatter/ amplitude for each footprint (versus average of each side), the detail is much more pronounced. ● The result are mosaics that are easily overlain with digital terrain models (bottom) that provide invaluable information of seafloor substrate and morphology. Bottom Detect 300 300 Snippets Sample Window Size Document path
  10. 10. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil DTM with Snippets Overlay Rock Reef Sand Waves with Gravel Troughs Snippets Acoustic Backscatter Provides a quantitative method to identify differentsubstrates based upon their acoustic “reflectivity”. The harder returns (i.e. Rock) in this image are dark grey while the softer returns (i.e. sand/silt) are light grey. Document path
  11. 11. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil Acoustic Detection Principle ● The detection algorithm has used the fact that the backscattered acoustic field depends on the angle between the incoming field and the seabed ● This angular response is different for different types of sedimentAmplitude Snippet data over one beam footprint. Document path
  12. 12. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil Test Facility● Prototype test performed at Ohmsett test facility in New Jersey.● Ohmsett’s above ground concrete test tank is one of the largest of its kind, measuring 203 meters long by 20 meters wide by 3.4 meters deep.● The tank is filled with 2.6 million gallons of saltwater. Document path
  13. 13. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil Test setup An area of size 40 ft x 40 ft was applied with 10 trays of size 8 ft x20 ft. Oil types used in the test: Oil #6, Tesoro, Sundex and asphalt 2 4 6 81012 2 4 6 8 10 12 Photo of trays on bottom of test tankSketch of the entire test area for the PrototypeDemonstration Test at OHMSETT 2009 Document path
  14. 14. Detection of Sunken Heavy Oil Results Detected area is calculated and compared to the Actual (according to USCG sketch) Detection rate Λ Oil / ΓOil 91% False alarm rate Λ NoOil / ΛTot 20% If the OHMSETT test detection- processing time is transferred to a 1 square mile survey at 30m depth the processing time will be about 12 hours. RESON’s Solution is accepted and now endorsed by the US Coast GuardOperational scenarios include use with Bathymetric MBES system located onsurface vessel or ROV Document path
  15. 15. Waterside Security (WSS)Operational requirements:● Detect combat swimmers● Localize and track● Illuminate entire surveillance area with each ping● Track long enough to distinguish between marine life and threatAutomatic Detection & Tracking (ADT)● Applied on all FLS Harbor Protection● Analyzes sonar echo sequence and suppresses static background● Automatically detects and tracks moving targets Document path
  16. 16. WSS Video SeaBat 7112NATO HPT2008 Trials - Germany Document path
  17. 17. Leakage Detection for subsea environmentsSECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  18. 18. Introduction● RESON has developed a technology concept for the detection of leaks from the vicinity of subsea templates and structures● Leaks include hydrocarbons (gas or liquid), hydraulic fluids and other pollutants● Based on SeaBat sonar technology and includes automated detection algorithms intended to be used in fixed long term subsea installationsBasic principle:Sonar ‘ping’ transmits energy into waterLeak media reflects energy based onAcoustic Reflection properties SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  19. 19. Leakage Detection Are there other options?Leakage Detection technologies:● Chemical sniffers point sensors, can’t cover an area positive ID of leak substance possible● Video cameras: limited range in turbid water● Passive acoustics (hydrophones only): leak has to make a significant level of noise Sensitive to environmental background noiseAdvantages of SeaBat (sonar) technology:● Detection of leaks not emitting noise by use of acoustic backscatter● Wide area coverage● Able to detect various leak media (gas, oil, MEG etc.)● Sonars are also passive – sonars can also detect leak noise in similar manner to hydrophones SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  20. 20. Post processing of data collected at SINTEFRESON participated in an evaluation of Leak Detection technologies at SINTEF, Scandinavia’s largest research institute.● A number of leak scenarios were tested and various equipment from chemical sniffers to video technology were put to the test Below: 10bar crude oil leak through 0.7mm nozzle – not easy to see in raw data, tank in a nasty acoustic environment The improvement from processing of the raw data is obvious The tank was small, so only short range tests were possible SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  21. 21. RESON follow up testing at long range Korsør Naval Harbor Air Leak 6bar (6m range) Air Leak 2bar (28m range) Only air gas leaks were possible sue to environmental concernsSECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  22. 22. ‘Real life’ operations - offshore leak detection from ROVSome interesting data was gathered (videos follow) and the system was able to find the leak SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path
  23. 23. The site of the big leakAs the majority here are hydrographers I’ll conclude with an interesting bathymetric imageThere are many new and exciting applications for multi beam echo sounder technology and RESON is at the forefront for new application development SECURITY DESIGNATION Document path