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Jeroen Zomerdijk
 

Jeroen Zomerdijk

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Leica en GLONASS

Leica en GLONASS

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    Jeroen Zomerdijk Jeroen Zomerdijk Document Transcript

    • GLONASS: Wat brengt het ons? Leica Geosystems b.v. Jeroen ZomerdijkContent GLONASS benefits in position / height improvement Hardware Biases of GLONASS System 1200+ GNSS Corporate Conclusions2
    • GLONASS: Benefits GLONASS: Benefits General Characteristics – Availability Nov 2007 • 17 operating satellites • At least 7 satellites GPS+GLONASS all the time with cut off 10° • GPS only has minimum of 5 satellites needed for ambiguity fixing RTK 4
    • GLONASS: BenefitsAmbiguity Resolution Nov 2007GPS only At least 5 GPS satellites are necessary to get a high accuracy (fixed) solution.Combined GPS and GLONASS At least 5 GPS or 4 GPS + 2 GLONASS satellites are necessary to get a high accuracy (fixed) solution. Benefit of GPS + GLONASS on a statistical basis (open sky environment, urban canyons, tree environment, kinematic data, long static baseline) Approx. 15 % !5GLONASS: BenefitsBetter Geometry Nov 2007Example Vertical Dilution of Precession (VDOP)• VDOP is indicator for achievable height accuracy. Large VDOP low height accuracy• GPS only VDOP goes up to 4• Combined GPS/GLONASS: VDOP always below 2.56
    • GLONASS: Benefits Height Accuracy with and without GLONASS Nov 2007 15km Baseline 474.5 GPS 474.45 GPS+GLONASS Height [m] 474.4 474.35 474.3 474.25 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 Time [h] 14 12 10 # Sats 8 6 4 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 Time [h] 7 GLONASS: Benefits Ambiguity Resolution Percentage Ambiguity-Resolution (continuous re-initialisation)Project BL Length (m) GPS [%] GPS/GLONASS [%]IGS Stations 149,152 53.31 61.76Train 30 55.89 90.49Tree 19,874 72.73 100Static 2,053 97.06 99.22 8
    • GLONASS: BenefitsGeneral Characteristics – Availability Now • Currently 20 operating satellites (March 27, 2009) • At least 12 satellites GPS+GLONASS all the time with cut off 10° • GPS only has minimum of 7 satellites9GLONASS BenefitsSummary• Larger number of satellites yields higher accuracy• GLONASS stabilizes GPS geometry => higher accuracy• Combined GPS/GLONASS more satellites available for reliable ambiguity fixing in RTK• Performance enhancement about 15% compared to GPS only operation
    • Interoperability of GLONASS observations for RTKpositioning applications Content Hardware Biases Impact on RTK Applications Elimination of Hardware Biases Conclusion 12
    • GLONASSHistory 1982: Launch of 1st satellite 1995: Full Constellation End of 90s: Financial problems Problems with satellite lifetime 2001: Only 7 satellites available Since 2006: Financing secured Since 2007: Number of yearly satellite launches increased to 613Combined GPS/GLONASS ProcessingAdvantages More satellites available Better geometry Result More fixed epochs Higher Accuracy, reliability But …14
    • GNSS ObservationsHardware Biases Satellite p Pm = ρ m − cδtm + cδt p + ε m p p p Noise Satellite clock error Distance ρ Antenna electronics Receiver clock error True distance Station m Antenna cable Receiver electronics Measurement15GNSS ObservationsHardware BiasesPm = ρ m − cδtm + cδt p + cH m + ε m p p p p Hardware Bias Antenna electronics Antenna cable Receiver electronics16
    • GNSS ObservationsZero, Single and Double DifferencesZero Difference Pm = ρ m − cδt m + cδt p + cH m + ε m p p p p17GNSS ObservationsZero, Single and Double DifferencesZero Difference Pm = ρ m − cδt m + cδt p + cH m + ε m p p p pSingle Difference Satellite clock error is eliminated p p p p Pm,n = ρ m,n − cδtm,n + cH m,n + ε m,n m n18
    • GNSS ObservationsZero, Single and Double DifferencesZero Difference Pm = ρ m − cδt m + cδt p + cH m + ε m p p p pSingle Difference Satellite clock error is eliminated p p p p Pm,n = ρ m,n − cδtm,n + cH m,n + ε m,nDouble Difference m n Receiver clock error is eliminated, Hardware bias remains Pmpq ,i = ρ m ,n + cH m ,n ,i + ε m ,n ,i ,n pq pq pq p q19Hardware BiasesFrequency DependencyGPS All satellites send different code on identical frequencies (CDMA) Same hardware bias for all satellites f p = f q = f GPS ⇒ H p = HqGLONASS All satellites send identical code on different frequencies (FDMA) Different hardware bias for each satellite f GPS ≠ f GLO ⇒ H GPS ≠ H GLO PSD of L1 code f GLO , p ≠ f GLO ,q ⇒ H GLO , p ≠ H GLO ,q20 Frequency [MHz]
    • Impact of Hardware Biases Example: Zero-Baseline, DD Code DD Code residuals [m] Time [h] 21Impact of Hardware BiasesExample: Relative Measurements to 2 Satellites p qStation m Different Hardware Bias for satellite p and qStation n Different Hardware Bias for satellite p and qStation m and n Identical Hardware Biases for all satellites if identical m n hardware! 22
    • Impact of Hardware BiasesExample: Identical Hardware p p p p H m = H n ⇒ H m ,n = 0 23 m nImpact of Hardware BiasesIdentical Hardware, Zero Baseline, DD Code Identical Hardware DD Code residuals [m] Time [h] 24
    • Impact of Hardware BiasesIdentical Hardware, Zero Baseline, DD Code Mixed Hardware DD Code residuals [m] Time [h] 25Impact of Hardware BiasesZero Baseline, DD Phase Observations Mixed Hardware Identical Hardware DD Phase residuals [m] DD Phase residuals [m] Time [h] Time [h] 26
    • GLONASS Biases Calibration and Correction in Real Time Preface Reference receiver type transmitted in various correction formats like RTCM 3 Implementation Rover detects reference receiver type and corrects reference observations in real time Alternatively: reference receiver type is set manually on the rover. Again the rover corrects reference observations in real time since version 7.0 27 GLONASS Biases Real Time Correction Mixed Hardware Mixed Hardware Identical HardwareDD Phase residuals [m] Time [h] Time [h] Time [h] 28
    • GLONASS Benefits Summary • RTK users profits via RTCM format of elimination of GLONASS hardware biases • Improvement of quality • Benefit for mixed hardware for rover usersSystem 1200+ GNSS
    • Leica, GNSS Surveying and Future Satellite Signals Surveying with GNSS in 2016 … 2008 2015• 31 GPS and 16 Glonass • 32 GPS, 24 Glonass, 30 Galileo + Compass• 2 Frequencies (L1, L2) • 3 Frequencies (L1, L2, L5)• 26 observations per epoch on • >80 observations per epoch on average in open sky average in open sky• 12 observations per epoch with • ~30 observations per epoch with obstruction obstruction• RTK up to 30km • RTK up to 50km• 8“ typical initialisation time • 1“ typical initialisation time• RTK accuracy ±15mm • RTK accuracy ±10mm 31 GPS L5, Galileo, Compass and Leica System ....before L5 will be up there ...fully capable of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass!! 32
    • GPS1200+ THE ONLY FUTURE PROOF GNSSProperties Future Proof Most Accurate Most FlexibleFeatures • GPS L1, L2 (C/P) • SmartRTK+ Technology • Single Base (Highest Consistencyin Networks) • GPS L5 • Full Network Rover • RTCM 3.1 correction • GLONASS • Open Interface OWI • SmartCheck+ Technology • Galileo • Partner–Software on Board (Continuous Ambiguitycheck) • Galileo–AltBOC signal • Backpack Solution • SmartTrack+ Technology • Compass (Robust Signaltracking) • All-on-Pole • SmartPole • SmartWorx • SmartStationAdvantage Investment holds its value Benefit Customer saves money 33 Leica Geosystems - when it has to be right Corporate
    • From space to nano technology Measuring Precision < 10.000 km < 10 Meters < 100 µm < 20 µm < 0,3 µm Reach Space Macro Micro Nano Technology - GPS/GNSS - Laser Scan - 3D Tactile - Light - Laser Scan - Laser Track - 2.5D Vision - Micro Optics - Laser Track - Laser Radar - Laser Radar - Photogram - Optics - Optics - Photogram - Tactile - PS35Today’s technologiesfor fast, efficient data capture One Millions of Image-based point points TPS Aircraft-based Laser Scanning GPS Remote sensing Point-cloud Management Photo- DISTOTM grammetry36
    • We measure our success by yours:customers define the world we live inBuilding the tallest bridge in the worldWith pylons reaching 343 meters (1,115feet) in height, the Viaduct de Millau nearMontpellier in southern France is thetallest bridge in the world – 19 meters(62 feet) taller than the Eiffel Tower.Leica Geosystems TotalStations withintegrated GPS positioning were used in itsconstruction, and for the continuous post-construction monitoring of this record-breaking structure.37We measure our success by yours:customers define the world we live inThe “Eighth Wonder of the World” gives upits secretFor 1500 years, the Hagia Sofia in Istanbulhas confounded expert analysis of itsdesign. Its enormous dome is 56 meters(184 feet) high and 34 (111 feet) meterswide, supported on just four pillars.Now, Leica Geosystems high definition lasersurveying equipment has revealed the elegantand ingenious design behind the structure’sastonishing stability.38
    • We measure our success by yours:customers define the world we live inMonitoring Burj Dubai, tallest building inthe world Leica Geosystems’ solutions deliver accurate positioning data for construction set out at the top level of the formwork Leica Geosystems Instruments and Software: Network of Leica NIVEL220 Leica GRX1200 Pro Reference Stations Leica GX1220 as Rover equipment Leica TPS1205 Leica GPS Spider and GNSS QC software Leica Geo Office processing software39Leica Geosystems:Technologies for every workflow40
    • Pioneer and market leaderwith the most comprehensive range of solutions Surveying Civil engineering Monitoring Construction Machine control Mobile mapping Mining and extraction Real estate Agriculture, forestry and land management Industrial solutions ….41Leica Geosystems BenefitsConclusions• Larger number of satellites yields higher accuracy. -> even more valid with full GNSS systems; GPS L5, Glonass, Galileo and Compass.• Hardware biases correctly handled between different satellite systems or receiver types• 1200+ receivers tracks all these GNSS satellite systems, now and future• Leica Geosystems dedicated global company for broad range of precise measurements, all types of solutions and workflows.